Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: drape

10 A Method for Measurement and Evaluation of Drape of Textiles

Authors: L. Fridrichova, R. Knížek, V. Bajzík

Abstract:

Drape is one of the important visual characteristics of the fabric. This paper is introducing an innovative method of measurement and evaluation of the drape shape of the fabric. The measuring principle is based on the possibility of multiple vertical strain of the fabric. This method more accurately simulates the real behavior of the fabric in the process of draping. The method is fully automated, so the sample can be measured by using any number of cycles in any time horizon. Using the present method of measurement, we are able to describe the viscoelastic behavior of the fabric.

Keywords: drape, drape shape, automated drapemeter, fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 553
9 Drape Simulation by Commercial Software and Subjective Assessment of Virtual Drape

Authors: Evrim Buyukaslan, Simona Jevsnik, Fatma Kalaoglu

Abstract:

Simulation of fabrics is more difficult than any other simulation due to complex mechanics of fabrics. Most of the virtual garment simulation software use mass-spring model and incorporate fabric mechanics into simulation models. The accuracy and fidelity of these virtual garment simulation software is a question mark. Drape is a subjective phenomenon and evaluation of drape has been studied since 1950’s. On the other hand, fabric and garment simulation is relatively new. Understanding drape perception of subjects when looking at fabric simulations is critical as virtual try-on becomes more of an issue by enhanced online apparel sales. Projected future of online apparel retailing is that users may view their avatars and try-on the garment on their avatars in the virtual environment. It is a well-known fact that users will not be eager to accept this innovative technology unless it is realistic enough. Therefore, it is essential to understand what users see when they are displaying fabrics in a virtual environment. Are they able to distinguish the differences between various fabrics in virtual environment? The purpose of this study is to investigate human perception when looking at a virtual fabric and determine the most visually noticeable drape parameter. To this end, five different fabrics are mechanically tested, and their drape simulations are generated by commercial garment simulation software (Optitex®). The simulation images are processed by an image analysis software to calculate drape parameters namely; drape coefficient, node severity, and peak angles. A questionnaire is developed to evaluate drape properties subjectively in a virtual environment. Drape simulation images are shown to 27 subjects and asked to rank the samples according to their questioned drape property. The answers are compared to the calculated drape parameters. The results show that subjects are quite sensitive to drape coefficient changes while they are not very sensitive to changes in node dimensions and node distributions.

Keywords: drape simulation, drape evaluation, fabric mechanics, virtual fabric

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8 Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design

Authors: Aida Sheeta, M. Nashat Fors, Sherwet El Gholmy, Marwa Issa

Abstract:

Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.

Keywords: cloth fitting, fabric drape nodes, garment silhouette, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
7 Study of Drape and Seam Strength of Fabric and Garment in Relation to Weave Design and Comparison of 2D and 3D Drape Properties

Authors: Shagufta Riaz, Ayesha Younus, Munir Ashraf, Tanveer Hussain

Abstract:

Aesthetic and performance are two most important considerations along with quality, durability, comfort and cost that affect the garment credibility. Fabric drape is perhaps the most important clothing characteristics that distinguishes fabric from the sheet, paper, steel or other film materials. It enables the fabric to mold itself under its own weight into desired and required shape when only part of it is directly sustained. The fabric has the ability to be crumpled charmingly in bent folds of single or double curvature due to its drapeability to produce a smooth flowing i.e. ‘the sinusoidal-type folds of a curtain or skirt’. Drape and seam strength are two parameters that are considered for aesthetic and performance of fabric for both apparel and home textiles. Until recently, no such study have been conducted in which effect of weave designs on drape and seam strength of fabric and garment is inspected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure seam strength and drape of fabric and garment objectively by changing weave designs and quality of the fabric. Also, the comparison of 2-D drape and 3-D drape was done to find whether a fabric behaves in same manner or differently when sewn and worn on the body. Four different cotton weave designs were developed and pr-treatment was done. 2-D Drape of the fabric was measured by drapemeter attached with digital camera and a supporting disc to hang the specimen on it. Drape coefficient value (DC %) has negative relation with drape. It is the ratio of draped sample’s projected shadow area to the area of undraped (flat) sample expressed as percentage. Similarly, 3-D drape was measured by hanging the A-line skirts for developed weave designs. BS 3356 standard test method was followed for bending length examination. It is related to the angle that the fabric makes with its horizontal axis. Seam strength was determined by following ASTM test standard. For sewn fabric, stitch density of seam was found by magnifying glass according to standard ASTM test method. In this research study, from the experimentation and evaluation it was investigated that drape and seam strength were significantly affected by change of weave design and quality of fabric (PPI & yarn count). Drapeability increased as the number of interlacement or contact point deceased between warp and weft yarns. As the weight of fabric, bending length, and density of fabric had indirect relationship with drapeability. We had concluded that 2-D drape was higher than 3-D drape even though the garment was made of the same fabric construction. Seam breakage strength decreased with decrease in picks density and yarn count.

