Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2283

Search results for: manufacturing controls

2283 A Review of the Run to Run (R to R) Control in the Manufacturing Processes

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin, Mostafa Ranjbar

Abstract:

Run- to- Run (R2 R) control was developed in order to monitor and control different semiconductor manufacturing processes based upon the fundamental engineering frameworks. This technology allows rectification in the optimum direction. This control always had a significant potency in which was appeared in a variety of processes. The term run to run refers to the case where the act of control would take with the aim of getting batches of silicon wafers which produced in a manufacturing process. In the present work, a brief review about run-to-run control investigated which mainly is effective in the manufacturing process.

Keywords: Run-to-Run (R2R) control, manufacturing, process in engineering, manufacturing controls

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2282 Modeling the Impact of Controls on Information System Risks

Authors: M. Ndaw, G. Mendy, S. Ouya

Abstract:

Information system risk management helps to reduce or eliminate risk by implementing appropriate controls. In this paper, we propose a quantification model of controls impact on information system risks by automatizing the residual criticality estimation step of FMECA which is based on a inductive reasoning. For this, we defined three equations based on type and maturity of controls. For testing, the values obtained with the model were compared to estimated values given by interlocutors during different working sessions and the result is satisfactory. This model allows an optimal assessment of controls maturity and facilitates risk analysis of information system.

Keywords: information system, risk, control, FMECA method

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2281 Work Ability Program Produces Short-Term Productivity Improvements

Authors: Jukka Surakka, Risto Tuominen, Jukka Piippo

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to study the development of sick leaves and presenteeism during a work ability program. Productivity losses were determined for 70 employees from four organizations and for 42 controls. Numbers of sick leave days (SLD) were collected from employers’ records for three months before the program started and each subsequent three months for one year after the initiation. Presenteeism was determined for four weeks before and after one year of the program implementation. In the first three months of implementation SLD reduced among project members by 55% and increased by 27% among controls (p<0.001). However, during the last two measurement periods, the project subjects had more SLD than they had before the program started (p<0.001), and also more than the controls (p<0.001). Overall, during the one year implementation the program subjects had on average 23% increase in SLD, whereas the controls had 35% decrease in their SLD (p<0.001). Program participants experienced per month 3.6 hours more presenteeism after the one-year implementation and among the controls presenteeism increased by 2.5 hours. Work ability program produced short-term productivity benefits, but with longer program duration the benefits disappeared.

Keywords: work ability, absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity, sick leave

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2280 Survey of Access Controls in Cloud Computing

Authors: Monirah Alkathiry, Hanan Aljarwan

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the most significant technologies that the world deals with, in different sectors with different purposes and capabilities. The cloud faces various challenges in securing data from unauthorized access or modification. Consequently, security risks and levels have greatly increased. Therefore, cloud service providers (CSPs) and users need secure mechanisms that ensure that data are kept secret and safe from any disclosures or exploits. For this reason, CSPs need a number of techniques and technologies to manage and secure access to the cloud services to achieve security goals, such as confidentiality, integrity, identity access management (IAM), etc. Therefore, this paper will review and explore various access controls implemented in a cloud environment that achieve different security purposes. The methodology followed in this survey was conducting an assessment, evaluation, and comparison between those access controls mechanisms and technologies based on different factors, such as the security goals it achieves, usability, and cost-effectiveness. This assessment resulted in the fact that the technology used in an access control affects the security goals it achieves as well as there is no one access control method that achieves all security goals. Consequently, such a comparison would help decision-makers to choose properly the access controls that meet their requirements.

Keywords: access controls, cloud computing, confidentiality, identity and access management

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2279 The Interoperability between CNC Machine Tools and Robot Handling Systems Based on an Object-Oriented Framework

Authors: Pouyan Jahanbin, Mahmoud Houshmand, Omid Fatahi Valilai

Abstract:

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system having the capability of handling the variations of products features that is the result of ever-changing customer demands. The flexibility of the manufacturing systems help to utilize the resources in a more effective manner. However, the control of such systems would be complicated and challenging. FMS needs CNC machines and robots and other resources for establishing the flexibility and enhancing the efficiency of the whole system. Also it needs to integrate the resources to reach required efficiency and flexibility. In order to reach this goal, an integrator framework is proposed in which the machining data of CNC machine tools is received through a STEP-NC file. The interoperability of the system is achieved by the information system. This paper proposes an information system that its data model is designed based on object oriented approach and is implemented through a knowledge-based system. The framework is connected to a database which is filled with robot’s control commands. The framework programs the robots by rules embedded in its knowledge based system. It also controls the interactions of CNC machine tools for loading and unloading actions by robot. As a result, the proposed framework improves the integration of manufacturing resources in Flexible Manufacturing Systems.

