Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 640

Search results for: oxidation

490 Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Juice on Semen Oxidation in Male Rats

Authors: Jamshid Ghiasi Ghalehkandi, Naser Maheri Sis, Yahya Ebrahimnezhad, Shahin Hassanpour


The objective of present study was to examine the effects of fresh garlic juice on semen malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in male rats. Fifty-four male rats (230-250 g) were allocated into 3 treatment groups (each include 3 groups and 6 replicate). Group 1 served as water control. In group 2, rats were gavaged with 60 mg/kg garlic juice. In group 3, rats were offered 120 mg/kg garlic juice. Animals received treatments orally and ad libitum access to chow pellets and fresh water. After 4 weeks, animals were killed, testes were taken out and semen samples were used to determine MDA, SOD, GPx and TAS activity. According to the results, garlic juice (120 mg/kg) significantly declined semen MDA activity compared to control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that presumably garlic juice protects semen oxidation in rat testes.

Keywords: rat, garlic juice, chromium chloride, semen

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489 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: phenolic antioxidant, high density polyethylene, thermostabilization, primary antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

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488 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: M. M. Rahman, M. A. Aziz, K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Motin, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

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487 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie


In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, Wear, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation

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486 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu


A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: phosphotungstic acid, ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania

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485 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: Industrial Wastewater, COD, fenton oxidation, ammoniacal nitrogen

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484 Correlation Analysis of Reactivity in the Oxidation of Para and Meta-Substituted Benzyl Alcohols by Benzimidazolium Dichromate in Non-Aqueous Media: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects

Authors: Seema Kothari, Dinesh Panday


An observed correlation of the reaction rates with the changes in the nature of substituent present on one of the reactants often reveals the nature of transition state. Selective oxidation of organic compounds under non-aqueous media is an important transformation in synthetic organic chemistry. Inorganic chromates and dichromates being drastic oxidant and are generally insoluble in most organic solvents, a number of different chromium (VI) derivatives have been synthesized. Benzimidazolium dichromate (BIDC) is one of the recently reported Cr(VI) reagents which is neither hygroscopic nor light sensitive being, therefore, much stable. Not many reports on the kinetics of the oxidations by BIDC are seemed to be available in the literature. In the present investigation, the kinetics and mechanism of benzyl alcohol (BA) and a number of para- and meta-substituted benzyl alcohols by benzimidazolium dichromate (BIDC), in dimethyl sulphoxide, is reported. The reactions were followed spectrophotometrically at 364 nm by monitoring the decrease in [BIDC] for up to 85-90% reaction, the temperature being constant. The observed oxidation product is the corresponding benzaldehyde. The reactions were of first order with respect to each the alcohol and BIDC. The reactions are catalyzed by proton, and the dependence is of the form: kobs = a + b[H+]. The reactions thus follow both, an acid-dependent and acid-independent paths. The oxidation of [1,1 2H2]benzyl alcohol exhibited the presence of a substantial kinetic isotope effect ( kH/kD = 6.20 at 298 K ). This indicated the cleavage of a α-C-H bond in the rate-determining step. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect showed that the loss of hydrogen proceeds through a concerted cyclic process. The rate of oxidation of BA was determined in 19 organic solvents. An analysis of the solvent effect by Swain’s equation indicated that though both the anion and cation-solvating powers of the solvent contribute to the observed solvent effect, the role of cation-solvation is major. The rates of the para and meta compounds, at 298 K, failed to exhibit a significant correlation in terms of Hammett or Brown's substituent constants. The rates were then subjected to analyses in terms of dual substituent parameter (DSP) equations. The rates of oxidation of the para-substituted benzyl alcohols show an excellent correlation with Taft's σI and σRBA values. However, the rates for the meta-substituted benzyl alcohols show an excellent correlation with σI and σR0. The polar reaction constants are negative indicating an electron-deficient transition state. Hence the overall mechanism is proposed to involve the formation of a chromate ester in a fast pre-equilibrium and then a decomposition of the ester in a subsequent slow step via a cyclic concerted symmetrical transition state, involving hydride-ion transfer, leading to the product. The first order dependence on alcohol may be accounted in terms of the small value of the formation constant of the ester intermediate. An another reaction mechanism accounting the acid-catalysis involve the formation of a protonated BIDC prior to formation of an ester intermediate which subsequently decomposes in a slow step leading to the product.

