Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: A. M. Ashraful

4 Growth Pattern Analysis of Khagrachari Pourashava

Authors: Kutub Uddin Chisty, Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Ashraful Islam


Growth pattern is an important factor for a city because it can help to predict future growth trend and development of a city. Khagrachari District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is bordered by the Indian State of Tripura on the north, Rangamati and Chittagong districts on the south, Rangamati district on the east, Chittagong district and the Indian State of Tripura on the west. Khagrachari Pourashava is surrounded by hills and waterways. The Pourashava area is mostly inhibited by non-tribal population, while tribal population lives in hilly regions within and around the Pourashava area. The hilly area growth is different. Based on questioners and expert opinions survey, growth pattern of Khagrachari is evaluated. Different culture, history, tribal people, non-tribal people enrich the hilly heritages. In our study, we analyse the city growth pattern and identify the prominent factors that influence the city growth. Thus, it can help us to identify growth trend of the city.

Keywords: growth pattern, growth trend, prominent factors, regional development

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3 Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration, EC, OC Emission and Elemental Composition for Biodiesel-Fuelled Diesel Engine

Authors: A. M. Ashraful, H .H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam


Comparative investigations were performed on the particles matter emitted from a DI diesel engine utilizing palm biodiesel. In this experiment, palm biodiesel PB10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), PB20 (80% diesel, 20% palm biodiesel) and diesel fuel samples exhaust were investigated at different working condition (25% and 50% load at 1500 rpm constant speed). Observation of this experiment it clearly seen that at low load condition particle matter concentration of palm biodiesel exhaust were de-creased than that of diesel fuel. At no load and 25% load condition PB10 biodiesel blend exhibited 2.2 times lower PM concentration than that of diesel fuel. On the other hand, elemental carbon (EC) and organic emission for PB10 showed decreases trend as varies 4.2% to 6.6% and 32 to 39% respectively, while elemental carbon percentage increased by 0.85 to 10% respectively. Similarly, metal composition of PB10 biodiesel blend increased by 4.8 to 26.5% respectively. SEM images for B10 and B20 demonstrated granular structure particulates with greater grain sizes compared with diesel fuel. Finally, the experimental outcomes showed that the blend composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel influence on the particulate matter formation.

Keywords: particulate matter, elemental carbon, organic carbon, biodiesel

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2 Fear of Gender-Based Crime and Women Empowerment: An Empirical Study among the Urban Residents of Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Biro Judit


Fear of gender-based crime and fear of crime victimization for women is a major concern in the urban areas of Bangladesh. Based on the recent data from various human rights organizations and international literature the study found that gender-based crime especially sexual assault and rape are increasing in Bangladesh at a significant rate in comparison to other countries. The major focus of the study was to identify the relationship between fear of gender-based crime and women empowerment. To explore the fact the study followed the mixed methodological approach comprising with quantitative and qualitative methods and used secondary information from national and international sources. Corresponding global pictures the present study found that gender, age, complexion, social position, and ethnicity were more common factors of sexual assault and victimization in Bangladesh which lead to women become more fearful about crime victimization than men. Fear of gender-based crime traumatizes women which leads to withdrawal of their non-essential everyday works and some time from the essential works based on their social position, financial status, and social honor in the society. The increasing crime rate also increases the propensity to fear of criminal victimization, traumatization, and feeling of helplessness which make them vulnerable. The patriarchal culture and practices in Bangladesh based on religious culture and established social norms women always feel defenseless therefore they withdraw themselves from various social activities and own interest. Women who have already victimized feel more fear and become traumatized, and who do not victimize yet but know the severity of victimization from the media and others’ have the feeling of fear of crime. Women who find themselves as weak bonding and low networks with their neighbors and living for a short duration have a feeling of more fear and avoid visiting a certain place in a certain time and avoid some social activities. The study found the young women have more possibilities to become victimized through the feeling of fear of crime is higher among elderly women than young. Though women feel fear of all kinds of crime but usually all aged women are more fearful of sexual assault and rape than other violent crimes. Therefore, elderly women and another person in the family does not allow younger girls to go and involve outside activities to secure their family status. On the other hand, fear of crime in public transport is more common to all aged women at a higher level and sometimes they compromise their freedom, independence, financial opportunities, the job only to avoid the perceived threat, and save their social and cultural honor. The study also explores that fear of crime does not always depend on crime rate but the crime news, the severity of the crime, delay justice, the ineffectiveness of police, bail of criminals, corruption and political favoritism, etc. Finally, the study shows that the fear of gender-based crime and violence is working as a potential barrier to ensuring women's empowerment in Bangladesh.

Keywords: compromise personal freedom, fear of crime, fear of gender-based crime, fear of violent crime victimization, rape, sexual assaults, withdrawal from regular activities, women empowerment

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1 Deep-Learning Coupled with Pragmatic Categorization Method to Classify the Urban Environment of the Developing World

Authors: Qianwei Cheng, A. K. M. Mahbubur Rahman, Anis Sarker, Abu Bakar Siddik Nayem, Ovi Paul, Amin Ahsan Ali, M. Ashraful Amin, Ryosuke Shibasaki, Moinul Zaber


Thomas Friedman, in his famous book, argued that the world in this 21st century is flat and will continue to be flatter. This is attributed to rapid globalization and the interdependence of humanity that engendered tremendous in-flow of human migration towards the urban spaces. In order to keep the urban environment sustainable, policy makers need to plan based on extensive analysis of the urban environment. With the advent of high definition satellite images, high resolution data, computational methods such as deep neural network analysis, and hardware capable of high-speed analysis; urban planning is seeing a paradigm shift. Legacy data on urban environments are now being complemented with high-volume, high-frequency data. However, the first step of understanding urban space lies in useful categorization of the space that is usable for data collection, analysis, and visualization. In this paper, we propose a pragmatic categorization method that is readily usable for machine analysis and show applicability of the methodology on a developing world setting. Categorization to plan sustainable urban spaces should encompass the buildings and their surroundings. However, the state-of-the-art is mostly dominated by classification of building structures, building types, etc. and largely represents the developed world. Hence, these methods and models are not sufficient for developing countries such as Bangladesh, where the surrounding environment is crucial for the categorization. Moreover, these categorizations propose small-scale classifications, which give limited information, have poor scalability and are slow to compute in real time. Our proposed method is divided into two steps-categorization and automation. We categorize the urban area in terms of informal and formal spaces and take the surrounding environment into account. 50 km × 50 km Google Earth image of Dhaka, Bangladesh was visually annotated and categorized by an expert and consequently a map was drawn. The categorization is based broadly on two dimensions-the state of urbanization and the architectural form of urban environment. Consequently, the urban space is divided into four categories: 1) highly informal area; 2) moderately informal area; 3) moderately formal area; and 4) highly formal area. In total, sixteen sub-categories were identified. For semantic segmentation and automatic categorization, Google’s DeeplabV3+ model was used. The model uses Atrous convolution operation to analyze different layers of texture and shape. This allows us to enlarge the field of view of the filters to incorporate larger context. Image encompassing 70% of the urban space was used to train the model, and the remaining 30% was used for testing and validation. The model is able to segment with 75% accuracy and 60% Mean Intersection over Union (mIoU). In this paper, we propose a pragmatic categorization method that is readily applicable for automatic use in both developing and developed world context. The method can be augmented for real-time socio-economic comparative analysis among cities. It can be an essential tool for the policy makers to plan future sustainable urban spaces.

Keywords: semantic segmentation, urban environment, deep learning, urban building, classification

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