Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1728

Search results for: 3d scanning

1728 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib


Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

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1727 Study on Monitoring Techniques Developed for a City Railway Construction

Authors: Myoung-Jin Lee, Sung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Il Kim


Currently, sinkholes may occur due to natural or unknown causes. When the sinkhole is an instantaneous phenomenon, most accidents occur because of significant damage. Thus, methods of monitoring are being actively researched, such that the impact of the accident can be mitigated. A sinkhole can severely affect and wreak havoc in community-based facilities such as a city railway construction. Therefore, the development of a laser / scanning system and an image-based tunnel is one method of pre-monitoring that it stops the accidents. The laser scanning is being used but this has shortcomings as it involves the development of expensive equipment. A laser / videobased scanning tunnel is being developed at Korea Railroad Research Institute. This is designed to automatically operate the railway. The purpose of the scanning is to obtain an image of the city such as of railway structures (stations, tunnel). At the railway structures, it has developed 3D laser scanning that can find a micro-crack can not be distinguished by the eye. An additional aim is to develop technology to monitor the status of the railway structure without the need for expensive post-processing of 3D laser scanning equipment, by developing corresponding software.

Keywords: 3D laser scanning, sinkhole, tunnel, city railway construction

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1726 Consumer Experience of 3D Body Scanning Technology and Acceptance of Related E-Commerce Market Applications in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Moudi Almousa


This research paper explores Saudi Arabian female consumers’ experiences using 3D body scanning technology and their level of acceptance of possible market applications of this technology to adopt for apparel online shopping. Data was collected for 82 women after being scanned then viewed a short video explaining three possible scenarios of 3D body scanning applications, which include size prediction, customization, and virtual try-on, before completing the survey questionnaire. Although respondents have strong positive responses towards the scanning experience, the majority were concerned about their privacy during the scanning process. The results indicated that size prediction and virtual try on had greater market application potential and a higher chance of crossing the gap based on consumer interest. The results of the study also indicated a strong positive correlation between respondents’ concern with inability to try on apparel products in online environments and their willingness to use the 3D possible market applications.

Keywords: 3D body scanning, market applications, online, apparel fit

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1725 Preserved Relative Differences between Regions of Different Thermal Scans

Authors: Tahir Majeed, Michael Handschuh, René Meier


Rheumatoid arthritis patients have swelling and pain at the joints of the hand. The regions where the patient feels pain also show increased body temperature. Thermal cameras can be used to detect the rise in temperature of the affected regions. To monitor the disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis patients, they must visit the clinic regularly for scanning and examination. After scanning and evaluation, the dosage of the medicine is regulated accordingly. To monitor the disease progression over time, the correlation between the images between different visits must be established. It has been observed that by using low-cost thermal cameras, the thermal measurements do not remain the same over time, even within a single scanning. In some situations, temperatures can vary as much as 2°C within the same scanning sequence. In this paper, it has been shown that although the absolute temperature varies over time, the relative difference between the different regions remains similar. Results have been computed over four scanning sequences and are presented.

Keywords: relative thermal difference, rheumatoid arthritis, thermal imaging, thermal sensors

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1724 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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1723 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, Fawad Inam


Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, de-wrinkling, dispersion, surfactants, scanning electronic microscopy

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1722 Time Efficient Color Coding for Structured-Light 3D Scanner

Authors: Po-Hao Huang, Pei-Ju Chiang


The structured light 3D scanner is commonly used for measuring the 3D shape of an object. Through projecting designed light patterns on the object, deformed patterns can be obtained and used for the geometric shape reconstruction. At present, Gray code is the most reliable and commonly used light pattern in the structured light 3D scanner. However, the trade-off between scanning efficiency and accuracy is a long-standing and challenging problem. The design of light patterns plays a significant role in the scanning efficiency and accuracy. Thereby, we proposed a novel encoding method integrating color information and Gray-code to improve the scanning efficiency. We will demonstrate that with the proposed method, the scanning time can be reduced to approximate half of the one needed by Gray-code without reduction of precision.

Keywords: gray-code, structured light scanner, 3D shape acquisition, 3D reconstruction

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1721 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple

Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi


Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.

