Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2468

Search results for: elemental carbon

2468 Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration, EC, OC Emission and Elemental Composition for Biodiesel-Fuelled Diesel Engine

Authors: A. M. Ashraful, H .H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam


Comparative investigations were performed on the particles matter emitted from a DI diesel engine utilizing palm biodiesel. In this experiment, palm biodiesel PB10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), PB20 (80% diesel, 20% palm biodiesel) and diesel fuel samples exhaust were investigated at different working condition (25% and 50% load at 1500 rpm constant speed). Observation of this experiment it clearly seen that at low load condition particle matter concentration of palm biodiesel exhaust were de-creased than that of diesel fuel. At no load and 25% load condition PB10 biodiesel blend exhibited 2.2 times lower PM concentration than that of diesel fuel. On the other hand, elemental carbon (EC) and organic emission for PB10 showed decreases trend as varies 4.2% to 6.6% and 32 to 39% respectively, while elemental carbon percentage increased by 0.85 to 10% respectively. Similarly, metal composition of PB10 biodiesel blend increased by 4.8 to 26.5% respectively. SEM images for B10 and B20 demonstrated granular structure particulates with greater grain sizes compared with diesel fuel. Finally, the experimental outcomes showed that the blend composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel influence on the particulate matter formation.

Keywords: particulate matter, elemental carbon, organic carbon, biodiesel

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2467 A Study of Impact of Changing Fuel Practices on Organic Carbon and Elemental Carbon Levels in Indoor Air in Two States of India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


India is a rural major country and majority of rural population is dependent on burning of biomass as fuel for domestic cooking on traditional stoves (Chullahs) and heating purposes. This results into indoor air pollution and ultimately affects health of the residents. Still, a very small fraction of rural population has been benefitted by the facilities of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cylinders. Different regions of country follow different methods and use different type of biomass for cooking. So in order to study the differences in cooking practices and resulting indoor air pollution, this study was carried out in two rural areas of India viz. Budhwada, Madhya Pradesh and Baggi, Himachal Pradesh. Both the regions have significant differences in terms of topography, culture and daily practices. Budhwada lies in plain area and Baggi belongs to hilly terrain. The study of carbonaceous aerosols was carried out in four different houses of each village. The residents were asked to bring slight change in their practices by cooking only with biomass (BB) then with a mix of biomass and LPG (BL) and then finally only with LPG (LP). It was found that in BB, average values of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 28% and 44% lower in Budhwada than in Baggi whereas a reverse trend was found where OC and EC was respectively more by 56% and 26% with BL and by 54% and 29% with LP in Budhwada than in Baggi. Although, a significant reduction was found both in Budhwada (OC by 49% and EC by 34%) as well as in Baggi (OC by 84% and EC by 73%) when cooking was shifted from BB to LP. The OC/EC ratio was much higher for Budhwada (BB=9.9; BL=2.5; LP=6.1) than for Baggi (BB=1.7; BL=1.6; LP=1.3). The correlation in OC and EC was found to be excellent in Baggi (r²=0.93) and relatively poor in Budhwada (r²=0.65). A questionnaire filled by the residents suggested that they agree to the health benefits of using LPG over biomass burning but the challenges of supply of LPG and changing the prevailing tradition of cooking on Chullah are making it difficult for them to make this shift.

Keywords: biomass burning, elemental carbon, liquefied petroluem gas, organic carbon

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2466 Waste to Biofuel by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yu-Zen Lin, Wei-Zhi Chen


Torrefaction is one of waste to energy (WTE) technologies developing in Taiwan recently, which can reduce the moisture and impurities and increase the energy density of biowaste effectively. To understand the torrefaction characteristics of different biowaste and the influences of different torrefaction conditions, four typical biowaste were selected to carry out the torrefaction experiments. The physical and chemical properties of different biowaste prior to and after torrefaction were analyzed and compared. Experimental results show that the contents of elemental carbon and caloric value of the four biowaste were significantly increased after torrefaction. The increase of combustible and caloric value in bamboo was the greatest among the four biowaste. The caloric value of bamboo can be increased from 1526 kcal/kg to 6104 kcal/kg after 300oC and 1 hour torrefaction. The caloric value of torrefied bamboo was almost four times as the original. The increase of elemental carbon content in wood was the greatest (from 41.03% to 75.24%), and the next was bamboo (from 47.07% to 74.63%). The major parameters which affected the caloric value of torrefied biowaste followed the sequence of biowaste kinds, torrefaction time, and torrefaction temperature. The optimal torrefaction conditions of the experiments were bamboo torrefied at 300oC for 3 hours, and the corresponding caloric value of torrefied bamboo was 5953 kcal/kg. This caloric value is similar to that of brown coal or bituminous coal.

