Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Zohreh Derikvand

34 Construction and Application of Zr-MCM41 Nanoreactors as Highly Active and Efficiently Catalyst in the Synthesis of Biginelli-Type Compounds

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand

Abstract:

Nanoreactors Zr-MCM-41were prepared via the reaction of ZrOCl2, Fumed silica, sodium hydroxide and cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide under hydrothermal condition. The prepared nanoreactors were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The XRD pattern of Zr-MCM-41 exhibits a high-intensity (100) and two low-intensity reflections (110 and 200) which are characteristic of hexagonal structure, exhibiting the long-range order and good textural uniformity of mesoporous structure. Based on the green chemistry approach, we report an efficient and environmentally benign protocol to study the catalytic activity of Zr-MCM-41 in the Biginelli type reactions initially. Nanoreactors Zr-MCM-41 were used as highly recoverable and reusable catalyst for synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one, octahydroquinazolinone, benzimidazolo-quinazolineone and 4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The methodology offers several advantages such as short reaction time, high yields and simple operation. The catalyst was active up to three cycles.

Keywords: Zr-MCM-41 nanoreactors, Biginelli like reactions, 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones, ctahydroquinazolinones

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33 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek

Abstract:

Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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32 Structural, Electrochemical and Electrocatalysis Studies of a New 2D Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer of Ni (II) Constructed by Naphthalene-1,4-Dicarboxylic Acid; Oxidation and Determination of Fructose

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand

Abstract:

One new 2D metal-organic coordination polymer of Ni(II) namely [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, where ndc = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and DMSO= dimethyl sulfoxide has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear nickel(II) building blocks in which two crystallographically independent Ni2+ ions are bridged by ndc2– ligands and water molecule. The ndc2– ligands adopt μ3 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a two-dimensional coordination framework. The two independent NiII cations are surrounded by dimethyl sulfoxide and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate molecules in distorted octahedron geometry. In the crystal structures of 1 there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements and C-H–π stacking interactions. Electrochemical behavior of [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, (Ni-NDA) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of fructose on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that the Ni-NDA/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards fructose oxidation.

Keywords: naphthalene-1, 4-dicarboxylic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis, impedance spectroscopy

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31 Stability Assessment of Chamshir Dam Based on DEM, South West Zagros

Authors: Rezvan Khavari

Abstract:

The Zagros fold-thrust belt in SW Iran is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan system which consists of a variety of structures with different sizes or geometries. The study area is Chamshir Dam, which is located on the Zohreh River, 20 km southeast of Gachsaran City (southwest Iran). The satellite images are valuable means available to geologists for locating geological or geomorphological features expressing regional fault or fracture systems, therefore, the satellite images were used for structural analysis of the Chamshir dam area. As well, using the DEM and geological maps, 3D Models of the area have been constructed. Then, based on these models, all the acquired fracture traces data were integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment by using Arc GIS software. Based on field investigation and DEM model, main structures in the area consist of Cham Shir syncline and two fault sets, the main thrust faults with NW-SE direction and small normal faults in NE-SW direction. There are three joint sets in the study area, both of them (J1 and J3) are the main large fractures around the Chamshir dam. These fractures indeed consist with the normal faults in NE-SW direction. The third joint set in NW-SE is normal to the others. In general, according to topography, geomorphology and structural geology evidences, Chamshir dam has a potential for sliding in some parts of Gachsaran formation.

Keywords: DEM, chamshir dam, zohreh river, satellite images

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30 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner

Abstract:

One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: supramolecular chemistry, Cd coordination polymer, crystal structure, 3-nithrophethalic acid

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29 Survey of Corrosion and Scaling of Urban Drinking Water Supply Reservoirs (Case Study: Ilam City)

Authors: Ehsan Derikvand, Hamid Kaykha, Rooholah Mansoori Yekta, Taleb Javanmard, Mohsen Mehdi Zadeh

Abstract:

Corrosion and scaling are one of the most complicated and costly problems of drinking water supply. Corrosion has adverse effect on general health and public acceptance of water source and drinking water supply costs. The present study aimed to determine the potentials of corrosion and scaling of potable water supply reservoirs of Ilam city in June 2013 and August 2014 by Langelier Index (LI) and Reynar. The results of experiments and calculations show that the mean index of LSI in the first and second sampling stages is 0.34, 0.2, respectively and the mean index RSI in the first and second stages of sampling is 7.15 and 7.22, respectively. Based on LSI index of reservoirs water in the first phase, none of stations are corrosive and only one station in the second sampling phase has corrosive tendency. According to RSI index, there is no corrosive tendency in two phases. Based on the results, the water of drinking water reservoirs in Ilam city has no corrosion tendency and the analyses and results of Langelier Index (LI) and Ryznar are in relatively good condition.