Keywords: CNC machine tools, industrial robots, knowledge-based systems, manufacturing recourses integration, flexible manufacturing system (FMS), object-oriented data model

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2278 A Tutorial on Network Security: Attacks and Controls

Authors: Belbahi Ahlam

Abstract:

With the phenomenal growth in the Internet, network security has become an integral part of computer and information security. In order to come up with measures that make networks more secure, it is important to learn about the vulnerabilities that could exist in a computer network and then have an understanding of the typical attacks that have been carried out in such networks. The first half of this paper will expose the readers to the classical network attacks that have exploited the typical vulnerabilities of computer networks in the past and solutions that have been adopted since then to prevent or reduce the chances of some of these attacks. The second half of the paper will expose the readers to the different network security controls including the network architecture, protocols, standards and software/ hardware tools that have been adopted in modern day computer networks.

Keywords: network security, attacks and controls, computer and information, solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2277 Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increases IgE Receptors in Children with Asthma

Authors: A. Vijayendra Chary, R. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Background: Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and is involved in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased severity of asthma in children. Asthma has dramatically increased in past decades, particular in developing countries and affects up to 20% of the population. IgE and its receptors, CD23 (FcεRII) and CD 21, play an essential role in all allergic conditions. Methods: A case control study was conducted on asthma and age and sex matched control children. 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 was quantified by HPLC; CD23; and CD21 expression on B cells were performed by flow cytometry. Total Histamine, total IGE and IL-5 and IFN-γ cytokines were determined by ELISA in blood samples of bronchial asthma (n=45) and control children (n=45). Results: The mean ± SE of vitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) low in asthma children (13.6±0.54 ng/mL) than in controls (17.4 ± 0.37 ng/mL). The mean (%) ± SE of CD23 and CD21 expression on B cells were significantly (p<0.01) high in asthma (1.02±0.09; 1.67± 0.13), when compared to controls (0.24±0.01; 0.94±0.03) respectively. The mean± SE of Serum IgE and blood histamine levels in asthma children (354.52 ± 17.33 IU/mL; 53.27 ± 2.54 nM/mL) were increased (P<0.05) when compared to controls (183.12±17.62 IU/mL 39.34±4.16 nM/mL) respectively and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) was lower (P<0.01) (16.37±1.27 pg/mL) than in controls (43.34±6.21 pg/mL). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased IgE receptors CD23 and CD21 on B cells. In addition, there was preferential activation of Th2 (IL-5) and suppression of Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines in children with asthma.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, CD23, IgE, vitamin D

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2276 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Roshan Jelal, Charles Mbohwa

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: internal fraud, corporate governance, ethics, reserve bank, the King Code

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
2275 Model Based Design of Fly-by-Wire Flight Controls System of a Fighter Aircraft

Authors: Nauman Idrees

Abstract:

Modeling and simulation during the conceptual design phase are the most effective means of system testing resulting in time and cost savings as compared to the testing of hardware prototypes, which are mostly not available during the conceptual design phase. This paper uses the model-based design (MBD) method in designing the fly-by-wire flight controls system of a fighter aircraft using Simulink. The process begins with system definition and layout where modeling requirements and system components were identified, followed by hierarchical system layout to identify the sequence of operation and interfaces of system with external environment as well as the internal interface between the components. In the second step, each component within the system architecture was modeled along with its physical and functional behavior. Finally, all modeled components were combined to form the fly-by-wire flight controls system of a fighter aircraft as per system architecture developed. The system model developed using this method can be simulated using any simulation software to ensure that desired requirements are met even without the development of a physical prototype resulting in time and cost savings.

Keywords: fly-by-wire, flight controls system, model based design, Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
2274 Framework for Improving Manufacturing "Implicit Competitiveness" by Enhancing Monozukuri Capability

Authors: Takahiro Togawa, Nguyen Huu Phuc, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty

Abstract:

Our research focuses on a framework which analyses the relationship between product/process architecture, manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing "implicit competitiveness" in order to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness. We found that 1) there is a relationship between architecture-based manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing implicit competitiveness, and 2) analysis and measures conducted in manufacturing organizational capability proved effective to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness.

