Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: sea gypsy

7 Crisis of Sinti (Gypsy) Ethnicity and Identity

Authors: Rinaldo Diricchardi


In this paper, author theoretically and empirically explores the ethnic identity of the descendants of the Indian travelers in Slovenia Sinti, who are in modern time, for the researchers, still a "tabula rasa". He investigates the extent to which Sinti ethnic particular identities (e.g. Sinti chiefs, Sinti’s individual political structure…), the Sinti language (dialect, which is topic and it is not allowed to be spoken in public), culture and habits still in the impact of anachronism, moreover, to what extent the community is still “tabula rasa” (to non–Sinti population). The relationships within the Sinti entity: "in se–intra se" is a mirror of duality of the relation of "extra se". Is it possible that the concepts of social/economical relationships are reflecting the Sinti community, moreover, the possible influence of minority from outside to inside? Is the stratification of their ethnicity and their language ethnicism? In addition, is the result of stratification of discourse still inherited and discounted the Indian caste system? In present article, author uses the word Gypsy with high respect and with a large measure of prudentiality, without negative connotations. At the first Gypsy World Congress in 1971 in London the Sinti did not accept unification with Romani, but Sinti and others Gypsies still keep the name Gypsy/Romanichals, Gypsy/Kale, Gypsy/Manouches, Gypsy/Manoesje, Gypsy/Xoraxano, Gypsy/Machaways and Gypsy/Kalderashe. In addition, all of the European documents taken into account respect and use the name Gypsy.

Keywords: Sinti, Gypsy, identity, stratification, inclusion, exclusion

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6 Genomic and Evolutionary Diversity of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

Authors: Faisal Nouroz, Mukaramin Mukaramin


Of the transposable elements (TEs), the retrotransposons are the most copious elements identified from many sequenced genomes. They have played a major role in genome evolution, rearrangement, and expansions based on their copy and paste mode of proliferation. They are further divided into LTR and Non-LTR retrotransposons. The purpose of the current study was to identify the LTR REs in sequenced Phoenix dactylifera genome and to study their structural diversity. A total of 150 P. dactylifera BAC sequences with > 60kb sizes were randomly retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and screened for the presence of LTR retrotransposons. Seven bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) sequences showed full-length LTR Retrotransposons with 4 Copia and 3 Gypsy families having variable copy numbers in respective families. Reverse transcriptase (RT) domain was found as the most conserved domain among Copia and Gypsy superfamilies and was used to deduce evolutionary analysis. The amino acid residues among various RT sequences showed variability in their percentages indicating post divergence evolution. Amino acid Leucine was found in highest proportions followed by Lysine, while Methionine and Tryptophan were in lowest percentages. The phylogenetic analysis based on RT domains confirmed that although having most conserved RT regions, several evolutionary events occurred causing nucleotide polymorphisms and hence clustering of Gypsy and Copia superfamilies into their respective lineages. The study will be helpful in identification and annotation of these elements in other species and genera and their distribution patterns on chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques.

Keywords: transposable elements, Phoenix dactylifera, retrotransposons, phylogenetic analysis

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5 Musical Culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon Archipelago

Authors: Rewadee Ungpho


The research on the musical culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago, Satun Province, is considered as an anthropology research. Research objectives were to study the history and information culture and also to find the basis information for the restoration and preservation of the music culture of Sea Gypsies who live in Bulon archipelago. Findings of the research are as follows: 1) Musical characteristics of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago is still traditional. It does not mix with any external musical influence such as musical instruments, language, and other musical characteristics. There are various kind of songs which can play a complete melody and rhythm, including a total of 8 songs as follows; Lagu-Ayam-Dide, Lagu-Sitipayong, Lagu-Bulong-pute, Lagu-Chemamat, Laguduwo, Lagu-Ma-I-nang, Lagu-Mana-Ikan. 2) The roles of culture/music in Bulon archipelago correlate with Urak Lawoi society. They use music in the ceremony of votive offering, in the floating ceremony held in Lipe Island and in various festivals. Therefore, music is a spiritual sacrifice and a spiritual instrument that conveys an Urak Lawoi, which makes the Urak Lawoi still unique and has a sense of ethnic identity. 3) The inheritance of Urak Lawoi music is still being made in a traditional way, as an oral tradition with no record. The teaching and learning must be one on one, and it required length of time to practice and accumulate the knowledge. Due to above mentioned reasons, a few people attend in the inheritance. Those who are interested may not be able to practice constantly. As a result, there is only a few, or even none, descendants left.

