Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 933

Search results for: photon beam

933 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir


Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
932 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

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931 Audit of TPS photon beam dataset for small field output factors using OSLDs against RPC standard dataset

Authors: Asad Yousuf


Purpose: The aim of the present study was to audit treatment planning system beam dataset for small field output factors against standard dataset produced by radiological physics center (RPC) from a multicenter study. Such data are crucial for validity of special techniques, i.e., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery. Materials/Method: In this study, multiple small field size output factor datasets were measured and calculated for 6 to 18 MV x-ray beams using the RPC recommend methods. These beam datasets were measured at 10 cm depth for 10 × 10 cm2 to 2 × 2 cm2 field sizes, defined by collimator jaws at 100 cm. The measurements were made with a Landauer’s nanoDot OSLDs whose volume is small enough to gather a full ionization reading even for the 1×1 cm2 field size. At our institute the beam data including output factors have been commissioned at 5 cm depth with an SAD setup. For comparison with the RPC data, the output factors were converted to an SSD setup using tissue phantom ratios. SSD setup also enables coverage of the ion chamber in 2×2 cm2 field size. The measured output factors were also compared with those calculated by Eclipse™ treatment planning software. Result: The measured and calculated output factors are in agreement with RPC dataset within 1% and 4% respectively. The large discrepancies in TPS reflect the increased challenge in converting measured data into a commissioned beam model for very small fields. Conclusion: OSLDs are simple, durable, and accurate tool to verify doses that delivered using small photon beam fields down to a 1x1 cm2 field sizes. The study emphasizes that the treatment planning system should always be evaluated for small field out factors for the accurate dose delivery in clinical setting.

Keywords: small field dosimetry, optically stimulated luminescence, audit treatment, radiological physics center

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
930 Monte Carlo Simulations of LSO/YSO for Dose Evaluation in Photon Beam Radiotherapy

Authors: H. Donya


Monte Carlo (MC) techniques play a fundamental role in radiotherapy. A two non-water-equivalent of different media were used to evaluate the dose in water. For such purpose, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates scintillators are chosen for MC simulation using Penelope code. To get higher efficiency in dose calculation, variance reduction techniques are discussed. Overall results of this investigation ensured that the LSO/YSO bi-media a good combination to tackle over-response issue in dynamic photon radiotherapy.

Keywords: Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates, Monte Carlo, correlated sampling, radiotherapy

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929 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri


One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
928 Evaluating the Dosimetric Performance for 3D Treatment Planning System for Wedged and Off-Axis Fields

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Mohamed Elnagdy, Rasha Moustafa


This study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system for wedged and off-axis 6MV photon beams, guided by the recommended QA tests documented in the AAPM TG53; NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Ten tests were applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system. The calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN were compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for simple situations such as square and elongated fields, different SSD, beam modifiers e.g. wedges, blocks, MLC-shaped fields and asymmetric collimator settings. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS within the specified tolerance limits. Except for large elongated wedged field, the central axis and outside central axis have errors of 0.2% and 0.5%, respectively, and off- planned and off-axis elongated fields the region outside the central axis of the beam errors are 0.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The dosimetric investigated results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and measured values at the same point are the result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, wedged fields, off-axis fields, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

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927 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 543
926 Precise Spatially Selective Photothermolysis Skin Treatment by Multiphoton Absorption