Keywords: corrosion, galvanic corrosion, magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopy

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1720 Electrochemical Radiofrequency Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements for Fingerprinting Single Electron Transfer Processes

Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Mohamed Awadein, Georg Gramse, Luyang Song, He Sun, Wolfgang Schofberger, Stefan Müllegger


Electron transfer is a crucial part of chemical reactions which drive everyday processes. With the help of an electro-chemical radio frequency scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-RF-STM) setup, we are observing single electron mediated oxidation-reduction processes in molecules like ferrocene and transition metal corroles. Combining the techniques of scanning microwave microscopy and cyclic voltammetry allows us to monitor such processes with attoampere sensitivity. A systematic study of such phenomena would be critical to understanding the nano-scale behavior of catalysts, molecular sensors, and batteries relevant to the development of novel material and energy applications.

Keywords: radiofrequency, STM, cyclic voltammetry, ferrocene

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1719 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1718 Infrared Detection Device for Accurate Scanning 3D Objects

Authors: Evgeny A. Rybakov, Dmitry P. Starikov


This article contains information about creating special unit for scanning 3D objects different nature, different materials, for example plastic, plaster, cardboard, wood, metal and etc. The main part of the unit is infrared transducer, which is sends the wave to the object and receive back wave for calculating distance. After that, microcontroller send to PC data, and computer program create model for printing from the plastic, gypsum, brass, etc.

Keywords: clutch, infrared, microcontroller, plastic, shaft, stage

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1717 Applying Multiple Kinect on the Development of a Rapid 3D Mannequin Scan Platform

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Yi-Cheng Tsao


In the field of reverse engineering and creative industries, applying 3D scanning process to obtain geometric forms of the objects is a mature and common technique. For instance, organic objects such as faces and nonorganic objects such as products could be scanned to acquire the geometric information for further application. However, although the data resolution of 3D scanning device is increasing and there are more and more abundant complementary applications, the penetration rate of 3D scanning for the public is still limited by the relative high price of the devices. On the other hand, Kinect, released by Microsoft, is known for its powerful functions, considerably low price, and complete technology and database support. Therefore, related studies can be done with the applying of Kinect under acceptable cost and data precision. Due to the fact that Kinect utilizes optical mechanism to extracting depth information, limitations are found due to the reason of the straight path of the light. Thus, various angles are required sequentially to obtain the complete 3D information of the object when applying a single Kinect for 3D scanning. The integration process which combines the 3D data from different angles by certain algorithms is also required. This sequential scanning process costs much time and the complex integration process often encounter some technical problems. Therefore, this paper aimed to apply multiple Kinects simultaneously on the field of developing a rapid 3D mannequin scan platform and proposed suggestions on the number and angles of Kinects. In the content, a method of establishing the coordination based on the relation between mannequin and the specifications of Kinect is proposed, and a suggestion of angles and number of Kinects is also described. An experiment of applying multiple Kinect on the scanning of 3D mannequin is constructed by Microsoft API, and the results show that the time required for scanning and technical threshold can be reduced in the industries of fashion and garment design.

Keywords: 3D scan, depth sensor, fashion and garment design, mannequin, multiple Kinect sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1716 Consumer Perception of 3D Body Scanning While Online Shopping for Clothing

Authors: A. Grilec, S. Petrak, M. Mahnic Naglic


Technological development and the globalization in production and sales of clothing in the last decade have significantly influenced the changes in consumer relationship with the industrial-fashioned apparel and in the way of clothing purchasing. The Internet sale of clothing is in a constant and significant increase in the global market, but the possibilities offered by modern computing technologies in the customization segment are not yet fully involved, especially according to the individual customer requirements and body sizes. Considering the growing trend of online shopping, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the differences in customer perceptions towards online apparel shopping and particularly to discover the main differences in perceptions between customers regarding three different body sizes. In order to complete the research goal, the quantitative study on the sample of 85 Croatian consumers was conducted in 2017 in Zagreb, Croatia. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement according to a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). To analyze attitudes of respondents, simple and descriptive statistics were used. The main findings highlight the differences in respondent perception of 3D body scanning, using 3D body scanning in Internet shopping, online apparel shopping habits regarding their body sizes.