Keywords: Kinetics, Correlation analysis, Oxidation, benzyl alcohols, benzimidazolium dichromate

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483 Antioxidant Potential of Sunflower Seed Cake Extract in Stabilization of Soybean Oil

Authors: Ivanor Zardo, Fernanda Walper Da Cunha, Júlia Sarkis, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak


Lipid oxidation is one of the most important deteriorating processes in oil industry, resulting in the losses of nutritional value of oils as well as changes in color, flavor and other physiological properties. Autoxidation of lipids occurs naturally between molecular oxygen and the unsaturation of fatty acids, forming fat-free radicals, peroxide free radicals and hydroperoxides. In order to avoid the lipid oxidation in vegetable oils, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butyl hydro-quinone (TBHQ) are commonly used. However, the use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with several health side effects and toxicity. The use of natural antioxidants as stabilizers of vegetable oils is being suggested as a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. The alternative that has been studied is the use of natural extracts obtained mainly from fruits, vegetables and seeds, which have a well-known antioxidant activity related mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. The sunflower seed cake is rich in phenolic compounds (1 4% of the total mass), being the chlorogenic acid the major constituent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro application of the phenolic extract obtained from the sunflower seed cake as a retarder of the lipid oxidation reaction in soybean oil and to compare the results with a synthetic antioxidant. For this, the soybean oil, provided from the industry without any addition of antioxidants, was subjected to an accelerated storage test for 17 days at 65 °C. Six samples with different treatments were submitted to the test: control sample, without any addition of antioxidants; 100 ppm of synthetic antioxidant BHT; mixture of 50 ppm of BHT and 50 ppm of phenolic compounds; and 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds concentration in the extract was expressed in gallic acid equivalents. To evaluate the oxidative changes of the samples, aliquots were collected after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 17 days and analyzed for the peroxide, diene and triene conjugate values. The soybean oil sample initially had a peroxide content of 2.01 ± 0.27 meq of oxygen/kg of oil. On the third day of the treatment, only the samples treated with 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds showed a considerable oxidation retard compared to the control sample. On the sixth day of the treatment, the samples presented a considerable increase in the peroxide value (higher than 13.57 meq/kg), and the higher the concentration of phenolic compounds, the lower the peroxide value verified. From the tenth day on, the samples had a very high peroxide value (higher than 55.39 meq/kg), where only the sample containing 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds presented significant oxidation retard. The samples containing the phenolic extract were more efficient to avoid the formation of the primary oxidation products, indicating effectiveness to retard the reaction. Similar results were observed for dienes and trienes. Based on the results, phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (the major phenolic compound of sunflower seed cake), can be considered as a potential partial or even total substitute for synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: Waste Valorization, Chlorogenic Acid, natural antioxidant, vegetables oil deterioration

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482 Fabrication and Characterization Analysis of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O Perovskite Hollow Fiber Catalyst for Oxygen Removal in Landfill Gas

Authors: Jung Hoon Park, Seong Woon Lee, Soo Min Lim, Sung Sik Jeong


The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG, Green House Gas) is increasing continuously as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels and industrial development. In response to this trend, many researches have been conducted on the reduction of GHG. Landfill gas (LFG, Land Fill Gas) is one of largest sources of GHG emissions containing the methane (CH₄) as a major constituent and can be considered renewable energy sources as well. In order to use LFG by connecting to the city pipe network, it required a process for removing impurities. In particular, oxygen must be removed because it can cause corrosion of pipes and engines. In this study, methane oxidation was used to eliminate oxygen from LFG and perovskite-type ceramic catalysts of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O composition was selected as a catalyst. Hollow fiber catalysts (HFC, Hollow Fiber Catalysts) have attracted attention as a new concept alternative because they have high specific surface area and mechanical strength compared to other types of catalysts. HFC was prepared by a phase-inversion/sintering technique using commercial La-Sr-Co-Fe-O powder. In order to measure the catalysts' activity, simulated LFG was used for feed gas and complete oxidation reaction of methane was confirmed. Pore structure of the HFC was confirmed by SEM image and perovskite structure of single phase was analyzed by XRD. In addition, TPR analysis was performed to verify the oxygen adsorption mechanism of the HFC. Acknowledgement—The project is supported by the ‘Global Top Environment R&D Program’ in the ‘R&D Center for reduction of Non-CO₂ Greenhouse gases’ (Development and demonstration of oxygen removal technology of landfill gas) funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (ME).