Keywords: torrefaction, waste to energy, calorie, biofuel

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2465 A Novel Computer-Generated Hologram (CGH) Achieved Scheme Generated from Point Cloud by Using a Lens Array

Authors: Wei-Na Li, Mei-Lan Piao, Nam Kim


We proposed a novel computer-generated hologram (CGH) achieved scheme, wherein the CGH is generated from a point cloud which is transformed by a mapping relationship of a series of elemental images captured from a real three-dimensional (3D) object by using a lens array. This scheme is composed of three procedures: mapping from elemental images to point cloud, hologram generation, and hologram display. A mapping method is figured out to achieve a virtual volume date (point cloud) from a series of elemental images. This mapping method consists of two steps. Firstly, the coordinate (x, y) pairs and its appearing number are calculated from the series of sub-images, which are generated from the elemental images. Secondly, a series of corresponding coordinates (x, y, z) are calculated from the elemental images. Then a hologram is generated from the volume data that is calculated by the previous two steps. Eventually, a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a green laser beam are utilized to display this hologram and reconstruct the original 3D object. In this paper, in order to show a more auto stereoscopic display of a real 3D object, we successfully obtained the actual depth data of every discrete point of the real 3D object, and overcame the inherent drawbacks of the depth camera by obtaining point cloud from the elemental images.

Keywords: elemental image, point cloud, computer-generated hologram (CGH), autostereoscopic display

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2464 Application of Neutron Stimulated Gamma Spectroscopy for Soil Elemental Analysis and Mapping

Authors: Aleksandr Kavetskiy, Galina Yakubova, Nikolay Sargsyan, Stephen A. Prior, H. Allen Torbert


Determining soil elemental content and distribution (mapping) within a field are key features of modern agricultural practice. While traditional chemical analysis is a time consuming and labor-intensive multi-step process (e.g., sample collections, transport to laboratory, physical preparations, and chemical analysis), neutron-gamma soil analysis can be performed in-situ. This analysis is based on the registration of gamma rays issued from nuclei upon interaction with neutrons. Soil elements such as Si, C, Fe, O, Al, K, and H (moisture) can be assessed with this method. Data received from analysis can be directly used for creating soil elemental distribution maps (based on ArcGIS software) suitable for agricultural purposes. The neutron-gamma analysis system developed for field application consisted of an MP320 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), 3 sodium iodide gamma detectors (SCIONIX, Inc.) with a total volume of 7 liters, 'split electronics' (XIA, LLC), a power system, and an operational computer. Paired with GPS, this system can be used in the scanning mode to acquire gamma spectra while traversing a field. Using acquired spectra, soil elemental content can be calculated. These data can be combined with geographical coordinates in a geographical information system (i.e., ArcGIS) to produce elemental distribution maps suitable for agricultural purposes. Special software has been developed that will acquire gamma spectra, process and sort data, calculate soil elemental content, and combine these data with measured geographic coordinates to create soil elemental distribution maps. For example, 5.5 hours was needed to acquire necessary data for creating a carbon distribution map of an 8.5 ha field. This paper will briefly describe the physics behind the neutron gamma analysis method, physical construction the measurement system, and main characteristics and modes of work when conducting field surveys. Soil elemental distribution maps resulting from field surveys will be presented. and discussed. Comparison of these maps with maps created on the bases of chemical analysis and soil moisture measurements determined by soil electrical conductivity was similar. The maps created by neutron-gamma analysis were reproducible, as well. Based on these facts, it can be asserted that neutron stimulated soil gamma spectroscopy paired with GPS system is fully applicable for soil elemental agricultural field mapping.

