Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9404

Search results for: bootstrap control limit

9404 On the Bootstrap P-Value Method in Identifying out of Control Signals in Multivariate Control Chart

Authors: O. Ikpotokin


In any production process, every product is aimed to attain a certain standard, but the presence of assignable cause of variability affects our process, thereby leading to low quality of product. The ability to identify and remove this type of variability reduces its overall effect, thereby improving the quality of the product. In case of a univariate control chart signal, it is easy to detect the problem and give a solution since it is related to a single quality characteristic. However, the problems involved in the use of multivariate control chart are the violation of multivariate normal assumption and the difficulty in identifying the quality characteristic(s) that resulted in the out of control signals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of non-parametric control chart (the bootstrap approach) for obtaining control limit to overcome the problem of multivariate distributional assumption and the p-value method for detecting out of control signals. Results from a performance study show that the proposed bootstrap method enables the setting of control limit that can enhance the detection of out of control signals when compared, while the p-value method also enhanced in identifying out of control variables.

Keywords: bootstrap control limit, p-value method, out-of-control signals, p-value, quality characteristics

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9403 An Application of Modified M-out-of-N Bootstrap Method to Heavy-Tailed Distributions

Authors: Hannah F. Opayinka, Adedayo A. Adepoju


This study is an extension of a prior study on the modification of the existing m-out-of-n (moon) bootstrap method for heavy-tailed distributions in which modified m-out-of-n (mmoon) was proposed as an alternative method to the existing moon technique. In this study, both moon and mmoon techniques were applied to two real income datasets which followed Lognormal and Pareto distributions respectively with finite variances. The performances of these two techniques were compared using Standard Error (SE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The findings showed that mmoon outperformed moon bootstrap in terms of smaller SEs and RMSEs for all the sample sizes considered in the two datasets.

Keywords: Bootstrap, income data, lognormal distribution, Pareto distribution

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9402 Using the Bootstrap for Problems Statistics

Authors: Brahim Boukabcha, Amar Rebbouh


The bootstrap method based on the idea of exploiting all the information provided by the initial sample, allows us to study the properties of estimators. In this article we will present a theoretical study on the different methods of bootstrapping and using the technique of re-sampling in statistics inference to calculate the standard error of means of an estimator and determining a confidence interval for an estimated parameter. We apply these methods tested in the regression models and Pareto model, giving the best approximations.

Keywords: bootstrap, error standard, bias, jackknife, mean, median, variance, confidence interval, regression models

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
9401 The Contribution of Edgeworth, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Methods in Financial Data

Authors: Edlira Donefski, Tina Donefski, Lorenc Ekonomi


Edgeworth Approximation, Bootstrap, and Monte Carlo Simulations have considerable impacts on achieving certain results related to different problems taken into study. In our paper, we have treated a financial case related to the effect that has the components of a cash-flow of one of the most successful businesses in the world, as the financial activity, operational activity, and investment activity to the cash and cash equivalents at the end of the three-months period. To have a better view of this case, we have created a vector autoregression model, and after that, we have generated the impulse responses in the terms of asymptotic analysis (Edgeworth Approximation), Monte Carlo Simulations, and residual bootstrap based on the standard errors of every series created. The generated results consisted of the common tendencies for the three methods applied that consequently verified the advantage of the three methods in the optimization of the model that contains many variants.

Keywords: autoregression, bootstrap, edgeworth expansion, Monte Carlo method

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9400 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan


Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
9399 Optimal Bayesian Chart for Controlling Expected Number of Defects in Production Processes

Authors: V. Makis, L. Jafari


In this paper, we develop an optimal Bayesian chart to control the expected number of defects per inspection unit in production processes with long production runs. We formulate this control problem in the optimal stopping framework. The objective is to determine the optimal stopping rule minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time considering partial information obtained from the process sampling at regular epochs. We prove the optimality of the control limit policy, i.e., the process is stopped and the search for assignable causes is initiated when the posterior probability that the process is out of control exceeds a control limit. An algorithm in the semi-Markov decision process framework is developed to calculate the optimal control limit and the corresponding average cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the developed optimal control chart and to compare it with the traditional u-chart.