Keywords: corrosion, scaling, water reservoirs, langelier and ryznar indices, Ilam city

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28 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

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Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research, the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (60 uM) and Ki (30 uM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60°C both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase

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27 Numerical Investigation of Blood Flow around a Leaflet Valve through a Perforating Vein

Authors: Zohreh Sheidaei, Farhad Sadegh Moghanlou, Rahim Vesal

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Diseases related to leg venous system are common worldwide. An incompetent vein with deformed wall and insufficient valves affects flow field of blood and disrupts the process of blood circulating system. Having enough knowledge about the flow field through veins will help find new ways to cure the related diseases. In the present study, blood flow around a leaflet valve of a perforating vein is investigated numerically by Finite Element Method. Flow behavior and vortexes, generated around the leaflet valves, are studied considering valve opening percentage. Obtained velocity and pressure fields show mechanical stresses on vein wall and these valves and consequently introduce the regions susceptible to deformation.

Keywords: fluid flow, leaflet valve, numerical investigation, perforating vein

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26 Comparative Study of Ecological City Criteria in Traditional Iranian Cities

Authors: Zahra Yazdani Paraii, Zohreh Yazdani Paraei

Abstract:

Many urban designers and planners have been involved in the design of environmentally friendly or nature adaptable urban development models due to increase in urban populations in the recent century, limitation on natural resources, climate change, and lack of enough water and food. Ecological city is one of the latest models proposed to accomplish the latter goal. In this work, the existing establishing indicators of the ecological city are used regarding energy, water, land use and transportation issues. The model is used to compare the function of traditional settlements of Iran. The result of investigation shows that the specifications and functions of the traditional settlements of Iran fit well into the ecological city model. It is found that the inhabitants of the old cities and villages in Iran had founded ecological cities based on their knowledge of the environment and its natural opportunities and limitations.

Keywords: ecological city, traditional city, urban design, environment

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25 Regression Analysis of Travel Indicators and Public Transport Usage in Urban Areas

Authors: Mehdi Moeinaddini, Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

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Currently, planners try to have more green travel options to decrease economic, social and environmental problems. Therefore, this study tries to find significant urban travel factors to be used to increase the usage of alternative urban travel modes. This paper attempts to identify the relationship between prominent urban mobility indicators and daily trips by public transport in 30 cities from various parts of the world. Different travel modes, infrastructures and cost indicators were evaluated in this research as mobility indicators. The results of multi-linear regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between mobility indicators and the daily usage of public transport.

Keywords: green travel modes, urban travel indicators, daily trips by public transport, multi-linear regression analysis

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24 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

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One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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23 The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Creativity, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Behdoukht Mall Amiri, Zohreh Gheydar

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The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' creativity (CR), emotional intelligence (EI), and self-efficacy (SE). To this end, a group of 120 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 35 studying BA in English Translation and MA in Teaching English at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were selected using convenient sampling and were given three questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-I questionnaire by Bar-On (1997), the General Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire (SGSES) by Sherer et al. (1982), and a questionnaire of creativity (CR) by O'Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). Analysis of the results through Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient showed that there was not a significant relationship between students’ CR and EI, and EI and SE. In addition, CR and SE were correlated significantly but negatively. Multiple regressions revealed that CR could significantly predict SE. Regarding the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, materials developers, and educational policy makers to possess a broader perspective and heightened degree knowledge toward the TEFL practice and to take practical steps toward the attainments of the desired objectives of the profession.

