Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12421

Search results for: plasmon effect

12421 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim


In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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12420 Protein Crystallization Induced by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Tetsuo Okutsu


We have developed a crystallization plate with the function of promoting protein crystallization. A gold thin film is deposited on the crystallization plate. A protein solution is dropped thereon, and crystallization is promoted when the protein is irradiated with light of a wavelength that protein does not absorb. Protein is densely adsorbed on the gold thin film surface. The light excites the surface plasmon resonance of the gold thin film, the protein is excited by the generated enhanced electric field induced by surface plasmon resonance, and the amino acid residues are radicalized to produce protein dimers. The dimers function as templates for protein crystals, crystallization is promoted.

Keywords: lysozyme, plasmon, protein, crystallization, RNaseA

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12419 Modulating Plasmon Induced Transparency in Terahertz Metamaterials

Authors: Gagan Kumar, Koijam M. Devi, Amarendra K. Sarma, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury


Research in metamaterials has been gaining momentum over the past decade owing to its ability in controlling electromagnetic wave properties through careful design at the sub-wavelength scale. The metamaterials have led to several important phenomena which are useful in a variety of applications. One such phenomenon is the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in which a narrow transparency region is created in an otherwise absorptive spectrum. In our work, we explore plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in terahertz metamaterials which is analogues to EIT effect. The PIT effect is achieved using the plasmonic metamaterials in which a unit cell is comprised of two C (2C) shaped resonators and a cut-wire (CW). When terahertz wave of a particular polarization is normally incident on the proposed metamaterials geometry, it strongly couples with the cut wire, resulting in the excitation of the bright mode. However due to the specific polarization of the incident beam, the fundamental modes of the C-shaped resonators are not excited by the incident terahertz, hence they are termed as the dark mode. The PIT effect occurs as a result of interference between the bright and the dark mode. In order to observe PIT effect, both the bright and dark modes should have similar resonant frequencies with a little deviation. We further have examined that the PIT window can be modulated by displacing the C-shaped resonators w.r.t. the cut-wire. The numerical observations for different coupling configurations can be explained through an equivalent lumped element circuit model. Moving ahead the PIT effect is further explored in a metamaterial comprising of a cross like structure and four C-shaped resonators. For such configuration, equally strong PIT effect is observed for two orthogonally polarized lights. Therefore, such metamaterials demonstrate a polarization independent PIT response w.r.t the incident terahertz radiation. The proposed study could be significant in the development of slow light devices and polarization independent sensing applications.

Keywords: terahertz, metamaterial, split ring resonator, plasmon

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
12418 Efficiency Enhancement of Blue OLED by Incorporating Ag Nanoplate Layers

Authors: So-Jeong Kim, Nak-Kwan Chung, Jintae Kim, Juyoung Yun


The metal nanoplates are potentially used for electroluminescence enhancement of OLEDs owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance. In our study, enhanced electroluminescence in blue organic light-emitting diodes is demonstrated by incorporating silver nanoplates into poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid. To have surface plasmon resonance absorption peak matching with photoluminescent (PL) peak of blue, Ag nanoplates with triangular shape are used in this study. Finally, about 30 % enhancement in electroluminescence intensity and current efficiency for blue emission devices is obtained via Ag nanoplates.

Keywords: efficiency enhancement, nanoplate, OLED, surface plasmon resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
12417 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon

Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi


We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, localized surface plasmon, quantum dipole emitter, relaxation dynamics

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12416 Dipole and Quadrupole Scattering of Ultra Short Pulses on Metal Nanospheres

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko


The presentation is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) scattering on metallic nanospheres in a dielectric medium in the vicinity of surface plasmon resonance due to excitation of dipole and quadrupole surface plasmons.

Keywords: surface plasmon, scattering, metallic nanosphere

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12415 One Dimensional Magneto-Plasmonic Structure Based On Metallic Nano-Grating

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Zamani


Magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have turned into essential tools for the amplification of magneto-optical (MO) responses via the combination of MO activity and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the SPR of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the wave vector of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in MP multilayer [1] or enhanced the MO activity [2- 3] and also modified the sensor responses [4]. There are several types of MP structures which are studied to enhance MO response in miniaturized configuration. In this paper, we propose a new MP structure based on the nano-metal grating and we investigate the MO and optical properties of this new structure. Our new MP structure fabricate by DC magnetron sputtering method and our home made MO experimental setup use for characterization of the structure.