Authors: Yimei Huang, Harvey Lui, Jianhua Zhao, Zhenguo Wu, Haishan Zeng


Conventional laser treatment of skin diseases and cosmetic surgery is based on the principle of one-photon absorption selective photothermolysis which relies strongly on the difference in the light absorption between the therapeutic target and its surrounding tissue. However, when the difference in one-photon absorption is not sufficient, collateral damage would occur due to indiscriminate and nonspecific tissue heating. To overcome this problem, we developed a spatially selective photothermolysis method based on multiphoton absorption in which the heat generation is restricted to the focal point of a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam aligned with the target of interest. A multimodal optical microscope with co-registered reflectance confocal imaging (RCM), two-photon fluorescence imaging (TPF), and second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) capabilities was used to perform and monitor the spatially selective photothermolysis. Skin samples excised from the shaved backs of euthanized NODSCID mice were used in this study. Treatments were performed by focusing and scaning the laser beam in the dermis with a 50µm×50µm target area. Treatment power levels of 200 mW to 400 mW and modulated pulse trains of different duration and period were experimented. Different treatment parameters achieved different degrees of spatial confinement of tissue alterations as visualized by 3-D RCM/TPF/SHG imaging. At 200 mW power level, 0.1 s pulse train duration, 4.1 s pulse train period, the tissue damage was found to be restricted precisely to the 50µm×50µm×10µm volume, where the laser focus spot had scanned through. The overlying epidermis/dermis tissue and the underneath dermis tissue were intact although there was light passing through these regions.

Keywords: multiphoton absorption photothermolysis, reflectance confocal microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, spatially selective photothermolysis, two-photon fluorescence microscopy

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925 A Model of the Universe without Expansion of Space

Authors: Jia-Chao Wang


A model of the universe without invoking space expansion is proposed to explain the observed redshift-distance relation and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The main hypothesized feature of the model is that photons traveling in space interact with the CMB photon gas. This interaction causes the photons to gradually lose energy through dissipation and, therefore, experience redshift. The interaction also causes some of the photons to be scattered off their track toward an observer and, therefore, results in beam intensity attenuation. As observed, the CMB exists everywhere in space and its photon density is relatively high (about 410 per cm³). The small average energy of the CMB photons (about 6.3×10⁻⁴ eV) can reduce the energies of traveling photons gradually and will not alter their momenta drastically as in, for example, Compton scattering, to totally blur the images of distant objects. An object moving through a thermalized photon gas, such as the CMB, experiences a drag. The cause is that the object sees a blue shifted photon gas along the direction of motion and a redshifted one in the opposite direction. An example of this effect can be the observed CMB dipole: The earth travels at about 368 km/s (600 km/s) relative to the CMB. In the all-sky map from the COBE satellite, radiation in the Earth's direction of motion appears 0.35 mK hotter than the average temperature, 2.725 K, while radiation on the opposite side of the sky is 0.35 mK colder. The pressure of a thermalized photon gas is given by Pγ = Eγ/3 = αT⁴/3, where Eγ is the energy density of the photon gas and α is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The observed CMB dipole, therefore, implies a pressure difference between the two sides of the earth and results in a CMB drag on the earth. By plugging in suitable estimates of quantities involved, such as the cross section of the earth and the temperatures on the two sides, this drag can be estimated to be tiny. But for a photon traveling at the speed of light, 300,000 km/s, the drag can be significant. In the present model, for the dissipation part, it is assumed that a photon traveling from a distant object toward an observer has an effective interaction cross section pushing against the pressure of the CMB photon gas. For the attenuation part, the coefficient of the typical attenuation equation is used as a parameter. The values of these two parameters are determined by fitting the 748 µ vs. z data points compiled from 643 supernova and 105 γ-ray burst observations with z values up to 8.1. The fit is as good as that obtained from the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model using online cosmological calculators and Planck 2015 results. The model can be used to interpret Hubble's constant, Olbers' paradox, the origin and blackbody nature of the CMB radiation, the broadening of supernova light curves, and the size of the observable universe.