Keywords: sea gypsy, music, Bulon archipelago, ethnomusicology

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4 Management of Insect Pests Using Baculovirus Based Biopesticides in India

Authors: Mudasir Gani, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Kamlesh Bali, Abdul Rouf Wani


The gypsy moth (Lymantria obfuscata) and tent caterpillar (Malacosoma indicum) are serious pests that attack a wide range of fruit and forest trees in Jammu & Kashmir range of North-Western Himalayas in India. Investigations were carried out to isolate and bioprospect naturally occurring nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) as potent biopesticides against these pests. The biological and molecular characterization of NPV isolates from different ecosystems was conducted, and the polh, lef-8 and lef-9 genes were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The L. obfuscata NPV was more closely related to the L. dispar NPV, whereas M. indicum NPV was more closely related to the M. californicum NPV in the NCBI taxonomy database. Among different isolates, Bhaderwah isolates exhibited highest virus activity (LD₅₀ = 250 POBs/larvae) and speed of kill (ST₅₀ = 6.80 days) against L. obfuscata whereas Mahor isolates proved most virulent against M. indicum, with lowest LD₅₀ (257 POBs/larva) and ST₅₀ (6.80 days). The in vivo mass production for highest productivity and quality revealed that the optimum yield was obtained when 3rd instar larvae were inoculated with a viral dose of 1.44 × 105 POBs/larva and allowed to incubate for nine days for L. obfuscata. However, for M. indicum larvae, a viral dose of 2.88 × 10⁶ POBs/larva and incubation period of 10 days were found optimum. It was found that harvesting of moribund larvae yields good quality NPV. The field application of L. obfuscata NPV and M. indicum NPV against the respective host populations on apple and willow with the pre-standardized dosage of 1 × 10¹² POBs/acre reduced the larval population density up to 25-63%.

Keywords: baculoviruses, biopesticides, Lymantria obfuscata, Malacosoma indicum

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3 Frank Norris’ McTeague: An Entropic Melodrama

Authors: Mohsen Masoomi, Fazel Asadi Amjad, Monireh Arvin


According to Naturalistic principles, human destiny in the form of blind chance and determinism, entraps the individual, so man is a defenceless creature unable to escape from the ruthless paws of a stoical universe. In Naturalism; nonetheless, melodrama mirrors a conscious alternative with a peculiar function. A typical American Naturalistic character thus cannot be a subject for social criticism of American society since they are not victims of the ongoing virtual slavery, capitalist system, nor of a ruined milieu, but of their own volition, and more importantly, their character frailty. Through a Postmodern viewpoint, each Naturalistic work can encompass some entropic trends and changes culminating in an entire failure and devastation. Frank Norris in McTeague displays the futile struggles of ordinary men and how they end up brutes. McTeague encompasses intoxication, abuse, violation, and ruthless homicides. Norris’ depictions of the falling individual as a demon represent the entropic dimension of Naturalistic novels. McTeague’s defeat is somewhat his own fault, the result of his own blunders and resolution, not the result of sheer accident. Throughout the novel, each character is a kind of insane quester indicating McTeague’s decadence and, by inference, the decadence of Western civilisation. McTeague seems to designate Norris’ solicitude for a community fabricated by the elements of human negative demeanours and conducts hauling acute symptoms of infectious dehumanisation. The aim of this article is to illustrate how one specific negative human disposition gradually, like a running fire, can spread everywhere and burn everything in itself. The author applies the concept of entropy metaphorically to describe the individual devolutions that necessarily comprise community entropy in McTeague, a dying universe.