Keywords: creativity, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, learning

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22 Low Term Aerobic Training Is Not Associated with Anti-Inflammatory in Obese Women

Authors: Zohreh Afsharmand, Sokhanguei Yahya

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A growing body of literature suggests that that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. In this study, the effect of 6 weeks aerobic training on IL-6 and IL-1B as inflammatory cytokine were investigated in adult obese women. For this purpose, 26 sedentary adult obese women were divided into exercise and control groups (n=12). Pre and post training of mentioned cytokines were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were significant within-group changes in the outcomes. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the exercise and control groups with regard to anthropometrical markers or inflammatory cytokines. Despite the significant decrease in all anthropometrical markers, no significant differences were found in serum IL-6 and IL-1B by aerobic training with compared to baseline. Our findings indicate that aerobic training intervention for a short time is not associated with the anti-inflammatory property in obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, cytokine, inflammation, obesity

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21 Investigation the Polluting Effect of Heavy Elements on Underground Water in Behbahan Plain, South West Zagros

Authors: Zohreh Marbooti, Rezvan Khavari

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Groundwater as an essential part of natural resources seems to be an important issue in environmental engineering, so preservation and purification of it can have a critical value for any community. This paper investigates the concentration of elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se. For ground water in Behbahan (a city on south west of Iran), to this purpose a group of 30 wells were studied to examine the concentration of the elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se, and also to determine PH, EC, TDS, temperature and the ions of HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ for the wells. Results of the analyses show that the concentration of the elements of Pb, As and, Cd in 33,13,56 percent of the wells respectively and Se in all the samples were greater than normal range of WHO. Since there is a low correlation between Pb and major ions of (HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) it can be revealed that Pb overconcentration caused by human contamination. Relative great correlation between Se and the ions showed that Se derived from Gypsum and Dolomit. The big correlation between As and major cations and onions, imply that As can originate from dissolution and liquidation of mineral evaporation in the zone. The high rate of Cadmium concentration in urban sewagewater is due to the small industries, workshops and, mills wastewater.

Keywords: heavy elements, underground water, pollution, waste water

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20 Unreality of Real: Debordean Reading of Gillian Flynn's Gone Girl

Authors: Sahand Hamed Moeel Ardebil, Zohreh Taebi Noghondari, Mahmood Reza Ghorban Sabbagh

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Gillian Flynn’s Gone Girl, depicts a society in which, as a result of media dominance, the reality is very precarious and difficult to grasp. In Gone Girl, reality and image of reality represented on TV, are challenging to differentiate. Along with reality, individuals’ agency and independence before media and the capitalist rule are called in to question in the novel. In order to expose the unstable nature of reality and an individual’s complicated relationship with media, this study has deployed the ideas of Marxist-media theorist Guy Debord (1931-1992). In his book Society of the Spectacle (1966), Debord delineates a society in which images replace the objective reality, and people are incapable of making real changes. The results of the current study show that despite their efforts, Nick and Amy, the two main characters of the novel, are no more than spectators with very little agency before the media. Moreover, following Debord’s argument about the replacement of reality with images, everyone and every institution in Gone Girl projects an image that does not necessarily embody the objective reality, a fact that makes it very hard to differentiate the real from unreal.

Keywords: agency, Debord, Gone Girl, media studies, society of spectacle, reality

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19 Assessment of Body Mass Index among Children of Primary School in Behbahan City

Authors: Hosseini Siahi Zohreh, Sana Mohammad Jafar

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With increase in fat and over weight in children and its undesirable effects on different organisms of the body and since many of the sicknesses are due to over weight and with losing weight these sicknesses disappear, and on the other hand with mal nutrition and under weight in children other kind of sicknesses such as derogation of body's security system, frequent infection, insufficient growth, shortness, and delay in maturity etc. are some of the signs of being under weight. Therefore recognition of signs of over weight and under weight and their prevalence in children are important. To determine this difficulty we have used the body mass index as screening tool since it is very prevalent and a good and important guide and has very good relation with body fat in children. In this study 2321 students from primary schools in Behbahan have been chosen randomly and evaluated by height and weight and their body mass index have been calculated and then recorded on the BMI percentile diagram which is for age and gender. The following results obtained: The amount of total fat, over weight and slimness are 9.3, 12.1 and 12.32 percent respectively. Therefore 21.4% of the children were over weighted. It did not show any meaningful statistical relation in fat conditions among boys and girls, but there has been a meaningful statistical relation in slimness among boys and girls.