Keywords: consumer behavior, Internet, 3D body scanning, body types

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1715 Flexible Programmable Circuit Board Electromagnetic 1-D Scanning Micro-Mirror Laser Rangefinder by Active Triangulation

Authors: Vixen Joshua Tan, Siyuan He


Scanners have been implemented within single point laser rangefinders, to determine the ranges within an environment by sweeping the laser spot across the surface of interest. The research motivation is to exploit a smaller and cheaper alternative scanning component for the emitting portion within current designs of laser rangefinders. This research implements an FPCB (Flexible Programmable Circuit Board) Electromagnetic 1-Dimensional scanning micro-mirror as a scanning component for laser rangefinding by means of triangulation. The prototype uses a laser module, micro-mirror, and receiver. The laser module is infrared (850 nm) with a power output of 4.5 mW. The receiver consists of a 50 mm convex lens and a 45mm 1-dimensional PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) placed at the focal length of the lens at 50 mm. The scanning component is an elliptical Micro-Mirror attached onto an FPCB Structure. The FPCB structure has two miniature magnets placed symmetrically underneath it on either side, which are then electromagnetically actuated by small solenoids, causing the FPCB to mechanically rotate about its torsion beams. The laser module projects a laser spot onto the micro-mirror surface, hence producing a scanning motion of the laser spot during the rotational actuation of the FPCB. The receiver is placed at a fixed distance from the micro-mirror scanner and is oriented to capture the scanning motion of the laser spot during operation. The elliptical aperture dimensions of the micro-mirror are 8mm by 5.5 mm. The micro-mirror is supported by an FPCB with two torsion beams with dimensions of 4mm by 0.5mm. The overall length of the FPCB is 23 mm. The voltage supplied to the solenoids is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 3.5 volts and 4.5 volts to achieve optical scanning angles of +/- 10 and +/- 17 degrees respectively. The operating scanning frequency during experiments was 5 Hz. For an optical angle of +/- 10 degrees, the prototype is capable of detecting objects within the ranges from 0.3-1.2 meters with an error of less than 15%. As for an optical angle of +/- 17 degrees the measuring range was from 0.3-0.7 meters with an error of 16% or less. Discrepancy between the experimental and actual data is possibly caused by misalignment of the components during experiments. Furthermore, the power of the laser spot collected by the receiver gradually decreased as the object was placed further from the sensor. A higher powered laser will be tested to potentially measure further distances more accurately. Moreover, a wide-angled lens will be used in future experiments when higher scanning angles are used. Modulation within the current and future higher powered lasers will be implemented to enable the operation of the laser rangefinder prototype without the use of safety goggles.

Keywords: FPCB electromagnetic 1-D scanning micro-mirror, laser rangefinder, position sensitive detector, PSD, triangulation

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1714 A Study of Non-Coplanar Imaging Technique in INER Prototype Tomosynthesis System

Authors: Chia-Yu Lin, Yu-Hsiang Shen, Cing-Ciao Ke, Chia-Hao Chang, Fan-Pin Tseng, Yu-Ching Ni, Sheng-Pin Tseng