Keywords: Magneto-plasmonic structures, magneto-optical effect, nano-garting

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
12414 Optical Breather in Phosphorene Monolayer

Authors: Guram Adamashvili


Surface plasmon polariton is a surface optical wave which undergoes a strong enhancement and spatial confinement of its wave amplitude near an interface of two-dimensional layered structures. Phosphorene (single-layer black phosphorus) and other two-dimensional anisotropic phosphorene-like materials are recognized as promising materials for potential future applications of surface plasmon polariton. A theory of an optical breather of self-induced transparency for surface plasmon polariton propagating in monolayer or few-layer phosphorene is developed. A theory of an optical soliton of self-induced transparency for surface plasmon polariton propagating in monolayer or few-layer phosphorene have been investigated earlier Starting from the optical nonlinear wave equation for surface TM-modes interacting with a two-dimensional layer of atomic systems or semiconductor quantum dots and a phosphorene monolayer (or other two-dimensional anisotropic material), we have obtained the evolution equations for the electric field of the breather. In this case, one finds that the evolution of these pulses become described by the damped Bloch-Maxwell equations. For surface plasmon polariton fields, breathers are found to occur. Explicit relations of the dependence of breathers on the local media, phosphorene anisotropic conductivity, transition layer properties and transverse structures of the SPP, are obtained and will be given. It is shown that the phosphorene conductivity reduces exponentially the amplitude of the surface breather of SIT in the process of propagation. The direction of propagation corresponding to the maximum and minimum damping of the amplitude are assigned along the armchair and zigzag directions of black phosphorus nano-film, respectively. The most rapid damping of the intensity occurs when the polarization of breather is along the armchair direction.

Keywords: breathers, nonlinear waves, solitons, surface plasmon polaritons

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12413 Quantitative Evaluation of Efficiency of Surface Plasmon Excitation with Grating-Assisted Metallic Nanoantenna

Authors: Almaz R. Gazizov, Sergey S. Kharintsev, Myakzyum Kh. Salakhov


This work deals with background signal suppression in tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM). The background appears because an optical signal is detected not only from the subwavelength area beneath the tip but also from a wider diffraction-limited area of laser’s waist that might contain another substance. The background can be reduced by using a taper probe with a grating on its lateral surface where an external illumination causes surface plasmon excitation. It requires the grating with parameters perfectly matched with a given incident light for effective light coupling. This work is devoted to an analysis of the light-grating coupling and a quest of grating parameters to enhance a near-field light beneath the tip apex. The aim of this work is to find the figure of merit of plasmon excitation depending on grating period and location of grating in respect to the apex. In our consideration the metallic grating on the lateral surface of the tapered plasmonic probe is illuminated by a plane wave, the electric field is perpendicular to the sample surface. Theoretical model of efficiency of plasmon excitation and propagation toward the apex is tested by fdtd-based numerical simulation. An electric field of the incident light is enhanced on the grating by every single slit due to lightning rod effect. Hence, grating causes amplitude and phase modulation of the incident field in various ways depending on geometry and material of grating. The phase-modulating grating on the probe is a sort of metasurface that provides manipulation by spatial frequencies of the incident field. The spatial frequency-dependent electric field is found from the angular spectrum decomposition. If one of the components satisfies the phase-matching condition then one can readily calculate the figure of merit of plasmon excitation, defined as a ratio of the intensities of the surface mode and the incident light. During propagation towards the apex, surface wave undergoes losses in probe material, radiation losses, and mode compression. There is an optimal location of the grating in respect to the apex. One finds the value by matching quadratic law of mode compression and the exponential law of light extinction. Finally, performed theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of plasmon excitation demonstrate that various surface waves can be effectively excited by using the overtones of a period of the grating or by phase modulation of the incident field. The gratings with such periods are easy to fabricate. Tapered probe with the grating effectively enhances and localizes the incident field at the sample.

Keywords: angular spectrum decomposition, efficiency, grating, surface plasmon, taper nanoantenna

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12412 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian


Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
12411 Reflection Phase Tuning of Graphene Plasmons by Substrate Design

Authors: Xiaojie Jiang, Wei Cai, Yinxiao Xiang, Ni Zhang, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Jingjun Xu


Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides another way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides a new way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.

