Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Ceren Ince

28 The Most Desirable Individual Relationship

Authors: Ali Babaei

Abstract:

There is a significant relationship between Soul Faculties and human relationships. Man has at least three levels of relationship according to three levels of his Faculties: individual (with himself), dual (with another) and collective (with others). Since all human actions are organized by the type of use of their internal faculties, their "hierarchy of relations" is related to the "hierarchy of their Faculties." In the final explanation based on the ontology of Islamic wisdom, one can consider the hierarchy of human Faculties in three levels: 1. senses, 2. intellect and heart, and 3. Soul. The best relationship, in the individual one is that every human being, with healthy senses, achieves both the intellectual growth and the perfection of the heart, which we call "Clear-headed" and "Good-hearted.” The result of human evolution in this two aspects will lead to the development of a powerful personality which can be interpreted as "spiritual prosperity"; having a great soul is the result of such evolution. A smart brain without a "Good-heart"ince can lead to criminality; and mere "Good-heart"ince" without "Clear-head"ince leads to "naivety". “clear-head”ince is achieved through thoughtfulness and study, and "Good-heart"ince through love and worship. So the best way to achieve perfection in a personal relationship is to have a dependable appearance, a coherent thinking

Keywords: Ontology , good-heartince, wisdom, relationship, clear-head”ince, criminality, naivety

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27 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Zafer Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer

Abstract:

Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing material

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26 Co-Pyrolysis of Bituminous Coal with Peat by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Ceren Efe, Hale Sütçü

Abstract:

In this study, the pyrolysis of bituminous coal, peat and their blends formed by mixing various ratios of them were examined by thermogravimetric analysis method. Thermogravimetric analyses of peat, bituminous coal and their blends in the proportions of 25 %, 50 % and 75 % were performed at heating rate of 10 °C/min and from the room temperature until to 800 °C temperature, in a nitrogen atmosphere of 100 ml/min. Kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis process were calculated using Coats&Redfern kinetic model.

Keywords: bituminous coal, peat, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Coats&Redfern

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25 Effect of Freeze-Thaw (F-T) Processes on the Engineering and Textural Properties of Nevşehir Stone (Nevşehir / Turkey)

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener

Abstract:

Natural stones used as building materials are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on the climatic and seasonal conditions. Stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of these effects. Freezing and thawing (F-T) process is the most important interaction. Nevşehir is located in the Central Anatolia region in Turkey and it has a typical continental climate with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Effects of freeze-thaw processes were widely observed on the building stones used in the region. Pyroclastic rocks, which are named as Nevşehir stone in the region, have been used in most of these buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variations in engineering and textural properties of Nevşehir stone during different F-T cycles.

Keywords: Nevşehir stone, freeze-thaw, engineering properties, textural properties

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24 Prediction of Index-Mechanical Properties of Pyroclastic Rock Utilizing Electrical Resistivity Method

Authors: İsmail İnce

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine index and mechanical properties of pyroclastic rock in a practical way by means of electrical resistivity method. For this purpose, electrical resistivity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, P-wave velocity, density and porosity values of 10 different pyroclastic rocks were measured in the laboratory. A simple regression analysis was made among the index-mechanical properties of the samples compatible with electrical resistivity values. A strong exponentially relation was found between index-mechanical properties and electrical resistivity values. The electrical resistivity method can be used to assess the engineering properties of the rock from which it is difficult to obtain regular shaped samples as a non-destructive method.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, index-mechanical properties, pyroclastic rocks, regression analysis

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23 Determination of Weathering at Kilistra Ancient City by Using Non-Destructive Techniques, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: İsmail İnce, Osman Günaydin, Fatma Özer

Abstract:

Stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on climatic conditions. Building stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of this exposure. The historic structures are important symbols of any cultural heritage. Therefore, it is important to protect and restore these historical structures. The aim of this study is to determine the weathering conditions at the Kilistra ancient city. It is located in the southwest of the Konya city, Central Anatolia, and was built by carving into pyroclastic rocks during the Byzantine Era. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the pyroclastic rocks were determined. In the assessment of weathering of structures in the ancient city, in-situ non-destructive testing (i.e., Schmidt hardness rebound value, relative humidity measurement) methods were applied.