Tomosynthesis is an imaging system that generates a 3D image by scanning in a limited angular range. It could provide more depth information than traditional 2D X-ray single projection. Radiation dose in tomosynthesis is less than computed tomography (CT). Because of limited angular range scanning, there are many properties depending on scanning direction. Therefore, non-coplanar imaging technique was developed to improve image quality in traditional tomosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to establish the non-coplanar imaging technique of tomosynthesis system and evaluate this technique by the reconstructed image. INER prototype tomosynthesis system contains an X-ray tube, a flat panel detector, and a motion machine. This system could move X-ray tube in multiple directions during the acquisition. In this study, we investigated three different imaging techniques that were 2D X-ray single projection, traditional tomosynthesis, and non-coplanar tomosynthesis. An anthropopathic chest phantom was used to evaluate the image quality. It contained three different size lesions (3 mm, 5 mm and, 8 mm diameter). The traditional tomosynthesis acquired 61 projections over a 30 degrees angular range in one scanning direction. The non-coplanar tomosynthesis acquired 62 projections over 30 degrees angular range in two scanning directions. A 3D image was reconstructed by iterative image reconstruction algorithm (ML-EM). Our qualitative method was to evaluate artifacts in tomosynthesis reconstructed image. The quantitative method was used to calculate a peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) that means the intensity ratio of the lesion to the background. We used PVRs to evaluate the contrast of lesions. The qualitative results showed that in the reconstructed image of non-coplanar scanning, anatomic structures of chest and lesions could be identified clearly and no significant artifacts of scanning direction dependent could be discovered. In 2D X-ray single projection, anatomic structures overlapped and lesions could not be discovered. In traditional tomosynthesis image, anatomic structures and lesions could be identified clearly, but there were many artifacts of scanning direction dependent. The quantitative results of PVRs show that there were no significant differences between non-coplanar tomosynthesis and traditional tomosynthesis. The PVRs of the non-coplanar technique were slightly higher than traditional technique in 5 mm and 8 mm lesions. In non-coplanar tomosynthesis, artifacts of scanning direction dependent could be reduced and PVRs of lesions were not decreased. The reconstructed image was more isotropic uniformity in non-coplanar tomosynthesis than in traditional tomosynthesis. In the future, scan strategy and scan time will be the challenges of non-coplanar imaging technique.

Keywords: image reconstruction, non-coplanar imaging technique, tomosynthesis, X-ray imaging

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1713 Jelly and Beans: Appropriate Use of Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Injury

Authors: Raja Ezman Raja Shariff


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in inpatients, and places a great cost on the NHS and patients. Timely and appropriate management is both nephron sparing and potentially life-saving. Ultrasound scanning (USS) is a well-recognised method for stratifying patients. Subsequently, the NICE AKI guidance has defined groups in whom scanning is recommended within 6 hours of request (pyonephrosis), within 24 hours (obstruction/cause unknown), and in whom routine scanning isn't recommended (cause for AKI identified). The audit looks into whether Stockport NHS Trust USS practice was in line with such recommendations. The audit evaluated 92 patients with AKI who had USS, between 01/01/14 to 30/04/14. Data collection was divided into 2 parts. Firstly, radiology request cards and the online imaging software (PACS) were evaluated. Then, the electronic case notes (ADVANTIS) was evaluated further. Based on request cards, 10% of requests were for pyonephrosis. Only 33% were scanned within 6hours and a further 33% within 24hours. 75% were requested for possible obstructions and unknown cause collectively. Of those due to possible obstruction, 71% of patients were scanned within 24 hours. Of those with unknown cause, 50% were scanned within 24 hours. 15% of requests had a cause declared and so potentially did not require scanning. Evaluation of the patients’ notes suggested further interesting findings. Firstly, potentially 39% of patients had a known cause for AKI, therefore, did not need USS. Subsequently, the cohort of unknown cause and possible obstruction was collectively reduced to 45%. Alarmingly the patient cohort with possible pyonephrosis went up to 16%, suggesting an under-recognition of this life-threatening condition. We plan to highlight these findings within our institution and make changes to encourage more appropriate requesting and timely scanning. Time will tell if we manage to save or increase our costs in this cost-conscious NHS. Patient benefits, though, seem to be guaranteed.

Keywords: AKI, ARF, kidney, renal

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1712 A Laser Transmitter Scheme with a Right Angled Mirror

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee


We propose a stable laser scanning leveler transmitter scheme. In the proposed scheme, the transmitter has a right angled mirror which can eliminates the mechanical up and down vibration from scanning the mirror of the transmitter. In this paper, the mathematical proof for the proposed scheme which is not disturbed by the swivel movement of the right angled mirror is derived.