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, complete oxidation, hollow fiber catalyst, land fill gas, oxygen removal, perovskite catalyst

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481 Cleaning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Obtained from Ferroalloys Plant

Authors: Stefan Andersson, Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen


Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of only hydrogen and carbon aromatic rings. PAH are neutral, non-polar molecules that are produced due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. These compounds are carcinogenic and interact with biological nucleophiles to inhibit the normal metabolic functions of the cells. Norways, the most important sources of PAH pollution is considered to be aluminum plants, the metallurgical industry, offshore oil activity, transport, and wood burning. Stricter governmental regulations regarding emissions to the outer and internal environment combined with increased awareness of the potential health effects have motivated Norwegian metal industries to increase their efforts to reduce emissions considerably. One of the objective of the ongoing industry and Norwegian research council supported "SCORE" project is to reduce potential PAH emissions from an off gas stream of a ferroalloy furnace through controlled combustion. In a dedicated combustion chamber. The sizing and configuration of the combustion chamber depends on the combined properties of the bulk gas stream and the properties of the PAH itself. In order to achieve efficient and complete combustion the residence time and minimum temperature need to be optimized. For this design approach reliable kinetic data of the individual PAH-species and/or groups thereof are necessary. However, kinetic data on the combustion of PAH are difficult to obtain and there is only a limited number of studies. The paper presents an evaluation of the kinetic data for some of the PAH obtained from literature. In the present study, the oxidation is modelled for pure PAH and also for PAH mixed with process gas. Using a perfectly stirred reactor modelling approach the oxidation is modelled including advanced reaction kinetics to study influence of residence time and temperature on the conversion of PAH to CO2 and water. A Chemical Reactor Network (CRN) approach is developed to understand the oxidation of PAH inside the combustion chamber. Chemical reactor network modeling has been found to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of oxidation behavior of PAH under various conditions.

Keywords: energy recovery, PSR, PAH, ferro alloy furnace

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480 Ultrasonic Treatment of Baker’s Yeast Effluent

Authors: Emine Yılmaz, Serap Fındık


Baker’s yeast industry uses molasses as a raw material. Molasses is end product of sugar industry. Wastewater from molasses processing presents large amount of coloured substances that give dark brown color and high organic load to the effluents. The main coloured compounds are known as melanoidins. Melanoidins are product of Maillard reaction between amino acid and carbonyl groups in molasses. Dark colour prevents sunlight penetration and reduces photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen level of surface waters. Various methods like biological processes (aerobic and anaerobic), ozonation, wet air oxidation, coagulation/flocculation are used to treatment of baker’s yeast effluent. Before effluent is discharged adequate treatment is imperative. In addition to this, increasingly stringent environmental regulations are forcing distilleries to improve existing treatment and also to find alternative methods of effluent management or combination of treatment methods. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the alternative methods. Sonochemical oxidation employs ultrasound resulting in cavitation phenomena. In this study, decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent was investigated by using ultrasound. Baker’s yeast effluent was supplied from a factory which is located in the north of Turkey. An ultrasonic homogenizator used for this study. Its operating frequency is 20 kHz. TiO2-ZnO catalyst has been used as sonocatalyst. The effects of molar proportion of TiO2-ZnO, calcination temperature and time, catalyst amount were investigated on the decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent. The results showed that prepared composite TiO2-ZnO with 4:1 molar proportion treated at 700°C for 90 min provides better result. Initial decolorization rate at 15 min is 3% without catalyst, 14,5% with catalyst treated at 700°C for 90 min respectively.