Keywords: cultural heritage, Kilistra ancient city, non-destructive techniques, weathering

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22 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

Abstract:

In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

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21 Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Fatih Iscan, Ceren Yagci

Abstract:

Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization are known as the most important factors of environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes are also within the most important environment problems. One of the main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS has the ability of imitating necessary economical, environmental and political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for engineering/economical factors for site selection of landfill areas and using GIS for an decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/TURKEY city, Güzelyurt district practice.

Keywords: GIS, landfill, solid waste, spatial analysis

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20 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone, oxidative stress

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19 Stress and Strain Analysis of Notched Bodies Subject to Non-Proportional Loadings

Authors: Ayhan Ince

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical simplified method for calculating elasto-plastic stresses strains of notched bodies subject to non-proportional loading paths is discussed. The method was based on the Neuber notch correction, which relates the incremental elastic and elastic-plastic strain energy densities at the notch root and the material constitutive relationship. The validity of the method was presented by comparing computed results of the proposed model against finite element numerical data of notched shaft. The comparison showed that the model estimated notch-root elasto-plastic stresses strains with good accuracy using linear-elastic stresses. The prosed model provides more efficient and simple analysis method preferable to expensive experimental component tests and more complex and time consuming incremental non-linear FE analysis. The model is particularly suitable to perform fatigue life and fatigue damage estimates of notched components subjected to non-proportional loading paths.

Keywords: elasto-plastic, stress-strain, notch analysis, nonprortional loadings, cyclic plasticity, fatigue

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18 Application of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in Predicting Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Pyroclastic Rocks

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener, Sair Kahraman

Abstract:

The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks is an important input parameter for the design of rock engineering project. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Although the test is relatively simple, the method is time consuming and expensive. Therefore many researchers have tried to assess the uniaxial compressive strength values of rocks via relatively simple and indirect tests (e.g. point load strength test, Schmidt Hammer hardness rebound test, P-wave velocity test, etc.). Pyroclastic rocks are widely exposed in the various regions of the world. Cappadocia region located in the Central Anatolia is one of the most spectacular cite of these regions. It is important to determine the mechanical behaviour of the pyroclastic rocks due to their ease of carving, heat insulation properties and building some civil engineering constructions in them. The purpose of this study is to estimate a widely varying uniaxial strength of pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia region by means of point load strength, porosity, dry density and saturated density tests utilizing gene expression programming.

Keywords: pyroclastic rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, gene expression programming (GEP, Cappadocia region

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17 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery, poultry manure, renewable energy

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16 Multi-Tooled Robotic Hand for Tele-Operation of Explosive Devices

Authors: Faik Derya Ince, Ugur Topgul, Alp Gunay, Can Bayoglu, Dante J. Dorantes-Gonzalez

Abstract:

Explosive attacks are arguably the most lethal threat that may occur in terrorist attacks. In order to counteract this issue, explosive ordnance disposal operators put their lives on the line to dispose of a possible improvised explosive device. Robots can make the disposal process more accurately and saving human lives. For this purpose, there is a demand for more accurate and dexterous manipulating robotic hands that can be teleoperated from a distance. The aim of this project is to design a robotic hand that contains two active and two passive DOF for each finger, as well as a minimum set of tools for mechanical cutting and screw driving within the same robotic hand. Both hand and toolset, are teleoperated from a distance from a haptic robotic glove in order to manipulate dangerous objects such as improvised explosive devices. SolidWorks® Computer-Aided Design, computerized dynamic simulation, and MATLAB® kinematic and static analysis were used for the robotic hand and toolset design. Novel, dexterous and robust solutions for the fingers were obtained, and six servo motors are used in total to remotely control the multi-tooled robotic hand. This project is still undergoing and presents currents results. Future research steps are also presented.