Keywords: ArcGIS mapping, neutron gamma analysis, soil elemental content, soil gamma spectroscopy

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2463 Structural Property and Mechanical Behavior of Polypropylene–Elemental Sulfur (S8) Composites: Effect of Sulfur Loading

Authors: S. Vijay Kumar, Kishore K. Jena, Saeed M. Alhassan


Elemental sulfur is currently produced on the level of 70 million tons annually by petroleum refining, majority of which is used in the production of sulfuric acid, fertilizer and other chemicals. Still, over 6 million tons of elemental sulfur is generated in excess, which creates exciting opportunities to develop new chemistry to utilize sulfur as a feedstock for polymers. Development of new polymer composite materials using sulfur is not widely explored and remains an important challenge in the field. Polymer nanocomposites prepared by carbon nanotube, graphene, silica and other nanomaterials were well established. However, utilization of sulfur as filler in the polymer matrix could be an interesting study. This work is to presents the possibility of utilizing elemental sulfur as reinforcing fillers in the polymer matrix. In this study we attempted to prepare polypropylene/sulfur nanocomposite. The physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the newly developed composites were studied according to the sulfur loading. In the sample preparation, four levels of elemental sulfur loading (5, 10, 20 and 30 wt. %) were designed. Composites were prepared by the melt mixing process by using laboratory scale mini twin screw extruder at 180°C for 15 min. The reaction time and temperature were maintained constant for all prepared composites. The structure and crystallization behavior of composites was investigated by Raman, FTIR, XRD and DSC analysis. It was observed that sulfur interfere with the crystalline arrangement of polypropylene and depresses the crystallization, which affects the melting point, mechanical and thermal stability. In the tensile test, one level of test temperature (room temperature) and crosshead speed (10 mm/min) was designed. Tensile strengths and tensile modulus of the composites were slightly decreased with increasing in filler loading, however, percentage of elongation improved by more than 350% compared to neat polypropylene. The effect of sulfur on the morphology of polypropylene was studied with TEM and SEM techniques. Microscope analysis revels that sulfur is homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrix and behaves as single phase arrangement in the polymer. The maximum elongation for the polypropylene can be achieved by adjusting the sulfur loading in the polymer. This study reviles the possibility of using elemental sulfur as a solid plasticizer in the polypropylene matrix.

Keywords: crystallization, elemental sulfur, morphology, thermo-mechanical properties, polypropylene, polymer nanocomposites

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2462 Control of Indoor Carbon through Soft Approaches in Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


The mountainous regions are very crucial for a country because of their importance for weather, water supply, forests, and various other socio-economic benefits. But the increasing population and its demand for energy and infrastructure have contributed very high loadings of air pollution. Various activities such as cooking, heating, manufacturing, transport, etc. contribute various particulate and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. This study was focused upon indoor air pollution and was carried out in four rural households of the Baggi village located in the Hamirpur District of the Himachal Pradesh state. The residents of Baggi village use biomass as fuel for cooking on traditional stove (Chullah). The biomass types include wood (mainly Beul, Grewia Optiva), crop residue and dung cakes. This study aimed to determine the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), major cations and anions in the indoor air of each household. During non-cooking hours, it was found that the indoor air contained OC and EC as low as 21µg/m³ and 17µg/m³ respectively. But during cooking hours (with biomass burning), the levels of OC and EC were raised significantly by 91.2% and 85.4% respectively. Then the residents were advised to switch over as per our soft approach options. In the first approach change, they were asked to prepare the meal partially on Chullah using biomass and partially with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). By doing this change, a considerable reduction in OC (53.1%) and in EC (41.8%) was noticed. The second change of approach included the cooking of entire meal by using LPG. This resulted in the reduction of OC (84.1%) and EC (73.3%) as compared to the values obtained during cooking entirely with biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol levels were higher in the morning hours than in the evening hours because of more biomass burning activity in the morning. According to a general survey done with the residents, the study provided them an awareness about the air pollution and the harmful effects of biomass burning. Some of them correlated their ailments like weakened eyesight, fatigue and respiratory problems with indoor air pollution. This study demonstrated that by replacing biomass with clean fuel such as LPG, the indoor concentrations of EC and OC can be reduced substantially.

Keywords: biomass burning, carbonaceous aerosol, elemental carbon, organic carbon, LPG

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2461 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad


During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

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2460 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

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2459 Microstructural and Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Li-Batteries

Authors: Rinlee Butch M. Cervera, Princess Stephanie P. Llanos


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, pure LiFePO4 (LFP) and carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 (LFP-C) is synthesized and characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LFP structure with about 63 nm crystallite size as calculated by using Scherrer’s equation. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LFP and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of the compositional elements. In addition, galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements were investigated for the cathode performance of the synthesized LFP and LFP-C samples. The results showed that the carbon-coated sample demonstrated the highest capacity of about 140 mAhg-1 as compared to non-coated and micrograined sized commercial LFP.