Keywords: CMB as the lowest energy state, model of the universe, origin of CMB in a static universe, photon-CMB photon gas interaction

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924 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian


Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

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923 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati


In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

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922 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter


Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

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921 Secure Optical Communication System Using Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ehab AbdulRazzaq Hussein


Quantum cryptography (QC) is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions. In contrast to classical cryptographic schemes, the security of QC schemes is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature. Their security stems from the impossibility to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states with certainty. A potential eavesdropper introduces errors in the transmissions, which can later be discovered by the legitimate participants of the communication. In this paper, the modeling approach is proposed for QC protocol BB84 using polarization coding. The single-photon system is assumed to be used in the designed models. Thus, Eve cannot use beam-splitting strategy to eavesdrop on the quantum channel transmission. The only eavesdropping strategy possible to Eve is the intercept/resend strategy. After quantum transmission of the QC protocol, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is estimated and compared with a threshold value. If it is above this value the procedure must be stopped and performed later again.

Keywords: security, key distribution, cryptography, quantum protocols, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).

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920 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz


A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
919 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

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918 Purity Monitor Studies in Medium Liquid Argon TPC

Authors: I. Badhrees


This paper is an attempt to describe some of the results that had been found through a journey of study in the field of particle physics. This study consists of two parts, one about the measurement of the cross section of the decay of the Z particle in two electrons, and the other deals with the measurement of the cross section of the multi-photon absorption process using a beam of laser in the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. The first part of the paper concerns the results based on the analysis of a data sample containing 8120 ee candidates to reconstruct the mass of the Z particle for each event where each event has an ee pair with PT(e) > 20GeV, and η(e) < 2.5. Monte Carlo templates of the reconstructed Z particle were produced as a function of the Z mass scale. The distribution of the reconstructed Z mass in the data was compared to the Monte Carlo templates, where the total cross section is calculated to be equal to 1432 pb. The second part concerns the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber, LAr TPC, the results of the interaction of the UV Laser, Nd-YAG with λ= 266mm, with LAr and through the study of the multi-photon ionization process as a part of the R&D at Bern University. The main result of this study was the cross section of the process of the multi-photon ionization process of the LAr, σe = 1.24±0.10stat±0.30sys.10 -56cm4.

Keywords: ATLAS, CERN, KACST, LArTPC, particle physics

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917 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

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916 Flexural Behavior for Prefabricated Angle Truss Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete

Authors: Jo Kwang-Won, Lee Ho-Jun, Choi In-Rak, Park Hong-Gun


Prefabricated angle truss composited beam is a kind of concrete encased composite beam. It is prefabricated at factory as Pratt truss with steel members. Double angle is used for top, bottom chords and vertical web member. Moreover, diagonal web member is steel plate. Its sectional shape looks like I-shape. This beam system has two stages. The first is construction stage in which the beam is directly connected to the column for resist construction load. This stage beam consists of Pratt truss and precast concrete. The stability of the beam is verified. The second is service stage. After the connection, cast-in-place concrete is used for composite action. Ultimate flexural capacity is verified and show advantage than RC and steel. In this paper, the beam flexural capacity is verified in both stages. And examined the flexural behavior of the beam.

Keywords: composite beam, prefabrication, angle, precast concrete, pratt truss

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915 Cell-Cell Interactions in Diseased Conditions Revealed by Three Dimensional and Intravital Two Photon Microscope: From Visualization to Quantification

Authors: Satoshi Nishimura


Although much information has been garnered from the genomes of humans and mice, it remains difficult to extend that information to explain physiological and pathological phenomena. This is because the processes underlying life are by nature stochastic and fluctuate with time. Thus, we developed novel "in vivo molecular imaging" method based on single and two-photon microscopy. We visualized and analyzed many life phenomena, including common adult diseases. We integrated the knowledge obtained, and established new models that will serve as the basis for new minimally invasive therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: two photon microscope, intravital visualization, thrombus, artery

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914 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir


We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

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913 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta


The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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912 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen


T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: experiment, strengthening, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

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911 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita


Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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910 Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna

Authors: P. Chaipanya, R. Keawchai, W. Sombatsanongkhun, S. Jantaramporn


To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.