Keywords: Ultrasound, baker’s yeast effluent, decolorization, sonocatalyst

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479 Use of Natural Fibers in Landfill Leachate Treatment

Authors: Araujo J. F. Marina, Araujo F. Marcus Vinicius, Mulinari R. Daniella


Due to the resultant leachate from waste decomposition in landfills has polluter potential hundred times greater than domestic sewage, this is considered a problem related to the depreciation of environment requiring pre-disposal treatment. In seeking to improve this situation, this project proposes the treatment of landfill leachate using natural fibers intercropped with advanced oxidation processes. The selected natural fibers were palm, coconut and banana fiber. These materials give sustainability to the project because, besides having adsorbent capacity, are often part of waste discarded. The study was conducted in laboratory scale. In trials, the effluents were characterized as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Color. The results indicate that is technically promising since that there were extremely oxidative conditions, the use of certain natural fibers in the reduction of pollutants in leachate have been obtained results of COD removals between 67.9% and 90.9%, Turbidity between 88.0% and 99.7% and Color between 67.4% and 90.4%. The expectation generated is to continue evaluating the association of efficiency of other natural fibers with other landfill leachate treatment processes.

Keywords: Natural Fibers, Advanced Oxidation Processes, Chemical Treatment, lndfill leachate

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478 Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals

Authors: Kalyani Mer


Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Heavy Metals, Biochar, chemical activation, in-situ chemical oxidation

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477 Microwave-Assisted 3D Porous Graphene for Its Multi-Functionalities

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Il-Kwon Oh, Jung-Hwan Oh


Porous graphene has extensive potential applications in variety of fields such as hydrogen storage, CO oxidation, gas separation, supercapacitors, fuel cells, nanoelectronics, oil adsorption, and so on. However, the generation of some carbon atoms vacancies for precise small holes have been not extensively studied to prevent the agglomerates of graphene sheets and to obtain porous graphene with high surface area. Recently, many research efforts have been presented to develop physical and chemical synthetic approaches for porous graphene. But physical method has very high cost of manufacture and chemical method consumes so many hours for porous graphene. Herein, we propose a porous graphene contained holes with atomic scale precision by embedding metal nano-particles through microwave irradiation for hydrogen storage and CO oxidation multi- functionalities. This proposed synthetic method is appropriate for fast and convenient production of three dimensional nanostructures, which have nanoholes on the graphene surface in consequence of microwave irradiation. The metal nanoparticles are dispersed quickly on the graphene surface and generated uniform nanoholes on the graphene nanosheets. The morphological and structural characterization of the porous graphene were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. The metal nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene exhibits a microporous volume of 2.586cm3g-1 with an average pore radius of 0.75 nm. HR-TEM analysis was carried out to further characterize the microstructures. By investigating the RAMAN spectra, we can understand the structural changes of graphene. The results of this work demonstrate a possibility to produce a new class of porous graphene. Furthermore, the newly acquired knowledge for the diffusion into graphene can provide useful guidance for the development of the growth of nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Hydrogen Storage, CO oxidation, porous graphene

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476 Comparative Study of Fenton and Activated Carbon Treatment for Dyeing Waste Water

Authors: Prem Mohan, Namrata Jariwala


In recent years 10000 dyes are approximately used by dying industry which makes dyeing wastewater more complex in nature. It is very difficult to treat dyeing wastewater by conventional methods. Here an attempt has been made to treat dyeing wastewater by the conventional and advanced method for removal of COD. Fenton process is the advanced method and activated carbon treatment is the conventional method. Experiments have been done on synthetic wastewater prepared from three different dyes; acidic, disperse and reactive. Experiments have also been conducted on real effluent obtained from industry. The optimum dose of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process and optimum activated carbon dose for each of these wastewaters were obtained. In Fenton treatment, COD removal was obtained up to 95% whereas 70% removal was obtained with activated carbon treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, advanced oxidation process, dyeing waste water, fenton oxidation process

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475 Extraction, Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Oxidized Starch from an Abundant Source in Nigeria

Authors: Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Okafor E. Ijeoma, Emeje O. Martins, Kunle O. Olobayo


