Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17013

Search results for: modified Navier method

17013 An Analytical Method for Bending Rectangular Plates with All Edges Clamped Supported

Authors: Yang Zhong, Heng Liu

Abstract:

The decoupling method and the modified Naiver method are combined for accurate bending analysis of rectangular thick plates with all edges clamped supported. The basic governing equations for Mindlin plates are first decoupled into independent partial differential equations which can be solved separately. Using modified Navier method, the analytic solution of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped supported is then derived. The solution method used in this paper leave out the complicated derivation for calculating coefficients and obtain the solution to problems directly. Numerical comparisons show the correctness and accuracy of the results at last.

Keywords: Mindlin plates, decoupling method, modified Navier method, bending rectangular plates

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17012 An Analytical Approach of Computational Complexity for the Method of Multifluid Modelling

Authors: A. K. Borah, A. K. Singh

Abstract:

In this paper we deal building blocks of the computer simulation of the multiphase flows. Whole simulation procedure can be viewed as two super procedures; The implementation of VOF method and the solution of Navier Stoke’s Equation. Moreover, a sequential code for a Navier Stoke’s solver has been studied.

Keywords: Bi-conjugate gradient stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB), ILUT function, krylov subspace, multifluid flows preconditioner, simple algorithm

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17011 Numerical Solutions of Generalized Burger-Fisher Equation by Modified Variational Iteration Method

Authors: M. O. Olayiwola

Abstract:

Numerical solutions of the generalized Burger-Fisher are obtained using a Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) with minimal computational efforts. The computed results with this technique have been compared with other results. The present method is seen to be a very reliable alternative method to some existing techniques for such nonlinear problems.

Keywords: burger-fisher, modified variational iteration method, lagrange multiplier, Taylor’s series, partial differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
17010 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

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17009 Modified Approximation Methods for Finding an Optimal Solution for the Transportation Problem

Authors: N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

This paper presents a modification of approximation method for transportation problems. The initial basic feasible solution can be computed using either Russel's or Vogel's approximation methods. Russell’s approximation method provides another excellent criterion that is still quick to implement on a computer (not manually) In most cases Russel's method yields a better initial solution, though it takes longer than Vogel's method (finding the next entering variable in Russel's method is in O(n1*n2), and in O(n1+n2) for Vogel's method). However, Russel's method normally has a lesser total running time because less pivots are required to reach the optimum for all but small problem sizes (n1+n2=~20). With this motivation behind we have incorporated a variation of the same – what we have proposed it has TMC (Total Modified Cost) to obtain fast and efficient solutions.

Keywords: computation, efficiency, modified cost, Russell’s approximation method, transportation, Vogel’s approximation method

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17008 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac

Abstract:

A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method

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17007 Buckling Analysis of 2D Frames Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method of buckling analysis frame considering the effect of the axial load. The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. In this method, stiffness matrix of the structure is considered to be constant. The most important advantage of such a method is that it obtains both upper and lower critical loads. The advanced of the present method is fast convergence, ability to use computer simulations, and ability to model structures with semi-rigid support conditions using linear and rotational spring.

Keywords: buckling, stability, frame, modified newmark method

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17006 Application of a Modified Crank-Nicolson Method in Metallurgy

Authors: Kobamelo Mashaba

Abstract:

The molten slag has a high substantial temperatures range between 1723-1923, carrying a huge amount of useful energy for reducing energy consumption and CO₂ emissions under the heat recovery process. Therefore in this study, we investigated the performance of the modified crank Nicolson method for a delayed partial differential equation on the heat recovery of molten slag in the metallurgical mining environment. It was proved that the proposed method converges quickly compared to the classic method with the existence of a unique solution. It was inferred from numerical result that the proposed methodology is more viable and profitable for the mining industry.