Keywords: leveler, right angled mirror, sweeping, laser

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1711 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi


Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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1710 The Use of Coronary Calcium Scanning for Cholesterol Assessment and Management

Authors: Eva Kirzner


Based on outcome studies published over the past two decades, in 2018, the ACC/AHA published new guidelines for the management of hypercholesterolemia that incorporate the use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning as a decision tool for ascertaining which patients may benefit from statin therapy. This use is based on the recognition that the absence of calcium on CAC scanning (i.e., a CAC score of zero) usually signifies the absence of significant atherosclerotic deposits in the coronary arteries. Specifically, in patients with a high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), initiation of statin therapy is generally recommended to decrease ASCVD risk. However, among patients with intermediate ASCVD risk, the need for statin therapy is less certain. However, there is a need for new outcome studies that provide evidence that the management of hypercholesterolemia based on these new ACC/AHA recommendations is safe for patients. Based on a Pub-Med and Google Scholar literature search, four relevant population-based or patient-based cohort studies that studied the relationship between CAC scanning, risk assessment or mortality, and statin therapy that were published between 2017 and 2021 were identified (see references). In each of these studies, patients were assessed for their baseline risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) using the Pooled Cohorts Equation (PCE), an ACC/AHA calculator for determining patient risk based on assessment of patient age, gender, ethnicity, and coronary artery disease risk factors. The combined findings of these four studies provided concordant evidence that a zero CAC score defines patients who remain at low clinical risk despite the non-use of statin therapy. Thus, these new studies confirm the use of CAC scanning as a safe tool for reducing the potential overuse of statin therapy among patients with zero CAC scores. Incorporating these new data suggest the following best practice: (1) ascertain ASCVD risk according to the PCE in all patients; (2) following an initial attempt trial to lower ASCVD risk with optimal diet among patients with elevated ASCVD risk, initiate statin therapy for patients who have a high ASCVD risk score; (3) if the ASCVD score is intermediate, refer patients for CAC scanning; and (4) and if the CAC score is zero among the intermediate risk ASCVD patients, statin therapy can be safely withheld despite the presence of an elevated serum cholesterol level.

Keywords: cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, statin therapy, coronary calcium

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1709 Snapchat’s Scanning Feature

Authors: Reham Banwair, Lana Alshehri, Sara Hadrawi


The purpose of this project is to identify user satisfaction with the AI functions on Snapchat, in order to generate improvement proposals that allow its development within the app. To achieve this, a qualitative analysis was carried out through interviews to people who usually use the application, revealing their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the usefulness of the AI. In addition, the background of the company and its introduction in these algorithms were analyzed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the three main functions of AI were explained: identify songs, solve mathematical problems, and recognize plants. As a result, it was obtained that 50% still do not know the characteristics of AI, 50% still believe song recognition is not always correct, 41.7% believe that math problems are usually accurate and 91.7% believes the plant detection tool is working properly.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, scanning, Snapchat, machine learning

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1708 Shotcrete Performance Optimisation and Audit Using 3D Laser Scanning

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez, Neil Slatcher, Marcus Properzi, Kan Seah


In many underground mining operations, shotcrete is used for permanent rock support. Shotcrete thickness is a critical measure of the success of this process. 3D Laser Mapping, in conjunction with Jetcrete, has developed a 3D laser scanning system specifically for measuring the thickness of shotcrete. The system is mounted on the shotcrete spraying machine and measures the rock faces before and after spraying. The calculated difference between the two 3D surface models is measured as the thickness of the sprayed concrete. Typical work patterns for the shotcrete process required a rapid and automatic system. The scanning takes place immediately before and after the application of the shotcrete so no convergence takes place in the interval between scans. Automatic alignment of scans without targets was implemented which allows for the possibility of movement of the spraying machine between scans. Case studies are presented where accuracy tests are undertaken and automatic audit reports are calculated. The use of 3D imaging data for the calculation of shotcrete thickness is an important tool for geotechnical engineers and contract managers, and this could become the new state-of-the-art methodology for the mining industry.