Starch has gained interest as a renewable and environmentally compatible polymer due to the increase in its use. However, starch by itself could not be satisfactorily applied in industrial processes due to some inherent disadvantages such as its hydrophilic character, poor mechanical properties, its inability to withstand processing conditions such as extreme temperatures, diverse pH, high shear rate, freeze-thaw variation and dimensional stability. The range of physical properties of parent starch can be enlarged by chemical modification which invariably enhances their use in a number of applications found in industrial processes and food manufacture. In this study, Manihot esculentus starch was subjected to modification by oxidation. Fourier Transmittance Infra- Red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the synthesis while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the new polymer. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free radical assay was used to determine the antioxidant property of the oxidized starch. Our results show that the modification had no significant effect on the foaming capacity as well as on the emulsion capacity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxidation did not alter the predominantly circular-shaped starch granules, while the X-ray pattern of both starch, native and modified were similar. FTIR results revealed a new band at 3007 and 3283cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry returned two new endothermic peaks in the oxidized starch with an improved gelation capacity and increased enthalpy of gelatinization. The IC50 of oxidized starch was notably higher than that of the reference standard, ascorbic acid.

Keywords: Oxidation, Starch, antioxidant activity, DPPH, M. esculentus

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474 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng


This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: Recycle and Reuse, Catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery

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473 A Homogeneous Catalytic System for Decolorization of a Mixture of Orange G Acid and Naphthol Blue-Black Dye Based on Hydrogen Peroxide and a Recyclable DAWSON Type Heteropolyanion

Authors: Ouahiba Bechiri, Mostefa Abbessi


The color removal from industrial effluents is a major concern in wastewater treatment. The main objective of this work was to study the decolorization of a mixture of Orange G acid (OG) and naphthol blue black dye (NBB) in aqueous solution by hydrogen peroxide using [H1,5Fe1,5P2W12Mo6O61,23H2O] as catalyst. [H1,5Fe1,5P2 W12Mo6O61,23H2O] is a recyclable DAWSON type heteropolyanion. Effects of various experimental parameters of the oxidation reaction of the dye were investigated. The studied parameters were: the initial pH, H2O2 concentration, the catalyst mass and the temperature. The optimum conditions had been determined, and it was found that efficiency of degradation obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was about 100%. The optimal parameters were: initial pH = 3; [H2O2]0 = 0.08 mM; catalyst mass = 0.05g; for a concentration of dyes = 30mg/L.

Keywords: Oxidation, Hydrogen Peroxide, Dawson type heteropolyanion, naphthol blue-black, dye degradation, orange G acid

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472 Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Nano Sized Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Ateeq Ur Rehman


This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electrocatalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physicochemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: nano particles, CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), formic acid fuel cell

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471 The Role of Nickel on the High-Temperature Corrosion of Modell Alloys (Stainless Steels) before and after Breakaway Corrosion at 600°C: A Microstructural Investigation

Authors: Imran Hanif, Amanda Persdotter, Sedigheh Bigdeli, Jesper Liske, Torbjorn Jonsson


Renewable fuels such as biomass/waste for power production is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels in order to achieve a CO₂ -neutral power generation. However, the combustion results in the release of corrosive species. This puts high demands on the corrosion resistance of the alloys used in the boiler. Stainless steels containing nickel and/or nickel containing coatings are regarded as suitable corrosion resistance material especially in the superheater regions. However, the corrosive environment in the boiler caused by the presence of water vapour and reactive alkali very rapidly breaks down the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich oxide scale formed on stainless steels. The lifetime of the components, therefore, relies on the properties of the oxide scale formed after breakaway, i.e., the secondary protection. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of varying nickel content (0–82%) on the high-temperature corrosion of model alloys with 18% Cr (Fe in balance) in the laboratory mimicking industrial conditions at 600°C. The influence of nickel is investigated on both the primary protection and especially the secondary protection, i.e., the scale formed after breakaway, during the oxidation/corrosion process in the dry O₂ (primary protection) and more aggressive environment such as H₂O, K₂CO₃ and KCl (secondary protection). All investigated alloys experience a very rapid loss of the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich (Cr, Fe)₂O₃, and the formation of secondary protection in the aggressive environments. The microstructural investigation showed that secondary protection of all alloys has a very similar microstructure in all more aggressive environments consisting of an outward growing iron oxide and inward growing spinel-oxide (Fe, Cr, Ni)₃O₄. The oxidation kinetics revealed that it is possible to influence the protectiveness of the scale formed after breakaway (secondary protection) through the amount of nickel in the alloy. The difference in oxidation kinetics of the secondary protection is linked to the microstructure and chemical composition of the complex spinel-oxide. The detailed microstructural investigations were carried out using the extensive analytical techniques such as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDS) via the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques and results are compared with the thermodynamic calculations using the Thermo-Calc software.