Keywords: delayed partial differential equation, modified Crank-Nicolson Method, molten slag, heat recovery, parabolic equation

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17005 Stability of Composite Struts Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the behavior of elastic stability of reinforced and composite concrete struts with axial loads. The objective of this study is to verify the ability of the Modified Newmark Method to include geometric non-linearity in addition to non-linearity due to cracking, and also to show the advantage of the established method to reconsider an ignored minor parameter in mathematical modeling, such as the effect of the cracking by extra geometric bending moment Ny on cross-section properties. The purpose of this investigation is not to present some new results for the instability of reinforced or composite concrete columns. Therefore, no kinds of non-linearity involved in the problem are considered here. Only as mentioned, it is a part of the verification of the new established method to solve two kinds of non-linearity P- δ effect and cracking together simultaneously. However, the Modified Newmark Method can be used to solve non-linearity of materials and time-dependent behavior of concrete. However, since it is out of the scope of this article, it is not considered.

Keywords: stability, buckling, modified newmark method, reinforced

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17004 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif

Abstract:

Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology

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17003 Efficient Numerical Simulation for LDC

Authors: Badr Alkahtani

Abstract:

In this poster, numerical solutions of two-dimensional and three-dimensional lid driven cavity are presented by solving the steady Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds numbers where it becomes difficult. Lid driven cavity is where the a fluid contained in a cube and the upper wall is moving. In two dimensions, we use the streamfunction-vorticity formulation to solve the problem in a square domain. A numerical method is employed to discretize the problem in the x and y directions with a spectral collocation method. The problem is coded in the MATLAB programming environment. Solutions at high Reynolds numbers are obtained up to Re=20000 on a fine grid of 131 * 131. Also in this presentation, the numerical solutions for the three-dimensional lid-driven cavity problem are obtained by solving the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations (which is the first time that this has been simulated with special boundary conditions) for various Reynolds numbers. A spectral collocation method is employed to discretize the y and z directions and a finite difference method is used to discretize the x direction. Numerical solutions are obtained for Reynolds number up to 200. , The work prepared here is to show the efficiency of methods used to simulate the physical problem where accurate simulations of lid driven cavity are obtained at high Reynolds number as mentioned above. The result for the two dimensional problem is far from the previous researcher result.

Keywords: lid driven cavity, navier-stokes, simulation, Reynolds number

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17002 Collocation Method Using Quartic B-Splines for Solving the Modified RLW Equation

Authors: A. A. Soliman

Abstract:

The Modified Regularized Long Wave (MRLW) equation is solved numerically by giving a new algorithm based on collocation method using quartic B-splines at the mid-knot points as element shape. Also, we use the fourth Runge-Kutta method for solving the system of first order ordinary differential equations instead of finite difference method. Our test problems, including the migration and interaction of solitary waves, are used to validate the algorithm which is found to be accurate and efficient. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the algorithm. The temporal evaluation of a Maxwellian initial pulse is then studied.

Keywords: collocation method, MRLW equation, Quartic B-splines, solitons

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17001 Asymptotic Analysis of the Viscous Flow through a Pipe and the Derivation of the Darcy-Weisbach Law

Authors: Eduard Marusic-Paloka

Abstract:

The Darcy-Weisbach formula is used to compute the pressure drop of the fluid in the pipe, due to the friction against the wall. Because of its simplicity, the Darcy-Weisbach formula became widely accepted by engineers and is used for laminar as well as the turbulent flows through pipes, once the method to compute the mysterious friction coefficient was derived. Particularly in the second half of the 20th century. Formula is empiric, and our goal is to derive it from the basic conservation law, via rigorous asymptotic analysis. We consider the case of the laminar flow but with significant Reynolds number. In case of the perfectly smooth pipe, the situation is trivial, as the Navier-Stokes system can be solved explicitly via the Poiseuille formula leading to the friction coefficient in the form 64/Re. For the rough pipe, the situation is more complicated and some effects of the roughness appear in the friction coefficient. We start from the Navier-Stokes system in the pipe with periodically corrugated wall and derive an asymptotic expansion for the pressure and for the velocity. We use the homogenization techniques and the boundary layer analysis. The approximation derived by formal analysis is then justified by rigorous error estimate in the norm of the appropriate Sobolev space, using the energy formulation and classical a priori estimates for the Navier-Stokes system. Our method leads to the formula for the friction coefficient. The formula involves resolution of the appropriate boundary layer problems, namely the boundary value problems for the Stokes system in an infinite band, that needs to be done numerically. However, theoretical analysis characterising their nature can be done without solving them.