Keywords: assessment, students, Behbahan, Body Mass Index

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18 The Effect of Parents BMI on Overweight and Obesity Elementary School Students in Behbahan City

Authors: Hosseini Siahi Zohreh, Sana Mohammad Jafar

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The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased in recent decades in different countries. Childhood obesity, increases the risk of adult obesity and its related diseases. Determine the prevalence of the problem in different populations results to screening and adequate intervention and the effects of early and late complications. Various studies have shown Parents and family environment has a significant impact on the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. As parental obesity is directly related to child obesity. In this study were selected randomly 60 girl students with a BMI above the 95th percentile (as fat) and BMI greater than 85 and less than 95 (overweight). So 60 were selected randomly of girl students with a BMI of between 5 and 85 (normal). In the case of boys was done exactly the same. Case and control groups were matched according to age and grade for statistical analysis of SPPS software version 17. According to results the prevalence of overweight and obesity in girl students respectively is 8.7 percent and 13.76 percent and in boy students 9.9 percent and 10.42 percent. Also was not found in boys group the relationship significant between obesity and overweight with parents BMI. Whereas in girls group was found a significant relationship.

Keywords: parents BMI, overweight, obesity, primary school students

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17 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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16 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh

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Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, traditional cheese, Behbahan, Escherichia coli

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15 Effective Design Factors for Bicycle-Friendly Streets

Authors: Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Mehdi Moeinaddini, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

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Bicycle level of service (BLOS) is a measure for evaluating street conditions for cyclists. Currently, various methods are proposed for BLOS. These analytical methods however have some drawbacks: they usually assume cyclists as users that can share street facilities with motorized vehicles, it is not easy to link them to design process and they are not easy to follow. In addition, they only support a narrow range of cycling facilities and may not be applicable for all situations. Along this, the current paper introduces various effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. This study considers cyclists as users of streets who have special needs and facilities. Therefore, the key factors that influence BLOS based on different cycling facilities that are proposed by developed guidelines and literature are identified. The combination of these factors presents a complete set of effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. In addition, the weight of each factor in existing BLOS models is estimated and these effective factors are ranked based on these weights. These factors and their weights can be used in further studies to propose special bicycle-friendly street design model.

Keywords: bicycle level of service, bicycle-friendly streets, cycling facilities, rating system, urban streets

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14 Investigating the Effect of Refinancing on Financial Behaviour of Energy Efficiency Projects

Authors: Zohreh Soltani, Seyedmohammadhossein Hosseinian

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Reduction of energy consumption in built infrastructure, through the installation of energy-efficient technologies, is a major approach to achieving sustainability. In practice, the viability of energy efficiency projects strongly depends on the cost reimbursement and profitability. These projects are subject to failure if the actual cost savings do not reimburse the project cost in a timely manner. In such cases, refinancing could be a solution to benefit from the long-term returns of the project if implemented wisely. However, very little is still known about the effect of refinancing options on financial performance of energy efficiency projects. To fill this gap, the present study investigates the financial behavior of energy efficiency projects with focus on refinancing options, such as Leveraged Loans. A System Dynamics (SD) model is introduced, and the model application is presented using an actual case-study data. The case study results indicate that while high-interest start-ups make using Leveraged Loan inevitable, refinancing can rescue the project and bring about profitability. This paper also presents some managerial implications of refinancing energy efficiency projects based on the case-study analysis. Results of this study help implementing financially viable energy efficiency projects, so the community could benefit from their environmental advantages widely.

Keywords: energy efficiency projects, leveraged loan, refinancing, sustainability

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13 Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Produced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli in Water

Authors: Zohreh Rashmei

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Introduction: Plasma inactivation is one of the emerging technologies in biomedical field and has been applied to the inactivation of microorganisms in water. The inactivation effect has been attributed to the presence of active plasma species, i.e. OH, O, O3, H2O2, UV and electric fields, generated by the discharge of plasma. Material and Method: To evaluate germicidal effects of plasma, the electric spark discharge device was used. After the effect of the plasma samples were collected for culture medium agar plate count. In addition to biological experiments, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was also measured. Results: The results showed that Plasma is able to inactivate a high concentration of E. coli. After a short period of plasma radiation on the surface of water, the amount log8 reduced the microbial load. Starting plasma radiation on the surface of the water, the measurements show of production and increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in water. So that at the end of the experiment, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to about 100 mg / l increased. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is directly related to the reduction of microbial load. The results of E. coli culture in media containing certain concentrations of H2O2 showed that E. coli can not to grow in a medium containing more than 2/5 mg/l of H2O2. Surely we can say that the main cause of killing bacteria is a molecule of H2O2.