Keywords: High-Temperature Oxidation, SEM, TEM, EBSD, breakaway corrosion

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470 Effect of Cooling Approaches on Chemical Compositions, Phases, and Acidolysis of Panzhihua Titania Slag

Authors: Bing Song, Kexi Han, Xuewei Lv


Titania slag is a high quality raw material containing titanium in the subsequent process of titanium pigment. The effects of cooling approaches of granulating, water cooling, and air cooling on chemical, phases, and acidolysis of Panzhihua titania slag were investigated. Compared to the original slag which was prepared by the conventional processing route, the results show that the titania slag undergoes oxidation of Ti3+during different cooling ways. The Ti2O3 content is 17.50% in the original slag, but it is 16.55% and 16.84% in water cooled and air-cooled slag, respectively. Especially, the Ti2O3 content in granulated slag is decreased about 27.6%. The content of Fe2O3 in granulated slag is approximately 2.86% also obviously higher than water (<0.5%) or air-cooled slag (<0.5%). Rutile in cooled titania slag was formed because of the oxidation of Ti3+. The rutile phase without a noticeable change in water cooled and air-cooled slag after the titania slag was cooled, but increased significantly in the granulated slag. The rate of sulfuric acid acidolysis of cooled slag is less than the original slag. The rate of acidolysis is 90.61% and 92.46% to the water-cooled slag and air-cooled slag, respectively. However, the rate of acidolysis of the granulated slag is less than that of industry slag about 20%, only 74.72%.

Keywords: cooling approaches, titania slag, granulating, sulfuric acid acidolysis

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469 Brown Macroalgae L. hyperborea as Natural Cation Exchanger and Electron Donor for the Treatment of a Zinc and Hexavalent Chromium Containing Galvanization Wastewater

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The electroplating industry requires a lot of process water, which generates a large volume of wastewater loaded with heavy metals. Two different wastewaters were collected in a company’s wastewater treatment plant, one after the use of zinc in the metal plating process and the other after the use of chromium. The main characteristics of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) wastewaters are: pH = 6.7/5.9; chemical oxygen demand = 55/<5 mg/L; sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions concentrations of 326/28, 4/28, 11/7 and 46/37 mg/L, respectively; zinc(II) = 11 mg/L and Cr(VI) = 39 mg/L. Batch studies showed that L. hyperborea can be established as a natural cation exchanger for heavy metals uptake mainly due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in the surface of the biomass. Beyond that, L. hyperborea can be used as a natural electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent chromium at acidic medium through the oxidation of the biomass, and Cr(III) can be further bound to the negatively charged functional groups. The uptake capacity of Cr(III) by the oxidized biomass after Cr(VI) reduction was higher than by the algae in its original form. This can be attributed to the oxidation of the biomass during Cr(VI) reduction, turning other active sites available for Cr(III) binding. The brown macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea was packed in a fixed-bed column in order to evaluate the feasibility of the system for the continuous treatment of the two galvanization wastewaters. The column, with an internal diameter of 4.8 cm, was packed with 59 g of algae up to a bed height of 27 cm. The operation strategy adopted for the treatment of the two wastewaters consisted in: i) treatment of the Zn(II) wastewater in the first sorption cycle; ii) desorption of pre-loaded Zn(II) using an 1.0 M HCl solution; iii) treatment of the Cr(VI) wastewater, taking advantage of the acidic conditions of the column after the desorption cycle, for the reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the presence of the electrons resulting from the biomass oxidation. This cycle ends when all the oxidizing groups are used.