Keywords: graphene plasmons, reflection phase tuning, plasmon mode tuning, Fabry-Perot cavity

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12410 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi


A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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12409 Silver Grating for Strong and Reproducible SERS Response

Authors: Y. Kalachyova, O. Lyutakov, V. Svorcik


One of the most significant obstacles for the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is the poor reproducibility of SERS active substrates: SERS intensity can be varied from one substrate to another and moreover along the one substrate surface. High enhancement of the near-field intensity is the key factor for ultrasensitive SERS realization. SERS substrate can be prepared through introduction of highly ordered metal array, where light focusing is achieved through excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs). In this work, we report the preparation of silver nanostructures with plasmon absorption peaks tuned by the metal arrangement. Excimer laser modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) followed by silver evaporation is proposed as an effective way for the creation of reproducible and effective surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP)-based SERS substrate. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to optimize structure parameter for effective SPP excitation. It was found that the narrow range of grating periodicity and metal thickness exist, where SPPs can be most efficiently excited. In spite of the fact, that SERS response was almost always achieved, the enhancement factor was found to vary more with the effectivity of SPP excitation. When the real structure parameters were set to optimal for SPP excitation, a SERS enhancement factor was achieved up to four times. Theoretical and experimental investigation of SPP excitation on the two-dimensional periodical silver array was performed with the aim to make SERS response as high as possible.

Keywords: grating, nanostructures, plasmon-polaritons, SERS

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12408 Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Raghuwanshi, Yadvendra Singh


The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, fibre Bragg grating, sensitivity, toxic gases, MATRIX method

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
12407 Development of New Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Interfaces Based on ITO Au NPs/ Polymer for Nickel Detection

Authors: F. Z. Tighilt, N. Belhaneche-Bensemra, S. Belhousse, S. Sam, K. Lasmi, N. Gabouze


Recently, the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) became an active multidisciplinary research topic. First, Au thin films fabricated by alkylthiol-functionalized Au NPs were found to have vapor sensitive conductivities, they were hence widely investigated as electrical chemiresistors for sensing different vapor analytes and even organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Second, Au thin films were demonstrated to have speciallocalized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), so that highly ordered 2D Au superlattices showed strong collective LSPR bands due to the near-field coupling of adjacent nanoparticles and were employed to detect biomolecular binding. Particularly when alkylthiol ligands were replaced by thiol-terminated polymers, the resulting polymer-modified Au NPs could be readily assembled into 2D nanostructures on solid substrates. Monolayers of polystyrene-coated Au NPs showed typical dipolar near-field interparticle plasmon coupling of LSPR. Such polymer-modified Au nanoparticle films have an advantage that the polymer thickness can be feasibly controlled by changing the polymer molecular weight. In this article, the effect of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coatings on the plasmonic properties of ITO interfaces modified with gold nanostructures (Au NSs) is investigated. The interest in developing ITO overlayers is multiple. The presence of a con-ducting ITO overlayer creates a LSPR-active interface, which can serve simultaneously as a working electrode in an electro-chemical setup. The surface of ITO/ Au NPs contains hydroxyl groups that can be used to link functional groups to the interface. Here the covalent linking of nickel /Au NSs/ITO hybrid LSPR platforms will be presented.

Keywords: conducting polymer, metal nanoparticles (NPs), LSPR, poly (3-(pyrrolyl)–carboxylic acid), polypyrrole

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12406 Covalently Conjugated Gold–Porphyrin Nanostructures

Authors: L. Spitaleri, C. M. A. Gangemi, R. Purrello, G. Nicotra, G. Trusso Sfrazzetto, G. Casella, M. Casarin, A. Gulino