Keywords: Bayesian u-chart, economic design, optimal stopping, semi-Markov decision process, statistical process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
9398 Analysis of a Damage-Control Target Displacement of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier for Seismic Design

Authors: Mohd Ritzman Abdul Karim, Zhaohui Huang


A current focus in seismic engineering practice is the development of seismic design approach that focuses on the performance-based design. Performance-based design aims to design the structures to achieve specified performance based on the damage limit states. This damage limit is more restrictive limit than life safety and needs to be carefully estimated to avoid damage in piers due to failure in transverse reinforcement. In this paper, a different perspective of damage limit states has been explored by integrating two damage control material limit state, concrete and reinforcement by introduced parameters such as expected yield stress of transverse reinforcement where peak tension strain prior to bar buckling is introduced in a recent study. The different perspective of damage limit states with modified yield displacement and the modified plastic-hinge length is used in order to predict damage-control target displacement for reinforced concreate (RC) bridge pier. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model has been developed for estimating damage target displacement to validate proposed damage limit states. The result from 3D FE analysis was validated with experimental study found in the literature. The validated model then was applied to predict the damage target displacement for RC bridge pier and to validate the proposed study. The tensile strain on reinforcement and compression on concrete were used to determine the predicted damage target displacement and compared with the proposed study. The result shows that the proposed damage limit states were efficient in predicting damage-control target displacement consistent with FE simulations.

Keywords: damage-control target displacement, damage limit states, reinforced concrete bridge pier, yield displacement

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9397 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method

Authors: S. Phanyaem


This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.

Keywords: effect size, confidence interval, bootstrap method, resampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
9396 Asymptotic Spectral Theory for Nonlinear Random Fields

Authors: Karima Kimouche


In this paper, we consider the asymptotic problems in spectral analysis of stationary causal random fields. We impose conditions only involving (conditional) moments, which are easily verifiable for a variety of nonlinear random fields. Limiting distributions of periodograms and smoothed periodogram spectral density estimates are obtained and applications to the spectral domain bootstrap are given.

Keywords: spatial nonlinear processes, spectral estimators, GMC condition, bootstrap method

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9395 The Profit Trend of Cosmetics Products Using Bootstrap Edgeworth Approximation

Authors: Edlira Donefski, Lorenc Ekonomi, Tina Donefski


Edgeworth approximation is one of the most important statistical methods that has a considered contribution in the reduction of the sum of standard deviation of the independent variables’ coefficients in a Quantile Regression Model. This model estimates the conditional median or other quantiles. In this paper, we have applied approximating statistical methods in an economical problem. We have created and generated a quantile regression model to see how the profit gained is connected with the realized sales of the cosmetic products in a real data, taken from a local business. The Linear Regression of the generated profit and the realized sales was not free of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, so this is the reason that we have used this model instead of Linear Regression. Our aim is to analyze in more details the relation between the variables taken into study: the profit and the finalized sales and how to minimize the standard errors of the independent variable involved in this study, the level of realized sales. The statistical methods that we have applied in our work are Edgeworth Approximation for Independent and Identical distributed (IID) cases, Bootstrap version of the Model and the Edgeworth approximation for Bootstrap Quantile Regression Model. The graphics and the results that we have presented here identify the best approximating model of our study.

Keywords: bootstrap, edgeworth approximation, IID, quantile

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9394 Classification of Sturm-Liouville Problems at Infinity

Authors: Kishor J. shinde


We determine the values of k and p such that the Sturm-Liouville differential operator τu=-(d^2 u)/(dx^2) + kx^p u is in limit point case or limit circle case at infinity. In particular it is shown that τ is in the limit point case when (i) for p=2 and ∀k, (ii) for ∀p and k=0, (iii) for all p and k>0, (iv) for 0≤p≤2 and k<0, (v) for p<0 and k<0. τ is in the limit circle case when (i) for p>2 and k<0.