Keywords: Chromium, zinc, biosorption, brown marine macroalgae

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468 Enhanced Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Binary Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Azeem Ur Rehman, Asma Tayyaba


This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electro catalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physico chemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), electro catalyst, formic acid fuel cell

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467 Phenolic Compounds, Antiradical Activity, and Antioxidant Efficacy of Satureja hortensisl - Extracts in Vegetable Oil Protection

Authors: Abolfazl Kamkar


Vegetable oils and fats are recognized as important components of our diet. They provide essential fatty acids, which are precursors of important hormones and control many physiological factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and the reproductive system.Vegetable oils with higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are more susceptible to oxidation.Protective effects of Sature jahortensis(SE) extracts in stabilizing soybean oil at different concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) were tested. Results showed that plant extracts could significantly (P< 0.05) lower the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of oil during storage at 60 oC. The IC50 values for methanol and ethanol extracts were 31.5 ± 0.7 and 37.00 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively. In the β- carotene/linoleic acid system, methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited 87.5 ± 1.41% and 74.0 ±2.25 % inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol and ethanol extracts were (101.58 ± 0. 26m g/ g) and (96.00 ± 0.027 mg/ g), (44.91 ± 0.14 m g/ g) and (14.30 ± 0.12 mg/ g) expressed in Gallic acid and Quercetin equivalents, respectively.These findings suggest that Satureja extracts may have potential application as natural antioxidants in the edible oil and food industry.

Keywords: extract, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, vegetable oil, satureja hortensis

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466 Central Composite Design for the Optimization of Fenton Process Parameters in Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

Authors: Ali Gharaee, Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou, Bagher Anvaripour, Ali Asghar Mahjoobi


Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) is a major concern facing the oil and gas industry. Particularly, condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil at gas production sites. The remediation of PHCs is a difficult challenge due to the complex interaction between contaminant and soil. A study has been conducted to enhance degradation of PHCs by Fenton oxidation and using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron as catalyst. The various operating conditions such as initial H2O2 concentration, nZVI dosage, reaction time, and initial contamination dose were investigated. Central composite design was employed to optimize and analyze the effect of operational parameters on the PHC removal efficiency. It was found that optimal molar ratio of H2O2/Fe0 was 58 with maximum TPH removal of 84% and 3hr reaction time and initial contaminant concentration was 15g oil /kg soil. Based on the results, combination of Nanoscale ZVI and Fenton has proved to be a promising remedy for contaminated soil.

Keywords: oil contaminated Soil, fenton oxidation, zero valent iron nano-particles

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465 Effect of Preparation Temperature on Producing Graphene Oxide by Chemical Oxidation Approach

Authors: Rashad Al-Gaashani, Muataz A. Atieh


In this study, the effect of preparation temperature, namely room temperature (RT), 40, 60, and 85°C, on producing of high-quality graphene oxide (GO) has been investigated. GO samples have been prepared by chemical oxidation of graphite via a safe improved chemical technique using a blend of two deferent acids: sulphuric acid (H₂SO₄) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) with volume ratio 4:1, respectively. potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were applied as oxidizing agents. In this work, sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) was excluded, so the emission of hazardous explosive gases such as NO₂ and N₂O₂ was shunned. Ice and oil baths were used to carefully control the temperature. Several characterization instruments including X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to study and compare the synthesized samples. The results indicated that GO can be prepared at RT with graphite oxide, and the purity of GO increased with rising of the solvent temperature. Optical properties of GO samples were studied using UV-vis absorption spectra.

Keywords: Optical Properties, Graphene Oxide, Graphite, chemical method

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464 Exercise Intensity Increasing Appetite, Energy, Intake Energy Expenditure, and Fat Oxidation in Sedentary Overweight Individuals