Keywords: Explosive Manipulation, Robotic Hand, Tele-Operation, Tool Integration

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15 Preliminary Studies in the Determination of Deteriorations in Eflatunpınar Hitit Water Monument (Konya, Turkey) by Non-Destructive Tests

Authors: İsmail İnce, Ali Bozdag, Ayla Bozdag, M. Bahadır Tosunlar, M. Ergun Hatır, Mustafa Korkanc

Abstract:

The building stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to atmospheric effects directly or indirectly. As a result of this process, building stones are partially or completely degraded. Historical buildings are important symbols of cultural heritage, so it is very significant to transfer to the future generations by protecting and repairing of these historical buildings. The Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument located near the Eflatunpınar cold water spring was constructed by using natural rock blocks during the Hittites Empire period. The monument has been protected without losing its function until today. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the deteriorations in the Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument and to detect the water chemistry of the Eflatunpınar spring located around the Beysehir County in the west of Konya. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the rocks used in this monument were determined, and the deteriorations in the monument were determined with the aid of non-destructive test methods including Schmidt hardness value, relative humidity measurement, thermal imaging. Additionally, the physical (electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature) and chemical characteristics (major anions and cations) of the Eflatunpınar cold water spring have been detected.

Keywords: deteriorations, Eflatunpınar Hitit monument, Eflatunpınar spring, Konya, non-destructıve tests

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14 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar

Abstract:

In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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13 Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals

Authors: Ceren Kaya, Okan Erkaymaz, Orhan Ayar, Mahmut Özer

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, discrete wavelet transform, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, video-oculography (VOG)

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12 A New Smart Plug for Home Energy Management

Authors: G. E. Kiral, O. Elma, A. T. Ince, B. Vural, U. S. Selamogullari, M. Uzunoglu

Abstract:

Energy is an indispensable resource to meet the needs of people. Depending on the needs of people, the correct and efficient use of electrical energy has became important nowadays. Besides the need for the electrical energy is also increasing with the rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards. Due to the depletion of energy sources and increased demand for electricity, efficient energy use is an important research topic. Recently, ideas like smart cities, smart buildings and smart homes have been widely used under smart grid concept. With smart grid infrastructure, it will be possible to monitor electrical demand of a residential customer and control each electricity generation center for more efficient energy flow. The smallest component of the smart grid can be considered as smart homes. Better utilization of the electrical grid can be achieved through the communication of the smart home with both other customers in the grid and appliances in the house itself since generation can effectively be scheduled by having more precise demand data. Smart Plugs are used for the communication with the household appliances in the house. Smart Plug is an intermediate control element, which can be mounted on the existing outlet, and thus can be used to monitor the energy consumption of the plugged device and also can provide on/off control energy remotely. This study proposes a Smart Plug for energy monitoring and energy management. Proposed design is composed of five subsystems: micro controller embedded system with communication system, metering circuitry, power supply and switching circuitry. The developed smart plug offers efficient use of electrical energy.

Keywords: energy efficiency, home energy management, smart home, smart plug

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11 Kinetic Evaluation of Biodegradability of Paint Shop Wastewater of a Bus Production Factory

Authors: Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy, Emine Ubay Çokgör

Abstract:

This paper presents a biological treatability study ofpaintshopwastewaterof a bus factory by an anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor.A lab scale 14L SBR system was implementedto investigate carbon and nitrogen removal performance frompaint shop waste streams combined with domestic and process wastewater of a bus production factory in Istanbul (Turkey).The wastewater collected from decanters of the paint boots and pre-treatmentplant was usedforthefeeding of SBR. The reactor was operated with a total hydraulic retention time of 24 hrs, and a total sludge age of 18.7 days. Initially the efficiency and stability of the reactor were studied when fed with main wastewater stream to simulate the current wastewater treatment plant. Removal efficiency of 57% nitrogen and 90% COD were obtained. Once the paint shop wastewater was introduced to mainstream feeding with a ratio of 1:5, nitrification completely, carbon removal were partially inhibited. SBR system was successful to handle even at very high COD concentrations of paint shop wastewater after feeding of 2 months, with an average effluent COD of 100 mg/L. For the determination of kinetic parameters, respirometric analysis was also conducted with/without paint shop wastewater addition. Model simulation indicated lower maximum specific growth and hydrolysis rates when paint shop wastewater was mixed with the mainstream wastewater of the factory.

Keywords: biological treatability, nitrogen removal, paint shop wastewater, sequencing batch reactor

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10 Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon /Chitosan Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Onur Karaman, Ceren Karaman

Abstract:

In this study, the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB), a cationic dye, onto Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon (OPAC) and chitosan(OPAC/Chitosan composite) composite (a low-cost absorbent) was carried out using a batch system. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. The effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose rate and initial dye concentration on the initial adsorption rate, capacity and dye removal efficiency were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to define the adsorption equilibrium of dye-adsorbent system mathematically and it was decided that the Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the adsorption equilibrium for the system. In addition, first order, second order and saturation type kinetic models were applied to kinetic data of adsorption and kinetic constants were calculated. It was concluded that the second order and the saturation type kinetic models defined the adsorption data more accurately. Finally, the evaluated thermodynamic parameters of adsorption show a spontaneous and exothermic behavior. Overall, this study indicates OPAC/Chitosan composite as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chitosan, methylene blue, orange peel

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9 In Case of Possible Disaster Management with Geographic Information System in Konya

Authors: Savaş Durduran, Ceren Yağci

Abstract:

The nature of the events going on in the world, when people’s lives are considered significantly affects natural disasters. Considering thousands of years of earth history, it is seen that many natural disasters, particularly earthquakes located in our country. Behaving cautious, without occurring hazards, after being disaster is much easier and cost effective than returning to the normal life. The four phases of disaster management in the whole world has been described as; pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation, post-disaster response and rehabilitation studies. Pre-disaster and post-disaster phases has half the weight of disaster management. How much would be prepared for disaster, no matter how disaster damage reducing work gives important, we will be less harm from material and spiritual sense. To do this in a systematic way we use the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The execution of the emergency services to be on time and emergency control mechanism against the development the most appropriate decision Geographic Information System GIS) can be useful. The execution of the emergency services to be on time and emergency control mechanism towards for developing to be the most appropriate decision Geographic Information System (GIS) can be useful. The results obtained by using products with GIS analysis of seismic data to the city, manager of the city required information and data that can be more healthy and satisfies the appropriate policy decisions can be produced. In this study, using ArcGIS software and benefiting reports of the earthquake that occurred in the Konya city, spatial and non-spatial data consisting databases created, by the help of this database a potential disaster management aimed in the city of Konya regard to urban earthquake, GIS-aided analyzes were performed.

Keywords: geographic information systems (GIS), disaster management, emergency control mechanism, Konya

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8 Investigation of the Use of Surface-Modified Waste Orange Pulp for the Adsorption of Remazol Black B

Authors: Ceren Karaman, Onur Karaman

Abstract:

The adsorption of Remazol Black B (RBB), an anionic dye, onto dried orange pulp (DOP) adsorbent prepared by only drying and by treating with cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant, surface-modified orange pulp (SMOP) was studied in a stirred batch experiments system at 25°C. The adsorption of RBB on each adsorbent as a function of surfactant dosage, initial pH of the solution and initial dye concentration was investigated. The optimum amount of CTAB was found to be 25g/l. For RBB adsorption studies, while working pH value for the DOP adsorbent system was determined as 2.0, it was observed that this value shifted to 8.0 when the 25 g/l CTAB treated-orange pulp (SMOP) adsorbent was used. It was obtained that the adsorption rate and capacity increased to a certain value, and the adsorption efficiency decreased with increasing initial RBB concentration for both DOP and SMOP adsorbents at pH 2.0 and pH 8.0. While the highest adsorption capacity for DOP was determined as 62.4 mg/g at pH 2.0, and as 325.0 mg/g for SMOP at pH 8.0. As a result, it can be said that permanent cationic coating of the adsorbent surface by CTAB surfactant shifted the working pH from 2.0 to 8.0 and it increased the dye adsorption rate and capacity of orange pulp much more significantly at pH 8.0. The equilibrium RBB adsorption data on each adsorbent were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of RBB on each adsorbent followed a pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, the intraparticle diffusion model was used to describe the kinetic data. It was found that diffusion is not the only rate controlling step. The adsorbent was characterized by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM). The mechanism for the adsorption of RBB on the SMOP may include hydrophobic interaction, van der Waals interaction, stacking and electrostatic interaction.

Keywords: adsorption, Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), orange pulp, Remazol Black B (RBB), surface modification

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7 Development of Automatic Farm Manure Spreading Machine for Orchards

Authors: Barış Ozluoymak, Emin Guzel, Ahmet İnce

Abstract:

Since chemical fertilizers are used for meeting the deficiency of plant nutrients, its many harmful effects are not taken into consideration for the structure of the earth. These fertilizers are hampering the work of the organisms in the soil immediately after thrown to the ground. This interference is first started with a change of the soil pH and micro organismic balance is disrupted by reaction in the soil. Since there can be no fragmentation of plant residues, organic matter in the soil will be increasingly impoverished in the absence of micro organismic living. Biological activity reduction brings about a deterioration of the soil structure. If the chemical fertilization continues intensively, soils will get worse every year; plant growth will slow down and stop due to the intensity of chemical fertilizers, yield decline will be experienced and farmer will not receive an adequate return on his investment. In this research, a prototype of automatic farm manure spreading machine for orange orchards that not just manufactured in Turkey was designed, constructed, tested and eliminate the human drudgery involved in spreading of farm manure in the field. The machine comprised several components as a 5 m3 volume hopper, automatic controlled hydraulically driven chain conveyor device and side delivery conveyor belts. To spread the solid farm manure automatically, the machine was equipped with an electronic control system. The hopper and side delivery conveyor designs fitted between orange orchard tree row spacing. Test results showed that the control system has significant effects on reduction in the amount of unnecessary solid farm manure use and avoiding inefficient manual labor.

Keywords: automatic control system, conveyor belt application, orchard, solid farm manure

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6 Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan: Spatial Distribution, Mineralization Control and Sources

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Harold Wilson Tumwitike Mapoma, Syed Zahid Aziz, Mahmut Ince

Abstract:

This study investigated the spatial variations of groundwater chemistry used by communities in Lahore city with emphasis on arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) levels. A total of 472 tubewell samples were collected from 7 towns and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, HCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, F- and As. There were significant spatial variations observed for total hardness, TDS, HCO3, NO3 and As. In general, the south-east of the city displayed higher TH and HCO3 while the north-east showed significantly higher As concentrations attributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer and industrial activities. In most cases, As was higher than WHO limit value. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and commercial wastewater into River Ravi is the cause of elevated NO3 observed in the north-west compared to other places in the area. Investigation of the groundwater type revealed facies in the order: Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4-Cl > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3. The plausible mineralization control mechanism seems to be that of carbonate weathering, although silicate weathering is probable. Moreover, PHREEQC model results showed that the groundwater was under saturated with respect to evaporites (anhydrite, fluorite, gypsum and halite) while generally equilibrium to saturated with respect to aragonite, calcite and dolomite. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that pH significantly affected As, F, NO3 and NO2 while HCO3 contributing most to the observed TDS values in Lahore. It is concluded that inherent mineral dissolution/ precipitation, pH, oxic conditions, anthropogenic activities, atmospheric transport/ wet deposition, microbial activities and surface soil characteristics play their significant roles in elevating both As and F in the city's groundwater.