Keywords: ceramics, energy storage, electrochemical measurements, transmission electron microscope

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2458 Electrode Performance of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 in Lithium Batteries

Authors: Princess Stephanie P. Llanos, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 is synthesized via wet chemistry method at a low temperature of 400 °C and investigated its performance as a cathode in Lithium battery. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LiFePO4 structure. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LiFePO4 and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of Fe, P, O, and C elements. On the other hand, the electrochemical performances of the synthesized cathodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests with different C-rates, and cycling performances. Galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements revealed that the sample sintered at 400 °C for 3 hours with carbon coating demonstrated the highest capacity among the samples which reaches up to 160 mAhg⁻¹ at 0.1C rate.

Keywords: cathode, charge-discharge, electrochemical, lithium batteries

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2457 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park


With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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2456 Electrochemical and Theoretical Quantum Approaches on the Inhibition of C1018 Carbon Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium Containing Chloride Using Newly Synthesized Phenolic Schiff Bases Compounds

Authors: Hany M. Abd El-Lateef


Two novel Schiff bases, 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(pyridin-3-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAP) and 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(quinolin-8-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAQ) have been synthesized. They have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, IR and NMR). Moreover, the molecular structure of HBSAP and HBSAQ compounds are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The inhibition activity of HBSAP and HBSAQ for carbon steel in 3.5 %NaCl+0.1 M HCl for both short and long immersion time, at different temperatures (20-50 ºC), was investigated using electrochemistry and surface characterization. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the inhibitors molecule is more adsorbed on the cathodic sites. Its efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentrations (92.8 % at the optimal concentration of 10-3 M for HBSAQ). Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm with physical/chemical nature of the adsorption, as it is shown also by scanning electron microscopy. Further, the electronic structural calculations using quantum chemical methods were found to be in a good agreement with the results of the experimental studies.

Keywords: carbon steel, Schiff bases, corrosion inhibition, SEM, electrochemical techniques

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2455 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry


The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion rate, erosion, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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2454 Framework Development of Carbon Management Software Tool in Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Indian Industry

Authors: Sarbjit Singh


This framework development explored the status of GSCM in manufacturing SMEs and concluded that there was a significant gap w.r.t carbon emissions measurement in the supply chain activities. The measurement of carbon emissions within supply chains is important green initiative toward its reduction. The majority of the SMEs were facing the problem to quantify the green house gas emissions in its supply chain & to make it a low carbon supply chain or GSCM. Thus, the carbon management initiatives were amalgamated with the supply chain activities in order to measure and reduce the carbon emissions, confirming the GHG protocol scopes. Henceforth, it covers the development of carbon management software (CMS) tool to quantify carbon emissions for effective carbon management. This tool is cheap and easy to use for the industries for the management of their carbon emissions within the supply chain.

Keywords: w.r.t carbon emissions, carbon management software, supply chain management, Indian Industry

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2453 Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

Authors: I-Huan Chiu, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Meito Kajino, Miho Katsuragawa, Shunsaku Nagasawa, Atsushi Shinohara, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryota Tomaru, Shin Watanabe, Goro Yabu


In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical observation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the non-destructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

Keywords: DSSD, muon, muonic X-ray, imaging, non-destructive analysis

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2452 Potential of Mineral Composition Reconstruction for Monitoring the Performance of an Iron Ore Concentration Plant

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi, Claude Bazin, Daniel Hodouin, Laura Perez Barnuevo


The performance of a separation process is usually evaluated using performance indices calculated from elemental assays readily available from the chemical analysis laboratory. However, the separation process performance is essentially related to the properties of the minerals that carry the elements and not those of the elements. Since elements or metals can be carried by valuable and gangue minerals in the ore and that each mineral responds differently to a mineral processing method, the use of only elemental assays could lead to erroneous or uncertain conclusions on the process performance. This paper discusses the advantages of using performance indices calculated from minerals content, such as minerals recovery, for process performance assessments. A method is presented that uses elemental assays to estimate the minerals content of the solids in various process streams. The method combines the stoichiometric composition of the minerals and constraints of mass conservation for the minerals through the concentration process to estimate the minerals content from elemental assays. The advantage of assessing a concentration process using mineral based performance indices is illustrated for an iron ore concentration circuit.