Authors: Ghalia Shamlan, M. Denise Robertson, Adam Collins


Appetite control (i.e. control of energy intake) is important for weight maintenance. Exercise contributes to the most variable component of energy expenditure (EE) but its impact is beyond the energy cost of exercise including physiological, behavioural, and appetite effects. Exercise is known to acutely influence effect appetite but evidence as to the independent effect of intensity is lacking. This study investigated the role of exercise intensity on appetite, energy intake (EI), appetite related hormone, fat utilisation and subjective measures of appetite. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 10 sedentary overweight volunteers. Subjects undertook either 8 repeated 60 second bouts of cycling at 95% VO2max (high intensity) or 30 minutes of continuous cycling, at a fixed cadence, equivalent to 50% of the participant’s VO2max (low intensity) in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured fasted, postprandial, and pre and post-exercise. Satiety was assessed subjectively throughout the study using visual analogue scales (VAS). Ad libitum intake of a pasta meal was measured at the end (3-h post-breakfast). Interestingly, there was not significant difference in EE fat oxidation between HI and LI post-exercise. Also, no significant effect of high intensity (HI) was observed on the ad libitum meal, 24h and 48h EI post-exercise. However the mean 24h EI was 3000 KJ lower following HI than low intensity (LI). Despite, no significant differences in hunger score, glucose, NEFA and GLP-1 between both intensities were observed. However, NEFA and GLP-1 plasma level were higher until 30 min post LI. In conclusion, the similarity of EE and oxidation outcomes could give overweight individuals an option to choose between intensities. However, HI could help to reduce EI. There are mechanisms and consequences of exercise in short and long-term appetite control; however, these mechanisms warrant further explanation. These results support the need for future research in to the role of in regulation energy balance, especially for obese people.

Keywords: Exercise, Energy Expenditure, food intake, appetite

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463 Quantification of River Ravi Pollution and Oxidation Pond Treatment to Improve the Drain Water Quality

Authors: Yusra Mahfooz, Saleha Mehmood


With increase in industrialization and urbanization, water contaminating rivers through effluents laden with diverse chemicals in developing countries. The study was based on the waste water quality of the four drains (Outfall, Gulshan -e- Ravi, Hudiara, and Babu Sabu) which enter into river Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan. Different pollution parameters were analyzed including pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, EC, TSS, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and fecal coliform. Approximately all the water parameters of drains were exceeded the permissible level of wastewater standards. In calculation of pollution load, Hudiara drains showed highest pollution load in terms of COD i.e. 429.86 tons/day while in Babu Sabu drain highest pollution load was calculated in terms of BOD i.e. 162.82 tons/day (due to industrial and sewage discharge in it). Lab scale treatment (oxidation ponds) was designed in order to treat the waste water of Babu Sabu drain, through combination of different algae species i.e. chaetomorphasutoria, sirogoniumsticticum and zygnema sp. Two different sizes of ponds (horizontal and vertical), and three different concentration of algal samples (25g/3L, 50g/3L, and 75g/3L) were selected. After 6 days of treatment, 80 to 97% removal efficiency was found in the pollution parameters. It was observed that in the vertical pond, maximum reduction achieved i.e. turbidity 62.12%, EC 79.3%, BOD 86.6%, COD 79.72%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.6%, sulphates 96.9% and phosphates 85.3%. While in the horizontal pond, the maximum reduction in pollutant parameters, turbidity 69.79%, EC 83%, BOD 88.5%, COD 83.01%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.8%, sulphates 97% and phosphates 86.3% was observed. Overall treatment showed that maximum reduction was carried out in 50g algae setup in the horizontal pond due to large surface area, after 6 days of treatment. Results concluded that algae-based treatment are most energy efficient, which can improve drains water quality in cost effective manners.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, oxidation pond, ravi pollution, river water quality

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462 Biodiesel Is an Alternative Fuel for CI Engines

Authors: Sanat Kumar, Rahul Kumar Tiwari


At this time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. In this regard, the significance of biodiesel is technically and commercially viable alternative to fossil-diesel. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. This paper analyses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel from different feed stocks. Biodiesel fuel is considered as offering many benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and many harmful pollutants (PM, HC, CO etc.). This paper critically reviews the effect of injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics. An attempt has been carried out to discuss the effect of biodiesel in terms of combustion, emission and performance based up on composition and properties. The results of the study show that different chemical composition leads to variation in its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel produced from different aspired feed stocks reduces the pollutant emission and resistive to oxidation but exhibit poor atomization. As a conclusion many research needs to be carried out to understand the relationship between the types of biodiesel feed stock, performance conclusion and emission.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Greenhouse gas, Oxidation, atomization

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461 Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products

Authors: J. Franco Macías, E. Montes Alba, A. López Vásquez


The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Poultry Industry, Photodegradation, TiO2, advanced oxidation process

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