Keywords: plasma, hydrogen peroxide, disinfection, E. coli

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12 The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Application of Management Accounting Innovation: Evidence from Iran

Authors: Zohreh Hajiha

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Culture affects the ability of the organization in expressing and achieving the goals. Organizational culture influences the selection of instruments applied in the management of organizations. All the instruments applied in organizations to control, promote and create innovations are influenced by organizational culture. This research studies organizational culture based on the cultural model of Muijen and its relationship with applying management accounting innovations in Iranian listed firms. Management accounting innovations of this study include activity-based costing, activity-based management, balanced scorecard, target costing, standard costing, quality costing, Kaizen costing and dimensions of organizational culture include support orientation, innovation orientation, rules orientation and goal orientation. 105 questionnaires were sent to financial executives of production companies and 73 questionnaires were returned. The findings show that there is a significant difference between organizational culture of firms that have applied management accounting innovations and those which have used these innovations less. Also, dimensions of support orientation and culture goal orientation are the highest in groups that apply management accounting innovations. The findings suggest that proper organization culture could promote the use od management accounting tools in Iranian firms.

Keywords: organizational culture, innovation, management accounting, muijen model

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11 The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Gross Domestic Product under Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries

Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee

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This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver (Ruščáková and Semančíková, 2016). According to Bouakez, (2014 ) different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study (Canh, 2018). Also, according to scholars, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. First, through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. Second, through the deterioration of foreign investors and fiscal policies related to a high level of debt (Cordella, et.al., 2010). Therefore, this study proposed that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors, which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.

Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countries

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10 The Importance of Downstream Supply Chain in Supply Chain Risk Management: Multi-Objective Optimization

Authors: Zohreh Khojasteh-Ghamari, Takashi Irohara

Abstract:

One of the efficient ways in supply chain risk management is avoiding the interruption in Supply Chain (SC) before it occurs. Although the majority of the organizations focus on their first-tier suppliers to avoid risk in the SC, studies show that in only 60 percent of the disruption cases the reason is first tier suppliers. In the 40 percent of the SC disruptions, the reason is downstream SC, which is the second tier and lower. Due to the increasing complexity and interrelation of modern supply chains, the SC elements have become difficult to trace. Moreover, studies show that there is a vital need to better understand the integration of risk and visibility, especially in the context of multiple objectives. In this study, we propose a multi-objective programming model to avoid disruption in SC. The objective of this study is evaluating the effect of downstream SCV on managing supply chain risk. We propose a multi-objective mathematical programming model with the objective functions of minimizing the total cost and maximizing the downstream supply chain visibility (SCV). The decision variable is supplier selection. We assume there are several manufacturers and several candidate suppliers. For each manufacturer, our model proposes the best suppliers with the lowest cost and maximum visibility in downstream supply chain. We examine the applicability of the model by numerical examples. We also define several scenarios for datasets and observe the tendency. The results show that minimum visibility in downstream SC is needed to have a safe SC network.

Keywords: downstream supply chain, optimization, supply chain risk, supply chain visibility

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9 Comparison the Effect of Different Pretreatments on Ethanol Production from Lemon Peel (Citrus × latifolia)

Authors: Zohreh Didar Yaser, Zanganeh Asadabadi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to open up the structure of lemon peel (Citrus × latifolia) with mild pretreatments. The effects of autoclave, microwave and ultrasonic with or without acid addition were investigated on the amount of glucose, soluble and insoluble lignin, furfural, yeast viability and bioethanol. The finding showed that autoclave- acid impregnated sample, has the highest glucose release from lignocellulose materials (14.61 and 14.95 g/l for solvent exposed and untreated sample, respectively) whereas at control sample glucose content was at its minimal level. Pretreatments cause decrease on soluble and insoluble lignin and the highest decrease cause by autoclave following with microwave and ultrasonic pretreatments (p≤5%). Moderate increase on furfural was seen at pretreated samples than control ones. Also, the most yeast viability and bioethanol content was belong to autoclave samples especially acid- impregnated ones (40.33%). Comparison between solvent treated and untreated samples indicated that significant difference was between two tested groups (p≤1%) in terms of lignin, furfural, cell viability and ethanol content but glucose didn’t show significant difference. It imply that solvent extraction don’t influences on glucose release from lignocellulose material of lemon peel but cause enhancement of yeast viability and bioethanol production.