Keywords: data reconciliation, iron ore concentration, mineral composition, process performance assessment

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2451 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi


In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

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2450 N Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Growth over a Ni Catalyst Substrate

Authors: Angie Quevedo, Juan Bussi, Nestor Tancredi, Juan Fajardo-Díaz, Florentino López-Urías, Emilio Muñóz-Sandoval


In this work, we study the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) over a catalyst with 20 % of Ni supported over La₂Zr₂O₇ (Ni20LZO). The high C solubility of Ni made it one of the most used in CNTs synthesis. Nevertheless, Ni presents also sintering and coalescence at high temperature. These troubles can be reduced by choosing a suitable support. We propose La₂Zr₂O₇ as for this matter since the incorporation of Ni by co-precipitation and calcination at 900 °C allows a good dispersion and interaction of the active metal (in the oxidized form, NiO) with this support. The CCVD was performed using 1 g of Ni20LZO at 950 °C during 30 min in Ar:H₂ atmosphere (2.5 L/min). The precursor, benzylamine, was added by a nebulizer-sprayer. X ray diffraction study shows the phase separation of NiO and La₂Zr₂O₇ after the calcination and the reduction to Ni after the synthesis. Raman spectra show D and G bands with a ID/IG ratio of 0.75. Elemental study verifies the incorporation of 1% of N. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the oxidation process start at around 450 °C. Future studies will determine the application potential of the samples.

Keywords: N doped carbon nanotubes, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, nickel catalyst, bimetallic oxide

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2449 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim


Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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2448 The Carbon Emission Seesaw Effect

Authors: Adel Elomri


The notion of carbon footprinting is ever more widespread as companies are becoming increasingly aware that tackling carbon emissions and being seen to do so is a key issue to face governments, customers and other stakeholders’ pressures towards delivering environmentally friendly services and activities. In this contest, many firms are taking self-initiatives to reduce their own carbon emissions while some other are constrained to obey to different regulations/policies (e.g. carbon tax or carbon Cap) designed by higher authorities targeting a low-carbon environment. Using buyer-vendor framework, this paper provides some insights on how effective are these self-initiatives and regulatory policies when only concerning firms at the individual level and not the whole supply chain they are part of. We show that when firms individually engage in reducing their direct carbon emissions either under self-initiatives or regulatory policy, an opposite expected outcome resulting in a higher global supply chain emission can occur. This effect is referred to as the carbon seesaw effect. Moreover, we show that coordinating or centralizing the supply chain -contrary to what one may think at first- is not often the appropriate solution to get rid of this effect.

Keywords: carbon emissions, supply chain coordination, EOQ, sustainable operations

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2447 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya


Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

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2446 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot


The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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2445 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan


Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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2444 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana


Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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2443 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise


Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: soil, carbon storage, acidity, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

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2442 Enhancement of Lignin Bio-Degradation through Homogenization with Dimethyl Sulfoxide

Authors: Ivana Brzonova, Asina Fnu, Alena Kubatova, Evguenii Kozliak, Yun Ji


Bio-decomposition of lignin by Basidiomycetes in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated. The addition of 3-5 vol% DMSO to lignin aqueous media significantly increased the lignin solubility based on UV absorbance. After being dissolved in DMSO, the thermal evolution profile also changed significantly, yielding more high-MW organic carbon at the expense of recalcitrant elemental carbon. Medical fungi C. versicolor, G. lucidum and P. pulmonarius, were observed to grow on the lignin in media containing up to 15 vol. % DMSO. Further detailed product characterization by chromatographic methods corroborated these observations, as more low-MW phenolic products were observed with DMSO as a co-solvent. These results may be explained by the high solubility of lignin in DMSO; thus, the addition of DMSO to the medium increases the lignin availability for microorganisms. Some of these low-MW phenolic products host a big potential to be used in medicine. No significant inhibition of enzymatic activity (laccase, MnP, LiP) was observed by the addition of up to 3 vol% DMSO.

Keywords: basidiomycetes, bio-degradation, dimethyl sulfoxide, lignin

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2441 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait


Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

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2440 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali


Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

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2439 Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques

Authors: J. Chandrasekhar Rao, B. G. Naidu, G. J. Naga Raju, P. Sarita


Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.

Keywords: PIXE, CP-MS, elements, Cyperus rotundus, rheumatoid arthritis

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