Keywords: limit point case, limit circle case, Sturm-Liouville, infinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
9393 Quality Control Assessment of X-Ray Equipment in Hospitals of Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Yakubu Umar


X-ray is the major contributor to the effective dose of both the patient and the personnel. Because of the radiological risks involved, it is usually recommended that dose to patient from X-ray be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) with adequate image quality. The implementation of quality assurance in diagnostic radiology can help greatly in achieving that, as it is a technique designed to reduce X-ray doses to patients undergoing radiological examination. In this study, quality control was carried out in six hospitals, which involved KVp test, evaluation of total filtration, test for constancy of radiation output, and check for mA linearity. Equipment used include KVp meter, Rad-check meter, aluminum sheets (0.1–1.0 mm) etc. The results of this study indicate that, the age of the X-ray machines in the hospitals ranges from 3-13 years, GHI and GH2 being the oldest and FMC being the newest. In the evaluation of total filtration, the HVL of the X-ray machines in the hospitals varied, ranging from 2.3-5.2 mm. The HVL was found to be highest in AHC (5.2 mm), while it was lowest in GH3 (2.3 mm). All HVL measurements were done at 80 KVp. The variation in voltage accuracy in the hospitals ranges from 0.3%-127.5%. It was only in GH1 that the % variation was below the allowed limit. The test for constancy of radiation output showed that, the coefficient of variation ranges from 0.005–0.550. In GH3, FMC and AHC, the coefficient of linearity were less than the allowed limit, while in GH1, GH2 and GH4 the coefficient of linearity had exceeded the allowed limit. As regard to mA linearity, FMC and AHC had their coefficients of linearity as 0.12 and 0.10 respectively, which were within the accepted limit, while GH1, GH3 and GH4 had their coefficients as 0.16, 0.69 and 0.98 respectively, which exceeded the allowed limit.

Keywords: radiation, X-ray output, quality control, half-value layer, mA linearity, KVp variation

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9392 Probability Sampling in Matched Case-Control Study in Drug Abuse

Authors: Surya R. Niraula, Devendra B Chhetry, Girish K. Singh, S. Nagesh, Frederick A. Connell


Background: Although random sampling is generally considered to be the gold standard for population-based research, the majority of drug abuse research is based on non-random sampling despite the well-known limitations of this kind of sampling. Method: We compared the statistical properties of two surveys of drug abuse in the same community: one using snowball sampling of drug users who then identified “friend controls” and the other using a random sample of non-drug users (controls) who then identified “friend cases.” Models to predict drug abuse based on risk factors were developed for each data set using conditional logistic regression. We compared the precision of each model using bootstrapping method and the predictive properties of each model using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Results: Analysis of 100 random bootstrap samples drawn from the snowball-sample data set showed a wide variation in the standard errors of the beta coefficients of the predictive model, none of which achieved statistical significance. One the other hand, bootstrap analysis of the random-sample data set showed less variation, and did not change the significance of the predictors at the 5% level when compared to the non-bootstrap analysis. Comparison of the area under the ROC curves using the model derived from the random-sample data set was similar when fitted to either data set (0.93, for random-sample data vs. 0.91 for snowball-sample data, p=0.35); however, when the model derived from the snowball-sample data set was fitted to each of the data sets, the areas under the curve were significantly different (0.98 vs. 0.83, p < .001). Conclusion: The proposed method of random sampling of controls appears to be superior from a statistical perspective to snowball sampling and may represent a viable alternative to snowball sampling.

Keywords: drug abuse, matched case-control study, non-probability sampling, probability sampling

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9391 Improvement of Water Distillation Plant by Using Statistical Process Control System

Authors: Qasim Kriri, Harsh B. Desai


Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is portrayed by difficulties and accomplishments. One of the fundamental difficulties is water shortage. With a specific end goal to beat water shortage, significant ventures have been attempted in sea water desalination, water circulation, sewerage, and wastewater treatment. The motivation behind Statistical Process Control (SPC) is to decide whether the execution of a procedure is keeping up an acceptable quality level [AQL]. SPC is an analytical decision-making method. A fundamental apparatus in the SPC is the Control Charts, which follow the inconstancy in the estimations of the item quality attributes. By utilizing the suitable outline, administration can decide whether changes should be made with a specific end goal to keep the procedure in charge. The two most important quality factors in the distilled water which were taken into consideration were pH (Potential of Hydrogen) and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). There were three stages at which the quality checks were done. The stages were as follows: (1) Water at the source, (2) water after chemical treatment & (3) water which is sent for packing. The upper specification limit, central limit and lower specification limit are taken as per Saudi water standards. The procedure capacity to accomplish the particulars set for the quality attributes of Berain water Factory chose to be focused by the proposed SPC system.

