Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Nashaat A. Deiab

6 Evaluating the Dosimetric Performance for 3D Treatment Planning System for Wedged and Off-Axis Fields

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Mohamed Elnagdy, Rasha Moustafa

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system for wedged and off-axis 6MV photon beams, guided by the recommended QA tests documented in the AAPM TG53; NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Ten tests were applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system. The calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN were compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for simple situations such as square and elongated fields, different SSD, beam modifiers e.g. wedges, blocks, MLC-shaped fields and asymmetric collimator settings. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS within the specified tolerance limits. Except for large elongated wedged field, the central axis and outside central axis have errors of 0.2% and 0.5%, respectively, and off- planned and off-axis elongated fields the region outside the central axis of the beam errors are 0.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The dosimetric investigated results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and measured values at the same point are the result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, wedged fields, off-axis fields, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

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5 Open Fields' Dosimetric Verification for a Commercially-Used 3D Treatment Planning System

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed Elnagdy, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Rasha Moustafa

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate and investigate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system, Elekta PrecisePLAN, for open 6MV fields including square, rectangular, variation in SSD, centrally blocked, missing tissue, square MLC and MLC shaped fields guided by the recommended QA tests prescribed in AAPM TG53, NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Seven different tests were done applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system, the calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN, compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for open fields including square, rectangular, variation in SSD, centrally blocked, missing tissue, square MLC and MLC shaped fields. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS for open fields within the specified tolerance limits. However large square (25cm x 25cm) and rectangular fields (20cm x 5cm) some points were out of tolerance in penumbra region (11.38 % and 10.9 %, respectively). For the test of SSD variation, the large field resulted from SSD 125 cm for 10cm x 10cm filed the results recorded an error of 0.2% at the central axis and 1.01% in penumbra. The results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Large fields showed variations in penumbra. These differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and the measured values at the same point may result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

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4 Energy Absorption Capacity of Aluminium Foam Manufactured by Kelvin Model Loaded Under Different Biaxial Combined Compression-Torsion Conditions

Authors: H. Solomon, A. Abdul-Latif, R. Baleh, I. Deiab, K. Khanafer

Abstract:

Aluminum foams were developed and tested due to their high energy absorption abilities for multifunctional applications. The aim of this research work was to investigate experimentally the effect of quasi-static biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the energy absorption capacity of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foam manufactured by kelvin cell model. The two generated aluminum foams have 80% and 85% porosities, spherical-shaped pores having 11mm in diameter. These foams were tested by means of several square-section specimens. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e., 0°, 37° and 53°). The main mechanical responses of the aluminum foams were studied under simple, intermediate and severe loading conditions. In fact, the key responses to be examined were stress plateau and energy absorption capacity of the two foams with respect to loading complexity. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity and the higher the relative density, the greater the energy absorption capacity of the foam. The highest energy absorption was thus recorded under the most complicated loading path (i.e., biaxial-53°) for the denser foam (i.e., 80% porosity).

Keywords: open-cell aluminum foams, biaxial loading complexity, foams porosity, energy absorption capacity, characterization

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3 Methylene Blue Removal Using NiO nanoparticles-Sand Adsorption Packed Bed

Authors: Nedal N. Marei, Nashaat Nassar

Abstract:

Many treatment techniques have been used to remove the soluble pollutants from wastewater as; dyes and metal ions which could be found in rich amount in the used water of the textile and tanneries industry. The effluents from these industries are complex, containing a wide variety of dyes and other contaminants, such as dispersants, acids, bases, salts, detergents, humectants, oxidants, and others. These techniques can be divided into physical, chemical, and biological methods. Adsorption has been developed as an efficient method for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water and soil. It is now recognized as an effective method for the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewaters. Nanosize materials are new functional materials, which offer high surface area and have come up as effective adsorbents. Nano alumina is one of the most important ceramic materials widely used as an electrical insulator, presenting exceptionally high resistance to chemical agents, as well as giving excellent performance as a catalyst for many chemical reactions, in microelectronic, membrane applications, and water and wastewater treatment. In this study, methylene blue (MB) dye has been used as model dye of textile wastewater in order to synthesize a synthetic MB wastewater. NiO nanoparticles were added in small percentage in the sand packed bed adsorption columns to remove the MB from the synthetic textile wastewater. Moreover, different parameters have been evaluated; flow of the synthetic wastewater, pH, height of the bed, percentage of the NiO to the sand in the packed material. Different mathematical models where employed to find the proper model which describe the experimental data and help to analyze the mechanism of the MB adsorption. This study will provide good understanding of the dyes adsorption using metal oxide nanoparticles in the classical sand bed.

Keywords: adsorption, column, nanoparticles, methylene

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2 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab

Abstract:

The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

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1 Levels of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Sediment and in Clarias Gariepinus, of Lake Ngami

Authors: Nashaat Mazrui, Oarabile Mogobe, Barbara Ngwenya, Ketlhatlogile Mosepele, Mangaliso Gondwe

Abstract:

Over the last several decades, the world has seen a rapid increase in activities such as deforestation, agriculture, and energy use. Subsequently, trace elements are being deposited into our water bodies, where they can accumulate to toxic levels in aquatic organisms and can be transferred to humans through fish consumption. Thus, though fish is a good source of essential minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, it can also be a source of toxic elements. Monitoring trace elements in fish is important for the proper management of aquatic systems and the protection of human health. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of trace elements in sediment and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus at Lake Ngami, in the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana, during low floods. The fish were bought from local fishermen, and samples of muscle tissue were acid-digested and analyzed for iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Sediment samples were also collected and analyzed for the elements and for organic matter content. Results show that in all samples, iron was found in the greatest amount while cadmium was below the detection limit. Generally, the concentrations of elements in sediment were higher than in fish except for zinc and arsenic. While the concentration of zinc was similar in the two media, arsenic was almost 3 times higher in fish than sediment. To evaluate the risk to human health from fish consumption, the target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk for an average adult in Botswana, sub-Saharan Africa, and riparian communities in the Okavango Delta was calculated for each element. All elements were found to be well below regulatory limits and do not pose a threat to human health except arsenic. The results suggest that other benthic feeding fish species could potentially have high arsenic levels too. This has serious implications for human health, especially riparian households to whom fish is a key component of food and nutrition security.

Keywords: Arsenic, African sharp tooth cat fish, Okavango delta, trace elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 97