Keywords: implicit competitiveness, QCD, organizational capacity, architectural strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2273 Sustainable Manufacturing Framework for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Rajan Deglurkar

Abstract:

The research carried out in this piece of work is on 'Framework of Sustainable Manufacturing for Small and Medium Enterprises'. It consists of elucidation of concepts about sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product development with critical review performed on seven techniques of sustainable manufacturing. The work also covers the survey about critical review of awareness in the market with respect to the manufacturers and the consumers. The factors and challenges for sustainable manufacturing implementation are reviewed and simple framework is constructed for the small and medium enterprise for successful implementation of sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product.

Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable manufacturing, resource efficiency, framework for sustainable manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
2272 Differential Expression of GABA and Its Signaling Components in Ulcerative Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pathogenesis

Authors: Surbhi Aggarwal, Jaishree Paul

Abstract:

Background: Role of GABA has been implicated in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis where they modulate the immune response but role in gut inflammation has not been defined. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and diarrhoeal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) both involve inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. UC is a chronic, relapsing and idiopathic inflammation of gut. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort and alternating bowel habits. Mild inflammation is known to occur in IBS-D. Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate the role of GABA in UC as well as in IBS-D. Materials and methods: Blood and biopsy samples from UC, IBS-D and controls were collected. ELISA was used for measuring level of GABA in serum of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR analysis was done to determine GABAergic signal system in colon biopsy of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR was done to check the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CurveExpert 1.4, Graphpad prism-6 software were used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired, two-way student`s t-test. All sets of data were represented as mean± SEM. A probability level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusion: Significantly decreased level of GABA and altered GABAergic signal system was detected in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Significantly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also determined in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Hence we conclude that insufficient level of GABA in UC and IBS-D leads to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which further contributes to inflammation. GABA may be used as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of gut inflammation or other inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inflammation, ulcerative colitis

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2271 Manufacturing Facility Location Selection: A Numercal Taxonomy Approach

Authors: Seifoddini Hamid, Mardikoraeem Mahsa, Ghorayshi Roya

Abstract:

Manufacturing facility location selection is an important strategic decision for many industrial corporations. In this paper, a new approach to the manufacturing location selection problem is proposed. In this approach, cluster analysis is employed to identify suitable manufacturing locations based on economic, social, environmental, and political factors. These factors are quantified using the existing real world data.

Keywords: manufacturing facility, manufacturing sites, real world data

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2270 Major Depressive Disorder: Diagnosis based on Electroencephalogram Analysis

Authors: Wajid Mumtaz, Aamir Saeed Malik, Syed Saad Azhar Ali, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is presented, aiming for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) among a potential population of MDD patients and healthy controls. EEG is recognized as a clinical modality during applications such as seizure diagnosis, index for anesthesia, detection of brain death or stroke. However, its usability for psychiatric illnesses such as MDD is less studied. Therefore, in this study, for the sake of diagnosis, 2 groups of study participants were recruited, 1) MDD patients, 2) healthy people as controls. EEG data acquired from both groups were analyzed involving inter-hemispheric asymmetry and composite permutation entropy index (CPEI). To automate the process, derived quantities from EEG were utilized as inputs to classifier such as logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). The learning of these classification models was tested with a test dataset. Their learning efficiency is provided as accuracy of classifying MDD patients from controls, their sensitivities and specificities were reported, accordingly (LR =81.7 % and SVM =81.5 %). Based on the results, it is concluded that the derived measures are indicators for diagnosing MDD from a potential population of normal controls. In addition, the results motivate further exploring other measures for the same purpose.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, diagnosis based on EEG, EEG derived features, CPEI, inter-hemispheric asymmetry

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2269 Bring Your Own Devices (BOYD): Risks and Mitigation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Ketel

Abstract:

This paper discusses the security issues related to Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) programs, an increasingly popular choice for small and big businesses alike, and explores the benefits, risks, the available controls and solutions to mitigate the inherent security concerns with mobile devices, in general, and BYOD programs specifically. The paper also discusses the approaches that organizations can apply to mitigate the risks, which may include policies, diverse technologies, education, and training.