Keywords: Darcy-Weisbach law, pipe flow, rough boundary, Navier law

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17000 On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid

Authors: A. Giniatoulline

Abstract:

A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.

Keywords: Galerkin method, Navier-Stokes equations, nonlinear partial differential equations, Sobolev spaces, stratified fluid

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16999 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman

Abstract:

Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: steepest descent, line search, iteration, running time, unconstrained optimization, convergence

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16998 Modification Encryption Time and Permutation in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Authors: Dalal N. Hammod, Ekhlas K. Gbashi

Abstract:

Today, cryptography is used in many applications to achieve high security in data transmission and in real-time communications. AES has long gained global acceptance and is used for securing sensitive data in various industries but has suffered from slow processing and take a large time to transfer data. This paper suggests a method to enhance Advance Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on time and permutation. The suggested method (MAES) is based on modifying the SubByte and ShiftRrows in the encryption part and modification the InvSubByte and InvShiftRows in the decryption part. After the implementation of the proposal and testing the results, the Modified AES achieved good results in accomplishing the communication with high performance criteria in terms of randomness, encryption time, storage space, and avalanche effects. The proposed method has good randomness to ciphertext because this method passed NIST statistical tests against attacks; also, (MAES) reduced the encryption time by (10 %) than the time of the original AES; therefore, the modified AES is faster than the original AES. Also, the proposed method showed good results in memory utilization where the value is (54.36) for the MAES, but the value for the original AES is (66.23). Also, the avalanche effects used for calculating diffusion property are (52.08%) for the modified AES and (51.82%) percentage for the original AES.

Keywords: modified AES, randomness test, encryption time, avalanche effects

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16997 A New Computational Method for the Solution of Nonlinear Burgers' Equation Arising in Longitudinal Dispersion Phenomena in Fluid Flow through Porous Media

Authors: Olayiwola Moruf Oyedunsi

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) for the solution of nonlinear Burgers’ equation arising in longitudinal dispersion phenomena in fluid flow through porous media. The method is an elegant combination of Taylor’s series and the variational iteration method (VIM). Using Maple 18 for implementation, it is observed that the procedure provides rapidly convergent approximation with less computational efforts. The result shows that the concentration C(x,t) of the contaminated water decreases as distance x increases for the given time t.

Keywords: modified variational iteration method, Burger’s equation, porous media, partial differential equation

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16996 Second Order Analysis of Frames Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method as a method of non-linear frame analysis by considering the effect of the axial load (second order analysis). The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. This part of the investigation is performed to generalize the established method for the assemblage structures such as frameworks. As explained, the governing differential equations are non-linear and cannot be formulated easily due to unknown axial load of the struts in the frame. By the assumption of constant axial load, the governing equations are changed to linear ones in most methods. Since the modeling and the solutions of the non-linear form of the governing equations are cumbersome, the linear form of the equations would be used in the established method. However, according to the ability of the method to reconsider the minor omitted parameters in modeling during the solution procedure, the axial load in the elements at each stage of the iteration can be computed and applied in the next stage. Therefore, the ability of the method to present an accurate approach to the solutions of non-linear equations will be demonstrated again in this paper.

Keywords: nonlinear, stability, buckling, modified newmark method

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16995 Methodological Aspect of Emergy Accounting in Co-Production Branching Systems

Authors: Keshab Shrestha, Hung-Suck Park

Abstract:

Emergy accounting of the systems networks is guided by a definite rule called ‘emergy algebra’. The systems networks consist of two types of branching. These are the co-product branching and split branching. The emergy accounting procedure for both the branching types is different. According to the emergy algebra, each branch in the co-product branching has different transformity values whereas the split branching has the same transformity value. After the transformity value of each branch is determined, the emergy is calculated by multiplying this with the energy. The aim of this research is to solve the problems in determining the transformity values in the co-product branching through the introduction of a new methodology, the modified physical quantity method. Initially, the existing methodologies for emergy accounting in the co-product branching is discussed and later, the modified physical quantity method is introduced with a case study of the Eucalyptus pulp production. The existing emergy accounting methodologies in the co-product branching has wrong interpretations with incorrect emergy calculations. The modified physical quantity method solves those problems of emergy accounting in the co-product branching systems. The transformity value calculated for each branch is different and also applicable in the emergy calculations. The methodology also strictly follows the emergy algebra rules. This new modified physical quantity methodology is a valid approach in emergy accounting particularly in the multi-production systems networks.