Keywords: acceptable quality level, statistical quality control, control charts, process charts

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9390 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, İlkay Yavrucuk


This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control

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9389 Finite Sample Inferences for Weak Instrument Models

Authors: Gubhinder Kundhi, Paul Rilstone


It is well established that Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators in the presence of weak instruments can be poorly behaved, in particular, be quite biased in finite samples. Finite sample approximations to the distributions of these estimators are obtained using Edgeworth and Saddlepoint expansions. Departures from normality of the distributions of these estimators are analyzed using higher order analytical corrections in these expansions. In a Monte-Carlo experiment, the performance of these expansions is compared to the first order approximation and other methods commonly used in finite samples such as the bootstrap.

Keywords: bootstrap, Instrumental Variable, Edgeworth expansions, Saddlepoint expansions

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9388 Reliability Based Optimal Design of Laterally Loaded Pile with Limited Residual Strain Energy Capacity

Authors: M. Movahedi Rad


In this study, a general approach to the reliability based limit analysis of laterally loaded piles is presented. In engineering practice, the uncertainties play a very important role. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lateral load capacity of free head and fixed-head long pile when the plastic limit analysis is considered. In addition to the plastic limit analysis to control the plastic behaviour of the structure, uncertain bound on the complementary strain energy of the residual forces is also applied. This bound has a significant effect for the load parameter. The solution to reliability-based problems is obtained by a computer program which is governed by the reliability index calculation.

Keywords: reliability, laterally loaded pile, residual strain energy, probability, limit analysis

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9387 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distributed Generators

Authors: Lakshya Bhat, Anubhav Shrivastava, Shiva Rudraswamy


There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. MATLAB programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained. To maintain the tolerance limit, 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
9386 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin


Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
9385 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distribution Generators

Authors: Lakshya Bhat, Anubhav Shrivastava, Shivarudraswamy


There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. Matlab programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained.To maintain the tolerance limit , 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

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9384 Confidence Intervals for Quantiles in the Two-Parameter Exponential Distributions with Type II Censored Data

Authors: Ayman Baklizi


Based on type II censored data, we consider interval estimation of the quantiles of the two-parameter exponential distribution and the difference between the quantiles of two independent two-parameter exponential distributions. We derive asymptotic intervals, Bayesian, as well as intervals based on the generalized pivot variable. We also include some bootstrap intervals in our comparisons. The performance of these intervals is investigated in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths.

Keywords: asymptotic intervals, Bayes intervals, bootstrap, generalized pivot variables, two-parameter exponential distribution, quantiles

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9383 Subfamilial Relationships within Solanaceae as Inferred from atpB-rbcL Intergenic Spacer

Authors: Syeda Qamarunnisa, Ishrat Jamil, Abid Azhar, Zabta K. Shinwari, Syed Irtifaq Ali


A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atpB-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium, and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atpB-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae.

Keywords: systematics, solanaceae, phylogenetics, intergenic spacer, tribes

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9382 T-S Fuzzy Modeling Based on Power Coefficient Limit Nonlinearity Applied to an Isolated Single Machine Load Frequency Deviation Control

Authors: R. S. Sheu, H. Usman, M. S. Lawal


Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based control of a load frequency deviation in a single machine with limit nonlinearity on power coefficient is presented in the paper. Two T-S fuzzy rules with only rotor angle variable as input in the premise part, and linear state space models in the consequent part involving characteristic matrices determined from limits set on the power coefficient constant are formulated, state feedback control gains for closed loop control was determined from the formulated Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) with eigenvalue optimization scheme for asymptotic and exponential stability (speed of esponse). Numerical evaluation of the closed loop object was carried out in Matlab. Simulation results generated of both the open and closed loop system showed the effectiveness of the control scheme in maintaining load frequency stability.

Keywords: T-S fuzzy model, state feedback control, linear matrix inequality (LMI), frequency deviation control

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9381 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Technological Change in Armed Forces: Indonesian Case

Authors: Citra Pertiwi, Muhammad Fikruzzaman Rahawarin


Government of Indonesia had committed to increasing its national defense the budget up to 1,5 percent of GDP. However, the budget increase does not necessarily allocate efficiently and effectively. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the operational units of Indonesian Armed Forces are considered as a proxy to measure those two aspects. The bootstrap technique is being used as well to reduce uncertainty in the estimation. Additionally, technological change is being measured as a nonstationary component. Nearly half of the units are being estimated as fully efficient, with less than a third is considered as effective. Longer and larger sets of data might increase the robustness of the estimation in the future.