Hybrid molecular–nanoparticle materials, obtained with a bottom-up approach, are suitable for the fabrication of functional nanostructures showing structural control and well-defined properties, i.e., optical, electronic or catalytic properties, in the perspective of applications in different fields of nanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) exhibit important chemical, electronic and optical properties due to their size, shape and electronic structures. In fact, Au NPs containing no more than 30-40 atoms are only luminescent because they can be considered as large molecules with discrete energy levels, while nano-sized Au NPs only show the surface plasmon resonance. Hence, it appears that gold nanoparticles can alternatively be luminescent or plasmonic, and this represents a severe constraint for their use as an optical material. The aim of this work was the fabrication of nanoscale assembly of Au NPs covalently anchored to each other by means of novel bi-functional porphyrin molecules that work as bridges between different gold nanoparticles. This functional architecture shows a strong surface plasmon due to the Au nanoparticles and a strong luminescence signal coming from porphyrin molecules, thus, behaving like an artificial organized plasmonic and fluorescent network. The self-assembly geometry of this porphyrin on the Au NPs was studied by investigation of the conformational properties of the porphyrin derivative at the DFT level. The morphology, electronic structure and optical properties of the conjugated Au NPs – porphyrin system were investigated by TEM, XPS, UV–vis and Luminescence. The present nanostructures can be used for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence, photocatalysis, nonlinear optics, etc., under atmospheric conditions since our system is not reactive to air nor water and does not need to be stored in a vacuum or inert gas.

Keywords: gold nanoparticle, porphyrin, surface plasmon resonance, luminescence, nanostructures

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12405 Nanofocusing of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Partially Metal- Coated Dielectric Conical Probe: Optimal Asymmetric Distance

Authors: Ngo Thi Thu, Kazuo Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka, Dao Ngoc Chien


Nanometric superfocusing of optical intensity near the tip of partially metal- coated dielectric conical probe of the convergent surface plasmon polariton wave is investigated by the volume integral equation method. It is possible to perform nanofocusing using this probe by using both linearly and radially polarized Gaussian beams as the incident waves. Strongly localized and enhanced optical near-fields can be created on the tip of this probe for the cases of both incident Gaussian beams. However the intensity distribution near the probe tip was found to be very sensitive to the shape of the probe tip.

Keywords: waveguide, surface plasmons, electromagnetic theory

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12404 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi


Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Daucus carota, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance

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12403 Effect of III-V Nitrides on Performance of Graphene-Gold SPR Biosensor

Authors: Bijaya Kumar Sahoo


The effect of III-V nitride semiconductors on performance of a graphene-on-gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been investigated theoretically. III-V nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) have been grown between gold (Au) and graphene layers. The sensitivity and performance of the biosensor have been computed for with and without semiconductors. Due to superior electronic and optical properties, III-V nitrides demonstrate high sensitivity and performance over Si and Ge. The enhancement of evanescent electric field due to III-V nitrides have been computed and found highest for InN. The analysis shows that for a high-sensitive imaging biosensor the required optimal thickness of gold, InN and graphene are respectively 49 nm, 11 nm and 0.34 nm for the light of wavelength =633 nm (red He-Ne laser). This study suggests that InN would be a better choice for fabrication of new imaging SPR biosensors.

Keywords: SPR biosensor, optical properties, III-V nitrides, sensitivity, enhancement of electric field, performance of graphene gold SPR biosensor

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12402 Enhancing the Luminescence of Alkyl-Capped Silicon Quantum Dots by Using Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


Metal enhanced luminescence of alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots (C11-SiQDs) was obtained by mixing C11-SiQDs with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). C11-SiQDs have been synthesized by galvanostatic method of p-Si (100) wafers followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in refluxing toluene in order to extract alkyl-capped silicon quantum dots from porous Si. The chemical characterization of C11-SiQDs was carried out using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). C11-SiQDs have a crystalline structure with a diameter of 5 nm. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized also using photochemical reduction of silver nitrate with sodium dodecyl sulphate. The synthesized Ag nanoparticles have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement up to 10 and 4 times in the luminescence intensities was observed for AgNPs100/C11-SiQDs and AgNPs30/C11-SiQDs mixtures, respectively using 488 nm as an excitation source. The enhancement in luminescence intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of Ag nanoparticles; thus this intense field at Ag nanoparticles surface couples strongly to C11-SiQDs. The results suggest that the larger Ag nanoparticles i.e.100 nm caused an optimum enhancement in the luminescence intensity of C11-SiQDs which reflect the strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs and the electric field forming a strong polarization near C11-SiQDs.