Keywords: 3D imaging, shotcrete, surface model, tunnel stability

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1707 Mass Customization of Chemical Protective Clothing

Authors: Eugenija Strazdiene, Violeta Bytautaite, Daivute Krisciuniene


The object of the investigation is the suit for chemical protection, which totally covers human body together with breathing apparatus, breathing mask and helmet (JSC Ansell Protective Solutions Lithuania). The end users of such clothing are the members of rescue team – firefighters. During the presentation, the results of 3D scanning with stationary Human Solutions scanner and portable Artec Eva scanner will be compared on the basis of the efficiency of scanning procedure and scanning accuracy. Also, the possibilities to exporting scanned bodies into specialized CAD systems for suit design development and material consumption calculation will be analyzed. The necessity to understand and to implement corresponding clothing material properties during 3D visualization of garment on CAD systems will be presented. During the presentation, the outcomes of the project ‘Smart and Safe Work Wear Clothing SWW’ will be discussed. The project is carried out under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Program as 2014-2020 European territorial cooperation objective. Thematic priority is Capacity for Innovation. The main goal of the project is to improve competitiveness and to increase business possibilities for work wear enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region. The project focuses on mass customization of products for various end users. It engages textile and clothing manufacturing technology researchers, work wear producers, end users, as well as national textile and clothing branch organizations in Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland.

Keywords: CAD systems, mass customization, 3D scanning, safe work wear

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1706 Extracting Terrain Points from Airborne Laser Scanning Data in Densely Forested Areas

Authors: Ziad Abdeldayem, Jakub Markiewicz, Kunal Kansara, Laura Edwards


Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is one of the main technologies for generating high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). DTMs are crucial to several applications, such as topographic mapping, flood zone delineation, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrological modelling, spatial analysis, etc. Laser scanning system generates irregularly spaced three-dimensional cloud of points. Raw ALS data are mainly ground points (that represent the bare earth) and non-ground points (that represent buildings, trees, cars, etc.). Removing all the non-ground points from the raw data is referred to as filtering. Filtering heavily forested areas is considered a difficult and challenging task as the canopy stops laser pulses from reaching the terrain surface. This research presents an approach for removing non-ground points from raw ALS data in densely forested areas. Smoothing splines are exploited to interpolate and fit the noisy ALS data. The presented filter utilizes a weight function to allocate weights for each point of the data. Furthermore, unlike most of the methods, the presented filtering algorithm is designed to be automatic. Three different forested areas in the United Kingdom are used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the generated DTMs from the filtered data are accurate (when compared against reference terrain data) and the performance of the method is stable for all the heavily forested data samples. The average root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.35 m.

Keywords: airborne laser scanning, digital terrain models, filtering, forested areas

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1705 Effect of Subsequent Drying and Wetting on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Soils

Authors: A. Khosravi, S. Ghadirian, J. S. McCartney


Evaluation of the seismic-induced settlement of an unsaturated soil layer depends on several variables, among which the small strain shear modulus, Gmax, and soil’s state of stress have been demonstrated to be of particular significance. Recent interpretation of trends in Gmax revealed considerable effects of the degree of saturation and hydraulic hysteresis on the shear stiffness of soils in unsaturated states. Accordingly, the soil layer is expected to experience different settlement behaviors depending on the soil saturation and seasonal weathering conditions. In this study, a semi-empirical formulation was adapted to extend an existing Gmax model to infer hysteretic effects along different paths of the SWRC including scanning curves. The suitability of the proposed approach is validated against experimental results from a suction-controlled resonant column test and from data reported in literature. The model was observed to follow the experimental data along different paths of the SWRC, and showed a slight hysteresis in shear modulus along the scanning curves.

Keywords: hydraulic hysteresis, scanning path, small strain shear modulus, unsaturated soil

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1704 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

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1703 Microanalysis of a New Cementitious System Containing High Calcium Fly Ash and Waste Material by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton


Fast-curing cold bituminous emulsion mixture (CBEM) including active filler from high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and waste material (LJMU-A2) has been developed in this study. This will overcome the difficulties related with the use of hot mix asphalt such as greenhouse gases emissions and problems in keeping the temperature when transporting long distance. The aim of this study is to employ petrographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterizing the hydrates microstructure, in a new binary blended cement filler (BBCF) system. The new BBCF has been used as a replacement to traditional mineral filler in cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs), comprises supplementary cementitious materials containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and a waste material (LJMU-A2). SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of hydrates after varying curing ages within the BBCF. The accelerated activation of HCFA by LJMU-A2 within the BBCF was revealed and as a consequence early and later stiffness was developed in novel CBEM.