Keywords: animal imagery, entropy, Gypsy, melodrama

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2 Beliefs and Rituals among the Urak Lawoi Sea Gypsies in the Bulon Archipelago, Satun Province

Authors: Srisuporn Piyaratanawong, Suchai Assawapantanakul


This study aims to reflect changes in beliefs and rituals among the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago of Satun Province that are related to changes of society according to each dimension of time. The historical study was conducted using an oral history approach. The study found that the traditional way of life as itinerants who moved seasonally resulted in their dependence on nature and beliefs in supernatural power, and mysterious powers and superstitions in the belief of ghosts, ancestors, guardian spirits, large banyan trees, life and living, treatment of diseases, king of nagas, and other beliefs. They displayed their respect to supernatural powers through rituals by worshiping, making offerings to spirits and performing Rongeng dance for spirits in return for fulfilling their vows. After World War II (1945), the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on Bulon archipelago changed their itinerant way of life to permanent settlements. However, their beliefs in supernatural powers and ritual performances remained in existence. Until 1987, when tourism began to spread to the archipelago, some of them gradually turned to make a living with tourism. Moreover, during the last 20 years (from around 1994), Islam has spread among the people. With this social context, the traditional beliefs in supernatural powers have changed to beliefs according to the religion and the way of life that has changed. Thus, when the traditional beliefs and rituals can no longer fulfil the new way of life, they slowly disappear, such as the floating the boat ceremony that has been replaced with new beliefs and rituals according to Islam. Nevertheless, some beliefs and rituals still exist, such as beliefs about treatment of diseases and Rongeng dance for spirits in return for vow fulfilling. In conclusion, the traditional beliefs and rituals of the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago cannot fulfil the new way of life, and have, thus, brought about changes in beliefs and rituals that are congruent with the current society.

Keywords: belief, ritual, Urak Lawoi, sea gypsy, Bulon Archipelago

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1 Mobile Genetic Elements in Trematode Himasthla Elongata Clonal Polymorphism

Authors: Anna Solovyeva, Ivan Levakin, Nickolai Galaktionov, Olga Podgornaya


Animals that reproduce asexually were thought to have the same genotypes within generations for a long time. However, some refuting examples were found, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or transposons are considered to be the most probable source of genetic instability. Dispersed nature and the ability to change their genomic localization enables MGEs to be efficient mutators. Hence the study of MGEs genomic impact requires an appropriate object which comprehends both representative amounts of various MGEs and options to evaluate the genomic influence of MGEs. Animals that reproduce asexually seem to be a decent model to study MGEs impact in genomic variability. We found a small marine trematode Himasthla elongata (Himasthlidae) to be a good model for such investigation as it has a small genome size, diverse MGEs and parthenogenetic stages in the lifecycle. In the current work, clonal diversity of cercaria was traced with an AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) method, diverse zones from electrophoretic patterns were cloned, and the nature of the fragments explored. Polymorphic patterns of individual cercariae AFLP-based fingerprints are enriched with retrotransposons of different families. The bulk of those sequences are represented by open reading frames of non-Long Terminal Repeats containing elements(non-LTR) yet Long-Terminal Repeats containing elements (LTR), to a lesser extent in variable figments of AFLP array. The CR1 elements expose both in polymorphic and conservative patterns are remarkably more frequent than the other non-LTR retrotransposons. This data was confirmed with shotgun sequencing-based on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Individual cercaria of the same clone (i.e., originated from a single miracidium and inhabiting one host) has a various distribution of MGE families detected in sequenced AFLP patterns. The most numerous are CR1 and RTE-Bov retrotransposons, typical for trematode genomes. Also, we identified LTR-retrotransposons of Pao and Gypsy families among DNA transposons of CMC-EnSpm, Tc1/Mariner, MuLE-MuDR and Merlin families. We detected many of them in H. elongata transcriptome. Such uneven MGEs distribution in AFLP sequences’ sets reflects the different patterns of transposons spreading in cercarial genomes as transposons affect the genome in many ways (ectopic recombination, gene structure interruption, epigenetic silencing). It is considered that they play a key role in the origins of trematode clonal polymorphism. The authors greatly appreciate the help received at the Kartesh White Sea Biological Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zoological Institute. This work is funded with RSF 19-74-20102 and RFBR 17-04-02161 grants and the research program of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (project number AAAA-A19-119020690109-2).

Keywords: AFLP, clonal polymorphism, Himasthla elongata, mobile genetic elements, NGS

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