Keywords: silicon quantum dots, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), luminescence, plasmon

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12401 Multifunctional Plasmonic Ag-TiO2 Nano-biocompoistes: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Anti-microbial Properties

Authors: Jai Prakash, Promod Kumar, Chantel Swart, J. H. Neethling, A. Janse van Vuuren, H. C. Swart


Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as functional nanomaterials due to their optical and antibacterial properties. Similarly, TiO2 photocatalysts have also been used as suitable nanomaterials for killing cancer cells, viruses and bacteria. Here, we report on multifunctional plasmonic Ag-TiO2 nano-biocomposite synthesized by the sol-gel technique and their optical, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial activities. The as-prepared composites of Ag–TiO2 with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersed X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. The Ag NPs were found to be uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the TiO2 matrix. The novel optical response of the Ag-TiO2 nanocomposites is due to the strong electric field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs. The Raman spectrum of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be enhanced as compared to TiO2. The enhancement of the low frequency band is evident. This indicates the SERS effect of the TiO2 NPs in close vicinity of Ag NPs. In addition, nanocomposites showed enhancement in the SERS signals of methyl orange (MO) dye molecules with increasing Ag content. The localized electromagnetic field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs was responsible for the SERS signals of the TiO2 NPs and MO molecules. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag–TiO2 nanocomposites with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were carried out against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The Ag–TiO2 composites showed antibacterial activity towards S. aureus with increasing Ag content as compared to the TiO2 nanopowder. These results foresee promising applications of the functional plasmonic metal−semiconductor based nanobiocomposites for both chemical and biological samples.

Keywords: metal-Semiconductor, nano-Biocomposites, anti-microbial activity, surface enhanced Raman scattering

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12400 Influence of Laser Excitation on SERS of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of Silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) were obtained using two different laser excitations: 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Silver nano particles were used as plasmonics metal nano particles due to a robust SERS effect that observed when they mixed with SiNCs. SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized using photo chemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The synthesized AgNPs have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement in the SERS intensity was observed for AgNPs100/SiNCs and AgNPs30/SiNCs mixtures increasing up to 9 and 3 times respectively using 488 nm intensity; whereas the intensity of the SERS signal increased up to 7 and 2 times respectively, using 514.5 nm excitation source. The enhancement in SERS intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs. The results provide good consensus between the wavelength of the laser excitation source and surface plasmon resonance absorption band of silver nano particles consider to be an important requirement in SERS experiments.

Keywords: silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS)

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12399 Terahertz Surface Plasmon in Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Interface via Amplitude Modulated Laser

Authors: Monika Singh


A carbon nanotube thin film coated on dielectric interface is employed to produce THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The carbon nanotube has its plasmon frequency in the THz range. The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. An amplitude modulated laser pulse normally incident, from free space on slow wave structure, exert a modulation frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the CNT film and resonantly excite the THz surface plasma wave at the modulation frequency. Carbon nanotube based plasmonic nano-structure materials provides potentially more versatile approach to tightly confined surface modes in the THz range in comparison to noble metals.

Keywords: surface plasmons, surface waves, thin films, THz radiation

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12398 Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases by Stabilization of Superoxide Dismutase by Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Danish Idrees, Vijay Kumar, Samudrala Gourinath


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The use of small molecules has been shown to stabilize the SOD1 dimer and preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, we employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the interactions between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds. In order to explore the noncovalent interaction between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed to gain insights into the binding modes and free energies of SOD1-polyphenolic compounds. MM/PBSA methods were used to calculate free energies from obtained MD trajectories. The compounds, Hesperidin, Ergosterol, and Rutin showed the excellent binding affinity in micromolar range with SOD1. Ergosterol and Hesperidin have the strongest binding affinity to SOD1 and was subjected to further characterization. Biophysical experiments using Circular Dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy results show that the binding of these two compounds can stabilize SOD1 dimer and inhibit the aggregation of SOD1. Molecular simulation results also suggest that these compounds reduce the dissociation of SOD1 dimers through direct interaction with the dimer interface. This study will be helpful to develop other drug-like molecules which may have the effect to reduce the aggregation of SOD1.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, molecular dynamics simulation, surface plasmon resonance, superoxide dismutase

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12397 Sliver Nanoparticles Enhanced Visible and Near Infrared Emission of Er³+ Ions Doped Lithium Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Sachin Mahajan, Ghizal Ansari


TeO2-WO3-Li2O glass doped erbium ions (1mol %) and embedded silver nanoparticles( Ag NPs) has successfully been prepared by melt quenching technique and increasing the heat-treatment duration. The amorphous nature of the glass is determined by X-ray diffraction method, and the presences of silver nanoparticles are confirmed using Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis. TEM image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with average size 18 nm. From the UV-Vis absorption spectra, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks are detected at 550 and 578 nm. Under 980 nm excitation wavelengths, enhancement of red upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared broadband emission around 1550nm of Er3+ ions doped tellurite glasses containing Ag NPs have been observed. The observed enhancement of Er3+ emission is mainly attributed to the local field effects of Ag NPs causes an intensified electromagnetic field around NPs. For observed enhancement involved mechanisms are discussed.