Keywords: co-product branching, emergy accounting, emergy algebra, modified physical quantity method, transformity value

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16994 The Different Roles between Sodium and Potassium Ions in Ion Exchange of WO3/SiO2 Catalysts

Authors: Kritsada Pipitthapan

Abstract:

WO3/SiO2 catalysts were modified by an ion exchange method with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. The performance of the modified catalysts was tested in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene to propylene. During ion exchange, sodium and potassium ions played different roles. Sodium modified catalysts revealed constant trans-2-butene conversion and propylene selectivity when the concentrations of sodium in the solution were varied. In contrast, potassium modified catalysts showed reduction of the conversion and increase of the selectivity. From these results, potassium hydroxide may affect the transformation of tungsten oxide active species, resulting in the decrease in conversion whereas sodium hydroxide did not. Moreover, the modification of catalysts by this method improved the catalyst stability by lowering the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface.

Keywords: acid sites, alkali metal, isomerization, metathesis

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16993 Time-Domain Expressions for Bridge Self-Excited Aerodynamic Forces by Modified Particle Swarm Optimizer

Authors: Hao-Su Liu, Jun-Qing Lei

Abstract:

This study introduces the theory of modified particle swarm optimizer and its application in time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces. Based on the indicial function expression and the rational function expression in time-domain expression for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, the characteristics of the two methods, i.e. the modified particle swarm optimizer and conventional search method, are compared in flutter derivatives’ fitting process. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that adopting whether the indicial function expression or the rational function expression, the fitting flutter derivatives obtained by modified particle swarm optimizer have better goodness of fit with ones obtained from experiment. As to the flutter derivatives which have higher nonlinearity, the self-excited aerodynamic forces, using the flutter derivatives obtained through modified particle swarm optimizer fitting process, are much closer to the ones simulated by the experimental. The modified particle swarm optimizer was used to recognize the parameters of time-domain expressions for flutter derivatives of an actual long-span highway-railway truss bridge with double decks at the wind attack angle of 0°, -3° and +3°. It was found that this method could solve the bounded problems of attenuation coefficient effectively in conventional search method, and had the ability of searching in unboundedly area. Accordingly, this study provides a method for engineering industry to frequently and efficiently obtain the time-domain expressions for bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces.

Keywords: time-domain expressions, bridge self-excited aerodynamic forces, modified particle swarm optimizer, long-span highway-railway truss bridge

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16992 Modified Newton's Iterative Method for Solving System of Nonlinear Equations in Two Variables

Authors: Sara Mahesar, Saleem M. Chandio, Hira Soomro

Abstract:

Nonlinear system of equations in two variables is a system which contains variables of degree greater or equal to two or that comprises of the transcendental functions. Mathematical modeling of numerous physical problems occurs as a system of nonlinear equations. In applied and pure mathematics it is the main dispute to solve a system of nonlinear equations. Numerical techniques mainly used for finding the solution to problems where analytical methods are failed, which leads to the inexact solutions. To find the exact roots or solutions in case of the system of non-linear equations there does not exist any analytical technique. Various methods have been proposed to solve such systems with an improved rate of convergence and accuracy. In this paper, a new scheme is developed for solving system of non-linear equation in two variables. The iterative scheme proposed here is modified form of the conventional Newton’s Method (CN) whose order of convergence is two whereas the order of convergence of the devised technique is three. Furthermore, the detailed error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is also examined. Additionally, various numerical test problems are compared with the results of its counterpart conventional Newton’s Method (CN) which confirms the theoretic consequences of the proposed method.

Keywords: conventional Newton’s method, modified Newton’s method, order of convergence, system of nonlinear equations

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16991 Further Results on Modified Variational Iteration Method for the Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Advection Equations

Authors: A. W. Gbolagade, M. O. Olayiwola, K. O. Kareem

Abstract:

In this paper, further to our result on recent paper on the solution of nonlinear advection equations, we present further results on the nonlinear nonhomogeneous advection equations using a modified variational iteration method.