Keywords: BYOD, security, policies, standards, controls, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2268 Distributed Manufacturing (DM)- Smart Units and Collaborative Processes

Authors: Hermann Kuehnle

Abstract:

Developments in ICT totally reshape manufacturing as machines, objects and equipment on the shop floors will be smart and online. Interactions with virtualizations and models of a manufacturing unit will appear exactly as interactions with the unit itself. These virtualizations may be driven by providers with novel ICT services on demand that might jeopardize even well established business models. Context aware equipment, autonomous orders, scalable machine capacity or networkable manufacturing unit will be the terminology to get familiar with in manufacturing and manufacturing management. Such newly appearing smart abilities with impact on network behavior, collaboration procedures and human resource development will make distributed manufacturing a preferred model to produce. Computing miniaturization and smart devices revolutionize manufacturing set ups, as virtualizations and atomization of resources unwrap novel manufacturing principles. Processes and resources obey novel specific laws and have strategic impact on manufacturing and major operational implications. Mechanisms from distributed manufacturing engaging interacting smart manufacturing units and decentralized planning and decision procedures already demonstrate important effects from this shift of focus towards collaboration and interoperability.

Keywords: autonomous unit, networkability, smart manufacturing unit, virtualization

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2267 An Advanced Method of Minimizing Unforeseen Disruptions within a Manufacturing System: A Case Study of Amico, South Africa

Authors: Max Moleke

Abstract:

Manufacturing industries are faced with different types of problems. One of the most important role of controlling and monitoring a production process is to actually determine how to deal with unforeseen disruption when they arise. A majority of manufacturing tern to spend huge amount of money in order to meet up with their customers requirements and demand but due to instabilities within the manufacturing process, this objectives and goals are difficult to be achieved. In this research, we have developed a feedback control system that can minimize instability within the manufacturing system in order to boost the system output and productivity.

Keywords: disruption, scheduling, manufacturing, instability

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2266 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: Rahou Mohamed , Sebaa Fethi, Cheikh Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration, and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach have been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: dispersion, tolerance, manufacturing, position

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2265 Parkinson's Disease and Musculoskeletal Problems

Authors: Ozge Yilmaz Kusbeci, Ipek Inci

Abstract:

Aim: Musculoskeletal problems are very common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). They affect quality of life and cause disabilities. However they are under-evaluated, and under-treated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of musculoskeletal problems in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared to controls. Methods: 50 PD patients and 50 age and sex matched controls were interviewed by physicians about their musculoskeletal problems. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was significantly higher in the PD group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Commonly involved body sites were the shoulder, low back, and knee. The shoulder and low back was more frequently involved in the PD group than in the control group. However, the knee was similarly involved in both groups. Among the past diagnoses associated with musculoskeletal problems, frozen shoulder, low back pain and osteoporosis more common in the PD group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, musculoskeletal problems in the PD group tended to receive less treatment than that of the control group. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal problems were more common in the PD group than in the controls. Therefore assessment and treatment of musculoskeletal problems could improve quality of life in PD patients.

Keywords: parkinson disease, musculoskeletal problems, quality of life, PD disease

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2264 A Risk Management Approach for Nigeria Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Olaniyi O. Omoyajowo

Abstract:

To be successful in today’s competitive global environment, manufacturing industry must be able to respond quickly to changes in technology. These changes in technology introduce new risks and hazards. The management of risk/hazard in a manufacturing process recommends method through which the success rate of an organization can be increased. Thus, there is a continual need for manufacturing industries to invest significant amount of resources in risk management, which in turn optimizes the production output and profitability of any manufacturing industry (if implemented properly). To help improve the existing risk prevention and mitigation practices in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) in Nigeria Manufacturing Industries (NMI), the researcher embarks on this research to develop a systematic Risk Management process.

Keywords: manufacturing management, risk, risk management, SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2263 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: B. I. Waziri, M. A. Yahaya

Abstract:

Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: blood pressure, heart rate, shisha, youth

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2262 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah

Abstract:

Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: antidiabetic, figs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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2261 Personality Profiles, Emotional Disturbance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Epilepsy

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

Abstract:

Introduction: The association of epilepsy with several psychological disorders and reduced quality of life has long been recognized. The present study aimed at comparing the personality profiles, quality of life and symptomatology of anxiety and depression in patients with epilepsy and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty seven patients (29 men and 18 women) with diagnosed epilepsy participated in this study. Forty seven healthy controls who matched the patients in age and gender were also recruited. The participants’ personality and psychological profiles were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI). Scoring algorithms were applied to the SF-36 produce the physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Results: There were statistically significant differences in the total SF-36 score, anxiety, depression and stress scores of the DASS-21 between patients and controls. Anxiety, stress and depression scores significantly correlated inversely with the PCS and MCS. Data analysis showed that females had higher depression scores than males in both patients and controls, while males in both groups scored higher on stress. Patients’ personality scores were also different from those reported by controls on emotional, agreeableness and extroversion. Patients scored higher on emotionality, and lower on agreeableness and extraversion. Patients also scored lower on indices of quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that emotionality, anxiety, stress and MCS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in severity of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: Stressful situations and psychological conditions as well as the personality trait of neuroticism were related to the occurrence of recurrent epileptic seizures.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, epilepsy, neuroticism, personality, quality of life, stress

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2260 Corneal Confocal Microscopy As a Surrogate Marker of Neuronal Pathology In Schizophrenia

Authors: Peter W. Woodruff, Georgios Ponirakis, Reem Ibrahim, Amani Ahmed, Hoda Gad, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Surjith Vattoth, Mahmoud K. M. Alshawwaf, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Marwan Ramadan, Anjushri Bhagat, James Currie, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hanadi Al Hamad, Ahmed Own, Peter Haddad, Majid Alabdulla, Rayaz A. Malik

Abstract:

Introduction:- We aimed to test the hypothesis that, using corneal confocal microscopy (a non-invasive method for assessing corneal nerve fibre integrity), patients with schizophrenia would show neuronal abnormalities compared with healthy participants. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental and progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which there are no validated biomarkers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging biomarker that can be used to detect neuronal abnormalities in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Methods:- Patients with schizophrenia (DSM-V criteria) without other causes of peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls underwent CCM, vibration perception threshold (VPT) and sudomotor function testing. The diagnostic accuracy of CCM in distinguishing patients from controls was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characterstics (ROC) curve. Findings:- Participants with schizophrenia (n=17) and controls (n=38) with comparable age (35.7±8.5 vs 35.6±12.2, P=0.96) were recruited. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher body weight (93.9±25.5 vs 77.1±10.1, P=0.02), lower Low Density Lipoproteins (2.6±1.0 vs 3.4±0.7, P=0.02), but comparable systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and High Density Lipoproteins were comparable with control participants. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD, fibers/mm2) (23.5±7.8 vs 35.6±6.5, p<0.0001), branch density (CNBD, branches/mm2) (34.4±26.9 vs 98.1±30.6, p<0.0001), and fiber length (CNFL, mm/mm2) (14.3±4.7 vs 24.2±3.9, p<0.0001) but no difference in VPT (6.1±3.1 vs 4.5±2.8, p=0.12) and electrochemical skin conductance (61.0±24.0 vs 68.9±12.3, p=0.23) compared with controls. The diagnostic accuracy of CNFD, CNBD and CNFL to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls were, according to the AUC, (95% CI): 87.0% (76.8-98.2), 93.2% (84.2-102.3), 93.2% (84.4-102.1), respectively. Conclusion:- In conclusion, CCM can be used to help identify neuronal changes and has a high diagnostic accuracy to distinguish subjects with schizophrenia from healthy controls.

Keywords:

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2259 Decision-Making Under Uncertainty in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Helen Pushkarskaya, David Tolin, Lital Ruderman, Ariel Kirshenbaum, J. MacLaren Kelly, Christopher Pittenger, Ifat Levy

Abstract:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) produces profound morbidity. Difficulties with decision making and intolerance of uncertainty are prominent clinical features of OCD. The nature and etiology of these deficits are poorly understood. We used a well-validated choice task, grounded in behavioral economic theory, to investigate differences in valuation and value-based choice during decision making under uncertainty in 20 unmedicated participants with OCD and 20 matched healthy controls. Participants’ choices were used to assess individual decision-making characteristics. Compared to controls, individuals with OCD were less consistent in their choices and less able to identify options that were unambiguously preferable. These differences correlated with symptom severity. OCD participants did not differ from controls in how they valued uncertain options when outcome probabilities were known (risk) but were more likely than controls to avoid uncertain options when these probabilities were imprecisely specified (ambiguity). These results suggest that the underlying neural mechanisms of valuation and value-based choices during decision-making are abnormal in OCD. Individuals with OCD show elevated intolerance of uncertainty, but only when outcome probabilities are themselves uncertain. Future research focused on the neural valuation network, which is implicated in value-based computations, may provide new neurocognitive insights into the pathophysiology of OCD. Deficits in decision-making processes may represent a target for therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: obsessive compulsive disorder, decision-making, uncertainty intolerance, risk aversion, ambiguity aversion, valuation