Keywords: drape coefficient, fabric, seam strength, weave

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
6 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

Abstract:

Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
5 Proposed Pattern for Fitted Men's Suit Jacket Using the Method of Draping on the Mannequin

Authors: Hazem A. Abdelfattah, Salia H. Khafaji

Abstract:

Apparel industry needs to direct scientific researches to develop it , and because of the importance of a men’s suit jacket industry, the study of the basics of men’s jacket pattern making requires a high degree of accuracy and efficiency which contain a lot of technical and skill aspects to give the jacket a drape, comfort and good fitting , prompting researchers to think about the use of men’s mannequin with sizes (M-L-XL) to devise a method to draft a paper pattern for the men's suit jacket to use it in the industry easily and quickly and achieve the required good fitting.

Keywords: draping, pattern, men, jacket

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4 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana

Abstract:

The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3 Application of 3D Apparel CAD for Costume Reproduction

Authors: Zi Y. Kang, Tracy D. Cassidy, Tom Cassidy

Abstract:

3D apparel CAD is one of the remarkable products in advanced technology which enables intuitive design, visualisation and evaluation of garments through stereoscopic drape simulation. The progressive improvements of 3D apparel CAD have led to the creation of more realistic clothing simulation which is used not only in design development but also in presentation, promotion and communication for fashion as well as other industries such as film, game and social network services. As a result, 3D clothing technology is becoming more ubiquitous in human culture and lives today. This study considers that such phenomenon implies that the technology has reached maturity and it is time to inspect the status of current technology and to explore its potential uses in ways to create cultural values to further move forward. For this reason, this study aims to generate virtual costumes as culturally significant objects using 3D apparel CAD and to assess its capability, applicability and attitudes of the audience towards clothing simulation through comparison with physical counterparts. Since the access to costume collection is often limited due to the conservative issues, the technology may make valuable contribution by democratization of culture and knowledge for museums and its audience. This study is expected to provide foundation knowledge for development of clothing technology and for expanding its boundary of practical uses. To prevent any potential damage, two replicas of the costumes in the 1860s and 1920s at the Museum of London were chosen as samples. Their structural, visual and physical characteristics were measured and collected using patterns, scanned images of fabrics and objective fabric measurements with scale, KES-F (Kawabata Evaluation System of Fabrics) and Titan. Commercial software, DC Suite 5.0 was utilised to create virtual costumes applying collected data and the following outcomes were produced for the evaluation: Images of virtual costumes and video clips showing static and dynamic simulation. Focus groups were arranged with fashion design students and the public for evaluation which exposed the outcomes together with physical samples, fabrics swatches and photographs. The similarities, application and acceptance of virtual costumes were estimated through discussion and a questionnaire. The findings show that the technology has the capability to produce realistic or plausible simulation but expression of some factors such as details and capability of light material requires improvements. While the use of virtual costumes was viewed as more interesting and futuristic replacements to physical objects by the public group, the fashion student group noted more differences in detail and preferred physical garments highlighting the absence of tangibility. However, the advantages and potential of virtual costumes as effective and useful visual references for educational and exhibitory purposes were underlined by both groups. Although 3D apparel CAD has sufficient capacity to assist garment design process, it has limits in identical replication and more study on accurate reproduction of details and drape is needed for its technical improvements. Nevertheless, the virtual costumes in this study demonstrated the possibility of the technology to contribute to cultural and knowledgeable value creation through its applicability and as an interesting way to offer 3D visual information.

Keywords: digital clothing technology, garment simulation, 3D Apparel CAD, virtual costume

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2 Improving the Method for Characterizing Structural Fabrics for Shear Resistance and Formability

Authors: Dimitrios Karanatsis

Abstract:

Non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) allow for high mechanical performance of a manufacture composite component by maintaining the fibre reinforcements parallel to each other. The handling of NCFs is enabled by the stitching of the tows. Although the stitching material has negligible influence to the performance of the manufactured part, it can affect the ability of the structural fabric to shear and drape over the part’s geometry. High resistance to shearing is attributed to the high tensile strain of the stitching yarn and can cause defects in the fabric. In the current study, a correlation based on the stitch tension and shear behaviour is examined. The purpose of the research is to investigate the upper and lower limits of non-crimp fabrics manufacture and how these affect the shear behaviour of the fabrics. Experimental observations show that shear behaviour of the fabrics is significantly affected by the stitch tension, and there is a linear effect to the degree of shear they experience. It was found that the lowest possible stitch tension on the manufacturing line settings produces an NCF that exhibits very low tensile strain on it’s yarns and that has shear properties similar to a woven fabric. Moreover, the highest allowable stitch tension results in reduced formability of the fabric, as the stitch thread rearranges the fibre filaments where these become packed in a tight formation with constricted movement.

Keywords: carbon fibres, composite manufacture, shear testing, textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1 Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications

Authors: Muhammad Cheema, Tahir Shah, Subhash Anand

Abstract:

The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 mg.cm in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg.cm in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.

Keywords: hydroentanglement, nonwoven apparel, durable nonwoven, wearable nonwoven

Procedia PDF Downloads 151