Keywords: Lahore, arsenic, fluoride, groundwater

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5 Turkey in Minds: Cognitive and Social Representation of "East" and "West"

Authors: Feyzan Tuzkaya, Nihan S. Soylu, Caglar Solak, Mehmet Peker, Hilal Peker, Kemal Ozeralp, Ceren Mete, Ezgi Mehmetoglu, Mehmet Karasu, Cihan Elci, Ece Akca, Melek Goregenli

Abstract:

Perception, evaluation and representation of the environment have been the subject of many disciplines including psychology, geography and architecture. In environmental and social psychology literature there are several evidences which suggest that cognitive representations about a place consisted of not only geographic items but also social and cultural. Mental representations of residence area or a country is influenced and determined by social-demographics, the physical and social context. Thus, all mental representations of a given place are also social representations. Cognitive maps are the main and common instruments that are used to identify spatial images and the difference between physical and subjective environments. The aim of the current study is investigating the mental and social representations of Turkey in university students’ minds. Data was collected from 249 university students from different departments (i.e. psychology, geography, history, tourism departments) of Ege University. Participants were requested to reflect Turkey in their mind onto the paper drawing sketch maps. According to the results, cognitive maps showed geographic aspects of Turkey as well as the context of symbolic, cultural and political reality of Turkey. That is to say, these maps had many symbolic and verbal items related to critics on social and cultural problems, ongoing ethnic and political conflicts, and actual political agenda of Turkey. Additionally, one of main differentiations in these representations appeared in terms of the East and West side of the Turkey, and the representations of the East and West was varied correspondingly participants’ cultural background, their ethnic values, and where they have born. The results of the study were discussed in environmental and social psychological perspective considering cultural and social values of Turkey and current political circumstances of the country.

Keywords: cognitive maps, East, West, politics, social representations, Turkey

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4 Effects of Different Food Matrices on Viscosity and Protein Degradation during in vitro Digestion

Authors: Gulay Oncu Ince, Sibel Karakaya

Abstract:

Food is a worldwide concern. Among the factors that have influences on human health, food, nutrition and life style have been regarded as the most important factors since they can be intervened. While some parts of the world has been faced with food shortages and hence, chronic metabolic diseases, the other part of the world have been emerged from over consumption of food. Both situations can result in shorter life expectancy and represent a major global health problem. Hunger, satiety and appetite sensation form a balance ensures the operation of feeding behavior between food intake and energy consumption. Satiety is one of the approaches that is effective in ensuring weight control and avoid eating more in the postprandial period. By manipulating the microstructure of food macro and micronutrient bioavailability may be increased or reduced. For the food industry appearance, texture, taste structural properties as well as the gastrointestinal tract behavior of the food after the consumption is becoming increasingly important. Also, this behavior has been the subject of several researches in recent years by the scientific community. Numerous studies have been published about changing the food matrix in order to increase expected impacts. In this study, yogurts were enriched with caseinomacropeptide (CMP), whey protein (WP), CMP and sodium alginate (SA), and WP + SA in order to produce goat yogurts having different food matrices. SDS Page profiles of the samples after in vitro digestion and viscosities of the stomach digesta at different share rates were determined. Energy values were 62.11kcal/100 g, 70.27 kcal/100 g, 70.61 kcal/100 g, 71.20 kcal/100 g and 71.67 kcal/100 g for control, CMP added WP added, WP + SA added, and CMP + SA added yogurts respectively. The results of viscosity analysis showed that control yogurt had the lowest viscosity value and this was followed by CMP added, WP added, CMP + SA added and WP + SA added yogurts, respectively. Protein contents of the stomach and duedonal digests of the samples after subjected to two different in vitro digestion methods were changed between 5.34-5.91 mg protein / g sample and 16.93-19.75 mg protein /g of sample, respectively. Viscosity measurements of the stomach digests showed that CMP + SA added yogurt displayed the highest viscosity value in both in vitro digestion methods. There were differences between the protein profiles of the stomach and duedonal digests obtained by two different in vitro digestion methods (p<0.05).