Keywords: Bioethanol, Lemon peel, Pretreatments, Solvent Extraction

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8 Effect of Different Levels of Dried Citrus Sinensis Peel on Blood Parameters of Broilers

Authors: Abbas Ebrahimi, Zohreh Pourhossein, Nariman Miraalami

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dried citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred Ross 308 strain day old broiler in a completely randomized design with five treatments (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 20 chicks) were categorized. Each treatment used either regulatory diet including 1.5% and 3% DCSP in the base diet and in two periods of 1st to 21st day and 1st to 42nd day and base diet without any additive for six weeks. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was conducted by Duncan method. The results determined that using different level of DCSP has significant effects on blood plasma parameters (P<0.05). Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the rearing period was significantly influenced by experimental treatments (P<0.05). However, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). The lowest rate of blood cholesterol was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood cholesterol were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood triglyceride was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood triglyceride were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood alkaline phosphatase was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood alkaline phosphatase were concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 21st day.

Keywords: blood parameters, broilers, dried citrus sinensis peel, regulatory diet

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7 Emulsified Oil Removal in Produced Water by Graphite-Based Adsorbents Using Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration

Authors: Zohreh Fallah, Edward P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

One of the big challenges for produced water treatment is removing oil from water in the form of emulsified droplets which are not easily separated. An attractive approach is adsorption, as it is a simple and effective process. However, adsorbents must be regenerated in order to make the process cost effective. Several sorbents have been tested for treating oily wastewater. However, some issues such as high energy consumption for activated carbon thermal regeneration have been reported. Due to their significant electrical conductivity, Graphite Intercalation Compounds (GIC) were found to be suitable to be regenerated electrochemically. They are non-porous materials with low surface area and fast adsorptive capacity which are useful for removal of low concentration of organics. An innovative adsorption/regeneration process has been developed at the University of Manchester in which adsorption of organics are done by using a patented GIC adsorbent coupled with subsequent electrochemical regeneration. The oxidation of adsorbed organics enables 100% regeneration so that the adsorbent can be reused over multiple adsorption cycles. GIC adsorbents are capable of removing a wide range of organics and pollutants; however, no comparable report is available for removal of emulsified oil in produced water using abovementioned process. In this study the performance of this technology for the removal of emulsified oil in wastewater was evaluated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm for both real produced water and model emulsions. The amount of oil in wastewater was measured by using the toluene extraction/fluorescence analysis before and after adsorption and electrochemical regeneration cycles. It was found that oil in water emulsion could be successfully treated by the treatment process and More than 70% of oil was removed.

Keywords: adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, emulsified oil, produced water

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6 Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Parisa Kahani, Fatollah Rahimi Bafrani, Ali Dehghan, Nava Seyedi, Vafa Feyzi, Zohreh Forozanfar

Abstract:

Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.

Keywords: functional movement, screening test, anthropometry, ergonomics

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5 Optimal Management of Forest Stands under Wind Risk in Czech Republic

Authors: Zohreh Mohammadi, Jan Kaspar, Peter Lohmander, Robert Marusak, Harald Vacik, Ljusk Ola Eriksson

Abstract:

Storms are important damaging agents in European forest ecosystems. In the latest decades, significant economic losses in European forestry occurred due to storms. This study investigates the problem of optimal harvest planning when forest stands risk to be felled by storms. One of the most applicable mathematical methods which are being used to optimize forest management is stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). This method belongs to the adaptive optimization class. Sequential decisions, such as harvest decisions, can be optimized based on sequential information about events that cannot be perfectly predicted, such as the future storms and the future states of wind protection from other forest stands. In this paper, stochastic dynamic programming is used to maximize the expected present value of the profits from an area consisting of several forest stands. The region of analysis is the Czech Republic. The harvest decisions, in a particular time period, should be simultaneously taken in all neighbor stands. The reason is that different stands protect each other from possible winds. The optimal harvest age of a particular stand is a function of wind speed and different wind protection effects. The optimal harvest age often decreases with wind speed, but it cannot be determined for one stand at a time. When we consider a particular stand, this stand also protects other stands. Furthermore, the particular stand is protected by neighbor stands. In some forest stands, it may even be rational to increase the harvest age under the influence of stronger winds, in order to protect more valuable stands in the neighborhood. It is important to integrate wind risk in forestry decision-making.

Keywords: Czech republic, forest stands, stochastic dynamic programming, wind risk

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