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2258 Determinants of Repeated Abortion among Women of Reproductive Age Attending Health Facilities in Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Henok Yebyo Henok, Araya Abrha Araya, Alemayehu Bayray Alemayehu, Gelila Goba Gelila

Abstract:

Background: Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion”) were taken as cases, and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”). Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85) and 22 years (±6.25) for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.7), having a previous abortion using medication(AOR=3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11), having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR=4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45), perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR=2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26), initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR=2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23) and disclosure to a third-party about terminating the pregnancy (AOR=2.1, CI: 1.2,3.83) were independent predictors of repeat abortion. Conclusion: This study identified several factors correlated with women having repeat abortions. It may be helpful for the Government of Ethiopia to encourage women to delay sexual debut and decrease their number of sexual partners, including by promoting discussion within families about sexuality, to decrease the occurrence of repeated abortion.

Keywords: abortion, Ethiopia, repeated abortion, single abortion

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2257 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

Abstract:

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: oral lichen planus, cytokines, polymorphism, genetic

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2256 Investigating the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in the Assembly Type Manufacturing Companies in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Nadine Sangster, Akil James, Rondell Duke, Aaron Ameerali, Terrence Lalla

Abstract:

The market place of the 21st century is evolving into one of merging national markets, fragmented consumer markets, and rapidly changing product technologies. The use of new technologies has become vital to the manufacturing industry for their survival and sustainability. This work focused on the assembly type industry in a small developing country and aimed at identifying the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and their impact on this sector of the manufacturing industry. It was found that some technologies were being used and that they had improved the effectiveness of those companies but there was still quite a bit of room for improvements. Some of the recommendations included benchmarking against international standards, the adoption of a “made in TT” campaign and the effective utilisation of the technologies to improve manufacturing effectiveness and thus improve competitive advantages and strategies.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, Trinidad and Tobago, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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2255 Approach for an Integrative Technology Assessment Method Combining Product Design and Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. Schuh, S. Woelk, D. Schraknepper, A. Such

Abstract:

The systematic evaluation of manufacturing technologies with regard to the potential for product designing constitutes a major challenge. Until now, conventional evaluation methods primarily consider the costs of manufacturing technologies. Thus, the potential of manufacturing technologies for achieving additional product design features is not completely captured. To compensate this deficit, final evaluations of new technologies are mainly intuitive in practice. Therefore, an additional evaluation dimension is needed which takes the potential of manufacturing technologies for specific realizable product designs into account. In this paper, we present the approach of an evaluation method for selecting manufacturing technologies with regard to their potential for product designing. This research is done within the Fraunhofer innovation cluster »AdaM« (Adaptive Manufacturing) which targets the development of resource efficient and adaptive manufacturing technology processes for complex turbo machinery components.

Keywords: manufacturing, product design, production, technology assessment, technology management

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2254 Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jaylo Abalos, Sophia Zamora

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, have been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this context, the presence of GI symptoms is variably associated with poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. We aim to determine the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective cohort study that used medical records of admitted COVID-19 patients from March 2020- March 2021 in a tertiary hospital in Pangasinan. Data records were evaluated for the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain at the time of admission. Comparison between cases or COVID-19 patients presenting with GI manifestations to controls or COVID-19 patients without GI manifestation was made. RESULTS: Four hundred three patients were included in the study. Of these, 22.3% presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, while 77.7% comprised the study controls. Diarrhea was the most common GI symptom (10.4%). No statistically significant difference was observed in comorbidities and laboratory findings. Mortality was the primary outcome of the study that did not reach statistical significance between cases and controls (13.33% vs. 16.30%, p =0.621). There were also no significant differences observed in the secondary outcomes, mean length of stay, (14 [12-18 days] in cases vs 14 [12- 17.5 days] in controls, p = 0.716) and need for mechanical ventilation (12.22% vs 16.93%, p = 0.329). CONCLUSION: The results of the study revealed no association of the GI symptoms to poor outcomes, including a high rate of mortality, prolonged length of stay and increased need for mechanical ventilation.

Keywords: gastrointestinal symptoms, COVID-19, outcomes, mortality, length of stay

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