Keywords: caseinomacropeptide, protein profile, whey protein, yogurt

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3 Cultural Routes: A Study of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs

Authors: Zeynep İnan Ocak, Gülsün Tanyeli

Abstract:

One of the most important architectural types of Islamic architecture is madrasah used as educational institutions, hospital or observatory. This type of buildings has one or two storeys, central open or closed courtyards, four iwans and students cells located among the iwans. The main characteristic of the designs featured in the portals. The Islamic art features and adornments are seen well on these buildings made of stone. The earliest examples date to late 12th century in Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Under the Seljuks rule over the one thousand facilities were built in 12th and 13th centuries and there are one hundred thirty five madrasah in total list. But today no all of them are conserved only forty percent are remained. The Seljuks madrasah located in many Anatolian were registered as immovable cultural property in several times by Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry. The first Turkish buildings inscribed on the World Heritage List are the Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği in 1985. Also the nominated site named as Anatolian Seljuks Madrasah is in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage in 2014. The property is composed some of notable madrasah such as İnce Minareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah in Konya; Çifte Madrasah and Sahibiye Madrasah in Kayseri; Buruciye Madrasah, Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Gök Madrasah in Sivas; Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Yakutiye Madrasah in Erzurum; Cacabey Madrasah in Kirşehir. Certainly the advantage of tourism is important for conducting the preservation of heritage. It offers much kind of cultural heritage products by means of visiting monuments. In spite of advantage of tourism, it can be the negative effects of tourism on sites and places of cultural significance. While assisting and guiding the conservation works of madrasah, it should be get reference to international charters and other doctrinal texts about the relation between heritage and tourism. Thereby the monuments will be conserved in good condition promoting by tourism. It should be plan a project about the correlation of visitors and heritage to focus on theme of Seljuks architecture. This study aims to set out the principles about the conservation of madrasah as world heritage taking advantages of tourism. The madrasah as a heritage should be evaluated not only a monument but also cultural route. So the cultural route for madrasah is determined by means of a journey through space and time, how the heritage of the different Anatolian cities. Also the cultural route is created visiting both the madrasah and the other medieval structures. In this study, the route, the principles, relation of tourism are represented considering the conservation of Seljuks madrasah.

Keywords: architectural heritage, cultural routes, Seljuks madrasah, Anatolia

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2 Vision and Challenges of Developing VR-Based Digital Anatomy Learning Platforms and a Solution Set for 3D Model Marking

Authors: Gizem Kayar, Ramazan Bakir, M. Ilkay Koşar, Ceren U. Gencer, Alperen Ayyildiz

Abstract:

Anatomy classes are crucial for general education of medical students, whereas learning anatomy is quite challenging and requires memorization of thousands of structures. In traditional teaching methods, learning materials are still based on books, anatomy mannequins, or videos. This results in forgetting many important structures after several years. However, more interactive teaching methods like virtual reality, augmented reality, gamification, and motion sensors are becoming more popular since such methods ease the way we learn and keep the data in mind for longer terms. During our study, we designed a virtual reality based digital head anatomy platform to investigate whether a fully interactive anatomy platform is effective to learn anatomy and to understand the level of teaching and learning optimization. The Head is one of the most complicated human anatomy structures, with thousands of tiny, unique structures. This makes the head anatomy one of the most difficult parts to understand during class sessions. Therefore, we developed a fully interactive digital tool with 3D model marking, quiz structures, 2D/3D puzzle structures, and VR support so as to integrate the power of VR and gamification. The project has been developed in Unity game engine with HTC Vive Cosmos VR headset. The head anatomy 3D model has been selected with full skeletal, muscular, integumentary, head, teeth, lymph, and vein system. The biggest issue during the development was the complexity of our model and the marking of it in the 3D world system. 3D model marking requires to access to each unique structure in the counted subsystems which means hundreds of marking needs to be done. Some parts of our 3D head model were monolithic. This is why we worked on dividing such parts to subparts which is very time-consuming. In order to subdivide monolithic parts, one must use an external modeling tool. However, such tools generally come with high learning curves, and seamless division is not ensured. Second option was to integrate tiny colliders to all unique items for mouse interaction. However, outside colliders which cover inner trigger colliders cause overlapping, and these colliders repel each other. Third option is using raycasting. However, due to its own view-based nature, raycasting has some inherent problems. As the model rotate, view direction changes very frequently, and directional computations become even harder. This is why, finally, we studied on the local coordinate system. By taking the pivot point of the model into consideration (back of the nose), each sub-structure is marked with its own local coordinate with respect to the pivot. After converting the mouse position to the world position and checking its relation with the corresponding structure’s local coordinate, we were able to mark all points correctly. The advantage of this method is its applicability and accuracy for all types of monolithic anatomical structures.

Keywords: anatomy, e-learning, virtual reality, 3D model marking

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1 The Role of Time-Dependent Treatment of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Endogenous Phytohormone Levels under Salinity Stress

Authors: Hülya Torun, Ondřej Novák, Jaromír Mikulík, Miroslav Strnad, Faik A. Ayaz

Abstract:

World climate is changing. Millions of people in the world still face chronic undernourishment for conducting a healthy life and the world’s population is growing steadily. To meet this growing demand, agriculture and food systems must adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and become more resilient, productive and sustainable. From this perspective, to determine tolerant cultivars for undesirable environmental conditions will be necessary food production for sustainable development. Among abiotic stresses, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental global fact restricting plant sources. Development of salt-tolerant lines is required in order to increase the crop productivity and quality in salt-treated lands. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of barley cultivars accessions to salinity stress by NaCl. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the crosstalk between some endogenous phytohormones and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in two different vegetative parts (leaves and roots) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poaceae; 2n=14; Ince-04) which is detected salt-tolerant. The effects of SA on growth parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC), endogenous phytohormones; including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene were investigated in barley cultivars under salinity stress. SA was applied to 17-day-old seedlings of barley in two different ways including before (pre-treated for 24 h) and simultaneously with NaCl stress treatment. NaCl (0, 150, 300 mM) exposure in the hydrophonic system was associated with a rapid decrease in growth parameters and RWC, which is an indicator of plant water status, resulted in a strong up-regulation of ABA as a stress indicator. Roots were more dramatically affected than leaves. Water conservation in 150 mM NaCl treated-barley plants did not change, but decreased in 300 mM NaCl treated plants. Pre- and simultaneously treatment of SA did not significantly alter growth parameters and RWC. ABA, JA and ethylene are known to be related with stress. In the present work, ethylene also increased, similarly to ABA, but not with the same intensity. While ABA and ethylene increased by the increment of salt concentrations, JA levels rapidly decreased especially in roots. Both pre- and simultaneously SA applications alleviated salt-induced decreases in 300 mM NaCl resulted in the increment of ABA levels. CKs and IAA are related to cell growth and development. At high salinity (300 mM NaCl), CKs (cZ+cZR) contents increased in both vegetative organs while IAA levels stayed at the same level with control groups. However, IAA increased and cZ+cZR rapidly decreased in leaves of barley plants with SA treatments before salt applications (in pre- SA treated groups). Simultaneously application of SA decreased CKs levels in both leaves and roots of the cultivar. Due to increasing concentrations of NaCl in association with decreasing ABA, JA and ethylene content and increments in CKs and IAA were recorded with SA treatments. As results of the study, in view of all the phytohormones that we tested, exogenous SA induced greater tolerance to salinity particularly when applied before salinity stress.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare, phytohormones, salicylic acid, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 163