Keywords: lagrange multiplier, non-homogeneous equations, advection equations, mathematics

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16990 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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16989 Investigating Elastica and Post Buckling Behavior Columns Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the finite displacement of Columns by applying the Modified Newmark Method. This research will be performed on Columns subjected to compressive axial load, therefore the non-linearity of the geometry is also considered. If the considered strut is perfect, the governing differential equation contains a branching point in the solution path. Investigation into the Elastica is a part of generalizing the developed method. It presents the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in treating non-linear differential equations Derived from elastic strut stability problems. These include not only an approximate polynomial solution for the Elastica problems, but can also recognize the branching point and the stable solution. However, this investigation deals with the post-buckling response of elastic and pin ended columns subjected to central or equally eccentric axial loads.

Keywords: columns, structural modeling, structures & structural stability, loads

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16988 Aerogel Fabrication Via Modified Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) Process - Needle Valve Pressure Release

Authors: Haibo Zhao, Thomas Andre, Katherine Avery, Alper Kiziltas, Deborah Mielewski

Abstract:

Silica aerogels were fabricated through a modified rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) process. The silica aerogels were made using a tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor and then placed in a hot press and brought to the supercritical point of the solvent, ethanol. In order to control the pressure release without a pressure controller, a needle valve was used. The resulting aerogels were then characterized for their physical and chemical properties and compared to silica aerogels created using similar methods. The aerogels fabricated using this modified RSCE method were found to have similar properties to those in other papers using the unmodified RSCE method. Silica aerogel infused glass blanket composite, graphene reinforced silica aerogel composite were also successfully fabricated by this new method. The modified RSCE process and system is a prototype for better gas outflow control with a lower cost of equipment setup. Potentially, this process could be evolved to a continuous low-cost high-volume production process to meet automotive requirements.

Keywords: aerogel, automotive, rapid supercritical extraction process, low cost production

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16987 Zinc Oxid Nanotubes Modified by SiO2 as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-Ones

Authors: Rakhshan Hakimelahi

Abstract:

In recent years, zinc oxid nano tubes have attracted much attention. The direct use of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 as recoverable catalysts for organic reactions is very rare. The catalysts were characterized by XRD. The average particle size of ZnO catalysts is 57 nm and there are high density defects on nano tubes surfaces. A simple and efficient method for the quinazolin derivatives synthesis from the condensation isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is described. The reason proposed for higher catalytic activity of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is a combination effect of the small particle size and high-density surface defects. The practical and simple method led to excellent yields of the 2,3-Di hydro quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives under mild conditions and within short times.

Keywords: 2, 3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives, reusable catalyst, SiO2, zinc oxid nanotubes

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16986 Symbolic Computation and Abundant Travelling Wave Solutions to Modified Burgers' Equation

Authors: Muhammad Younis

Abstract:

In this article, the novel (G′/G)-expansion method is successfully applied to construct the abundant travelling wave solutions to the modified Burgers’ equation with the aid of computation. The method is reliable and useful, which gives more general exact travelling wave solutions than the existing methods. These obtained solutions are in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions including solitary, singular and periodic solutions which have many potential applications in physical science and engineering. Some of these solutions are new and some have already been constructed. Additionally, the constraint conditions, for the existence of the solutions are also listed.

Keywords: traveling wave solutions, NLPDE, computation, integrability

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16985 Non–Geometric Sensitivities Using the Adjoint Method

Authors: Marcelo Hayashi, João Lima, Bruno Chieregatti, Ernani Volpe

Abstract:

The adjoint method has been used as a successful tool to obtain sensitivity gradients in aerodynamic design and optimisation for many years. This work presents an alternative approach to the continuous adjoint formulation that enables one to compute gradients of a given measure of merit with respect to control parameters other than those pertaining to geometry. The procedure is then applied to the steady 2–D compressible Euler and incompressible Navier–Stokes flow equations. Finally, the results are compared with sensitivities obtained by finite differences and theoretical values for validation.

Keywords: adjoint method, aerodynamics, sensitivity theory, non-geometric sensitivities

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16984 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, interlaminar shear strength, matrix modification

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