Keywords: erbium ions, silver nanoparticle, surface plasmon resonance, upconversion emission

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12396 Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles from the Stem Bark and Leaves of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Cytotoxicity on MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: Stephen Daniel Iduh, Evans Chidi Egwin, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu


The process for the development of reliable and eco-friendly metallic Nanoparticles is an important step in the field of Nanotechnology for biomedical application. To achieve this, use of natural sources like biological systems becomes essential. In the present work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold Nanoparticles using aqueous leave and stembark extracts of K. senegalensis has been attempted. The gold Nanoparticles produced were characterized using High Resolution scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, zeta-sizer Nano, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. The result showed a rapid development of Nano size and shaped particles within 5 minutes of reaction with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 520 and 525nm respectively. An average particle size of 20-90nm was confirmed. The amount of the extracts determines the core size of the AuNPs. The core size of the AuNPs decreases as the amount of extract increases and it causes the shift of Surface Plasmon Resonance band. The FTIR confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesised gold nanoparticles. The MTT assay shows a significant effect of gold nanoparticles which is concentration dependent. This environment-friendly method of biological gold Nanoparticle synthesis has the potential and can be directly applied in cancer therapy.

Keywords: biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, characterization, calotropis procera, cytotoxicity

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12395 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug

Authors: Zeid A. Alothman


Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, adrenaline, XRD, TEM, analysis

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12394 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim


Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

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12393 Synthesis and Characterization of PVDF, FG, PTFE, and PES Membrane Distillation Modified with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., RomeroC.


The Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) are used as deliver of heat on surface of Membrane Distillation in order to fight against Thermal Polarization and improving the Desalination Process. In this study AgNPwere deposited by dip coating process over PVDF, FG hydrophilic, and PTFE hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized by SEM, EDS, contact angle, Pore size distributionand using a UV lamp and a thermal camera were measured the performance of heat deliver. The presence of AgNP 50 – 150 nm and the increase in absorption of energy over membrane were verified.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, plasmon effect, heat deliver

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12392 Enhancing the CO2 Photoreduction of SnFe2O4 by Surface Modification Through Acid Treatment and Au Deposition

Authors: Najmul Hasan, Shiping Li, Chunli Liu


The synergy effect of surface modifications using the acid treatment and noble metal (Au) deposition on the efficiency of SnFe2O4 (SFO) nano-octahedron photocatalyst has been investigated. Inorganic acids (H2SO4 and HNO3) were employed to compare the effects of different acids. It has been found that after corrosion treatment using H2SO4 and deposition of Au nanoparticles, SnFe2O4 nano-octahedron (Au-S-SFO) showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity under simulated light irradiation. Au-S-SFO was characterized by XRD, XPS, EDS, FTIR, Uv-vis-DRS, SEM, PL, and EIS analysis. The mechanism for CO2 reduction was investigated by scavenger tests. The stability of Au-S-SFO was confirmed by continuously repeated tests followed by XRD analysis. The surface corrosion treatment of SFO octahedron with H2SO4 could produce hydroxyl group (-OH) and sulfonic acid group (-SO3H) as reaction sites. These active sites not only enhanced the Au nanoparticles deposition to the acid treated SFO surface but also acted as the Brønsted acid sites that enhance the water adsorption and provide protons for CTC degradation and CO2 reduction. These effects improved the carrier separation and transfer efficiency. In addition, the photocatalytic efficiency was further enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles deposited on the surface of acid-treated SFO. As a result of the synergy of both acid treatment and SPR effect from the Au NPs, Au-S-SFO exhibited the highest CO2 reduction activity with 2.81, 1.92, and 2.69 times higher evolution rates for CO, CH4, and H2, respectively than that of pure SFO.

Keywords: surface modification, CO2 reduction, Au deposition, Gas-liquid interfacial plasma

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