Keywords: cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high calcium fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1702 Development of a Shape Based Estimation Technology Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Authors: Gichun Cha, Byoungjoon Yu, Jihwan Park, Minsoo Park, Junghyun Im, Sehwan Park, Sujung Sin, Seunghee Park


The goal of this research is to estimate a structural shape change using terrestrial laser scanning. This study proceeds with development of data reduction and shape change estimation algorithm for large-capacity scan data. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. Technique of shape estimation is studied to detect changes in structure patterns, such as skyscrapers, bridges, and tunnels based on large point cloud data. The point cloud analysis applies the octree data structure to speed up the post-processing process for change detection. The point cloud data is the relative representative value of shape information, and it used as a model for detecting point cloud changes in a data structure. Shape estimation model is to develop a technology that can detect not only normal but also immediate structural changes in the event of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, and fires, thereby preventing major accidents caused by aging and disasters. The study will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance.

Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning, point cloud, shape information model, displacement measurement

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1701 Morphology and Mineralogy of Acid Treated Soil

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad, G. Kalyan Kumar


This paper presents the morphological and mineralogical changes occurring in the soil due to immediate and prolonged interaction with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. In order to assess the effect of acid contamination, a series of sediment volume, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis tests were carried out on soil samples were exposed to different concentrations (1N, 4N and 8N) of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. Experimental results show that both acids showed severe morphological and mineralogical changes with synthesis of neogenic formations mainly at higher concentrations (4N and 8N) and at prolonged duration of interaction (28 and 80 days).

Keywords: phosphoric acid, scanning electron microscopy, sulphuric acid, x-ray diffraction analysis

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1700 Producing of Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Composite Powders

Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, A. Roosz


CuZrAl amorphous alloys have attracted high interest due to unique physical and mechanical properties, which can be enhanced by adding of Ni and Ti elements. It is known that this properties can be enhanced by crystallization of amorphous alloys creating nanocrystallines in the matrix. The present work intends to produce nanosized crystalline parti-cle reinforced amorphous matrix composite powders by crystallization of amorphous powders. As the first step the amorphous powders were synthe-tized by ball-milling of crystalline powders. (Cu49Zr45Al6) 80Ni10Ti10 and (Cu49Zr44Al7) 80Ni10Ti10 (at%) alloys were ball-milled for 12 hours in order to reach the fully amorphous structure. The impact en-ergy of the balls during milling causes the change of the structure in the powders. Scanning electron microscopical (SEM) images shows that the phases mixed first and then changed into a fully amorphous matrix. Furthermore, nanosized particles in the amorphous matrix were crystallized by heat treatment of the amorphous powders that was confirmed by TEM measurement. It was of importance to define the tem-perature when the amorphous phase starts to crystal-lize. Amorphous alloys have a special heating curve and characteristic temperatures, which can be meas-ured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A typical DSC curve of an amorphous alloy exhibits an endothermic event characteristic of the equilibrium glass transition (Tg) and a distinct undercooled liquid region, followed by one or two exothermic events corresponding to crystallization processes (Tp). After measuring the DSC traces of the amorphous powders, the annealing temperatures should be determined between Tx and Tp. In our experiments several temperatures from the annealing temperature range were selected and de-pendency of crystallized nanoparticles fraction on their hardness was investigated.

Keywords: amorphous structure, composite, mechanical milling, powder, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electronmocroscopy (TEM)

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1699 Carbon Nitride Growth on ZnO Architectures for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Application

Authors: Špela Hajduk, Sean P. Berglund, Matejka Podlogar, Goran Dražić, Fatwa F. Abdi, Zorica C. Orel, Menny Shalom


Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap. Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. Two different deposition methods of carbon nitride were investigated and will be presented. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as X-ray powder spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), high-resolution scanning microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: carbon nitride, photoanode, solar water splitting, zinc oxide

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