Keywords: switched beam, shorted circuit, single element, signal to interference ratio

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909 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh


This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

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908 Simulation of Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media Using Paraxial Group Transformation

Authors: A. Keshavarz, Z. Roosta


In this paper, propagation of cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media has been stimulated by using paraxial group transformation. At first, cos-Gaussian beam, nonlocal nonlinear media, critical power, transfer matrix, and paraxial group transformation are introduced. Then, the propagation of the cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media is simulated. Results show that beam propagation has periodic structure during self-focusing effect in this case. However, this simple method can be used for investigation of propagation of kinds of beams in ABCD optical media.

Keywords: paraxial group transformation, nonlocal nonlinear media, cos-Gaussian beam, ABCD law

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907 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

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906 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam-Piles Bending Moments Interaction

Authors: Khaled R. Khater


this paper is an extension to previously published two papers; all share the first part of their titles. The papers theme is soil-structure interaction in the ground of soil retaining structures. The secant pile wall is the concern, while the focus is its capping beam. The earlier papers suggested a technique to structurally analyze capping beam. It has been proved that; pile rigidity shares the capping beam rigidity to resist the wall deformations. The current paper explains how the beam-pile integration re-distributes the pile’s bending moment for the benefits of wall deformations. It is concluded that re-distribution of pile bending moment is completely different than the calculated by plain strain analysis, values, and distributions. The pile diameter, beam rigidity, pile spacing, and the 3D-analysis-effect individually or all together affect the pile bending moment. The Plaxis-2D and STAAD-Pro 3D are the used software’s. Throughout this study, three sand densities, various pile and beam rigidities, and three excavation depths, i.e., 3.0-m, 4.0-m and 5.0-m have been considered.

Keywords: bending moment, capping beam, numerical analysis, secant pile, sandy soil

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905 Using the Nonlocal Theory of Free Vibrations Nanobeam

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi


The dimensions of nanostructures are in the range of inter-atomic spacing of the structures which makes them impossible to be modeled as a continuum. Nanoscale size-effects on vibration analysis of nanobeams embedded in an elastic medium is investigated using different types of beam theory. To this end, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity is incorporated to various beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). The surrounding elastic medium is simulated with both Winkler and Pasternak foundation models and the difference between them is studies. Explicit formulas are presented to obtain the natural frequencies of nanobeam corresponding to each nonlocal beam theory. Selected numerical results are given for different values of the non-local parameter, Winkler modulus parameter, Pasternak modulus parameter and aspect ratio of the beam that imply the effects of them, separately. It is observed that the values of natural frequency are strongly dependent on the stiffness of elastic medium and the value of the non-local parameter and these dependencies varies with the value of aspect ratio and mode number.

Keywords: nanobeams, free vibration, nonlocal elasticity, winkler foundation model, Pasternak foundation model, beam theories

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904 Commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA)

Authors: Safiqul Islam, Anamul Haque, Mohammad Amran Hossain


Aim: To compare the dosimetric parameters of the flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beam and to validate the beam data using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Materials and Methods: All the dosimetric data’s (i.e. depth dose profiles, profile curves, output factors, penumbra etc.) required for the beam modeling of AAA were acquired using the Blue Phantom RFA for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10MV & 10FFF. Progressive resolution Optimizer and Dose Volume Optimizer algorithm for VMAT and IMRT were are also configured in the beam model. Beam modeling of the AAA were compared with the measured data sets. Results: Due to the higher and lover energy component in 6FFF and 10 FFF the surface doses are 10 to 15% higher compared to flattened 6 MV and 10 MV beams. FFF beam has a lower mean energy compared to the flattened beam and the beam quality index were 6 MV 0.667, 6FFF 0.629, 10 MV 0.74 and 10 FFF 0.695 respectively. Gamma evaluation with 2% dose and 2 mm distance criteria for the Open Beam, IMRT and VMAT plans were also performed and found a good agreement between the modeled and measured data. Conclusion: We have successfully modeled the AAA algorithm for the flattened and FFF beams and achieved a good agreement with the calculated and measured value.

Keywords: commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) , using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), flattened beam, parameters

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