Keywords: bootstrap, effectiveness, efficiency, DEA, military, Malmquist, technological change

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9380 Limit-Cycles Method for the Navigation and Avoidance of Any Form of Obstacles for Mobile Robots in Cluttered Environment

Authors: F. Boufera, F. Debbat


This paper deals with an approach based on limit-cycles method for the problem of obstacle avoidance of mobile robots in unknown environments for any form of obstacles. The purpose of this approach is the improvement of limit-cycles method in order to obtain safe and flexible navigation. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested in different configuration on simulation.

Keywords: mobile robot, navigation, avoidance of obstacles, limit-cycles method

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9379 An Aspiring Solution to the Man in the Middle Bootstrap Vulnerability

Authors: Mouad Zouina, Benaceur Outtaj


The proposed work falls within the context of improving data security for m-commerce systems. In this context we have placed under the light some flaws encountered in HTTPS the most used m-commerce protocol, particularly the man in the middle attack, shortly MITM. The man in the middle attack is an active listening attack. The idea of this attack is to target the handshake phase of the HTTPS protocol which is the transition from a non-secure connection to a secure connection in our case HTTP to HTTPS. This paper proposes a solution to fix those flaws based on the upgrade of HSTS standard handshake sequence using the DNSSEC standard.

Keywords: m-commerce, HTTPS, HSTS, DNSSEC, MITM bootstrap vulnerability

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9378 Limit State Evaluation of Bridge According to Peak Ground Acceleration

Authors: Minho Kwon, Jeonghee Lim, Yeongseok Jeong, Jongyoon Moon, Donghoon Shin, Kiyoung Kim


In the past, the criteria and procedures for the design of concrete structures were mainly based on the stresses allowed for structural components. However, although the frequency of earthquakes has increased and the risk has increased recently, it has been difficult to determine the safety factor for earthquakes in the safety assessment of structures based on allowable stresses. Recently, limit state design method has been introduced for reinforced concrete structures, and limit state-based approach has been recognized as a more effective technique for seismic design. Therefore, in this study, the limit state of the bridge, which is a structure requiring higher stability against earthquakes, was evaluated. The finite element program LS-DYNA and twenty ground motion were used for time history analysis. The fracture caused by tensile and compression of the pier were set to the limit state. In the concrete tensile fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.4g. In the concrete compression fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.2g.

Keywords: allowable stress, limit state, safety factor, peak ground acceleration

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9377 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller


This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

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9376 Management Systems as a Tool to Limit the End-Users Impacts on Energy Savings Achievements

Authors: Margarida Plana


The end-users behavior has been identified in the last years as one of the main responsible for the success degree of the energy efficiency improvements. It is essential to create tools to limit their impact on the final consumption. This paper is focused on presenting the results of the analysis developed on the basis of real projects’ data in order to quantify the impact of end-users behavior. The analysis is focused on how the behavior of building’s occupants can vary the achievement of the energy savings targets and how they can be limited. The results obtained show that the management systems are one of the main tools available to control and limit the end-users interaction with the equipment operation. In fact, the results will present the management systems as ‘a must’ on any energy efficiency project.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, management systems

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9375 Minimizing the Impact of Covariate Detection Limit in Logistic Regression

Authors: Shahadut Hossain, Jacek Wesolowski, Zahirul Hoque


In many epidemiological and environmental studies covariate measurements are subject to the detection limit. In most applications, covariate measurements are usually truncated from below which is known as left-truncation. Because the measuring device, which we use to measure the covariate, fails to detect values falling below the certain threshold. In regression analyses, it causes inflated bias and inaccurate mean squared error (MSE) to the estimators. This paper suggests a response-based regression calibration method to correct the deleterious impact introduced by the covariate detection limit in the estimators of the parameters of simple logistic regression model. Compared to the maximum likelihood method, the proposed method is computationally simpler, and hence easier to implement. It is robust to the violation of distributional assumption about the covariate of interest. In producing correct inference, the performance of the proposed method compared to the other competing methods has been investigated through extensive simulations. A real-life application of the method is also shown using data from a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Keywords: environmental exposure, detection limit, left truncation, bias, ad-hoc substitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 147