Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2728

Search results for: optimal porosity

2728 Heat Transfer Enhancement Due to the Optimal Porosity in Plate Heat Exchangers with Sinusoidal Plates

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Seyyed Mostafa Saadat

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of thermal dispersion on the performance of plate heat exchangers (PHEs) with sinusoidal plates is investigated. In this regard, the PHE is considered as a porous medium. The important property of a porous medium is porosity that is defined as the total fluid volume divided by the total volume occupied by the solid and fluid. A 2D array of parallel sinusoidal plates with laminar periodically developed forced convection and single-phase constant property flows and conduction in a homogenous solid phase in two directions is considered. The array of flows is counter and the flows heat capacities are equal. Numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and axial conduction in the solid phase with different plate thicknesses showed that there is an optimal porosity in which the efficiency of heat transfer is up to 4% more than the time when the porosity is near one. It is shown that the optimal porosity at zero angle of inclination depends both on Reynolds number and the aspect ratio. The optimal porosity increased while either the Reynolds number or waviness of plates increased.

Keywords: plate heat exchanger, optimal porosity, efficiency, aspect ratio

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2727 Porosity Characterization and Its Destruction by Authigenic Minerals: Reservoir Sandstones, Mamuniyat Formation, Murzuq Basin, SW Libya

Authors: Mohamrd Ali Alrabib

Abstract:

Sandstones samples were selected from cores of seven wells ranging in depth from 5040 to 7181.4 ft. The dominant authigenic cement phase is quartz overgrowth cement (up to 13% by volume) and this is the major mechanism for porosity reduction. Late stage carbonate cements (siderite and dolomite/ferroan dolomite) are present and these minerals infill intergranular porosity and, therefore, further reduce porosity and probably permeability. Authigenic clay minerals are represented by kaolinite, illite, and grain coating clay minerals. Kaolinite occurs as booklet and vermicular forms. Minor amounts of illite were noted in the studied samples, which commonly block pore throats, thereby reducing permeability. Primary porosity of up to 26.5% is present. Secondary porosity (up to 17%) is also present as a result of feldspar dissolution. The high intergranular volume (IGV) of the sandstones indicates that mechanical and chemical compaction played a more important role than cementation of porosity loss.

Keywords: authigenic minerals, porosity types, porosity reduction, mamuniyat sandstone reservoir

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2726 Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation

Authors: Segun S. Bodunde

Abstract:

In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.

Keywords: pore connectivity, co-efficient of variation, density derived porosity, sonic derived porosity

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2725 The Effect of Different Surface Cleaning Methods on Porosity Formation and Mechanical Property of AA6xxx Aluminum Gas Metal Arc Welds

Authors: Fatemeh Mirakhorli

Abstract:

Porosity is the main issue during welding of aluminum alloys, and surface cleaning has a critical influence to reduce the porosity level by removing the oxidized surface layer before fusion welding. Developing an optimum and economical surface cleaning method has an enormous benefit for aluminum welding industries to reduce costs related to repairing and repeating welds as well as increasing the mechanical properties of the joints. In this study, several mechanical and chemical surface cleaning methods were examined for butt joint welding of 2 mm thick AA6xxx alloys using ER5556 filler metal. The effects of each method on porosity formation and tensile properties are evaluated. It has been found that, compared to the conventional mechanical cleaning method, the use of chemical cleaning leads to an important reduction in porosity level even after a significant delay between cleaning and welding. The effect of the higher porosity level in the fusion zone to reduce the tensile strength of the welds is shown.

Keywords: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), aluminum alloy, surface cleaning, porosity formation, mechanical property

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2724 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar

Abstract:

The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

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2723 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up

Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia

Abstract:

The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivity

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2722 Direct Electrophoretic Deposition of Hierarchical Structured Electrode Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo

Abstract:

In this study, Co3O4-CNT-Graphene composite electrode was deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, where micro polystyrene spheres (PSs) were added for co-deposition. Applied with heat treatment, a hierarchical porosity is left in the electrode which is beneficial for supercapacitor application. In terms of charge and discharge performance, we discussed the optimal CNT/Graphene ratio, macroporous ratio, and the effect of Co3O4 addition on electrode capacitance. For materials characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and BET were applied, while cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements, and Ragone plot were applied as in-situ analyses. Based on this, the effects of PS amount on the structure, porosity and their effect on capacitance of the electrodes were investigated. Finally, the full device performance was examined with charge-discharge and electron impedance spectrum (EIS) methods. The results show that the EPD coating with hierarchical porosity was successfully demonstrated in this study. As a result, the capacitance was greatly enhanced by 2.6 times with the hierarchical structure.

Keywords: supercapacitor, nanocarbon tub, graphene, metal oxide

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2721 Controlling the Fluid Flow in Hydrogen Fuel Cells through Material Porosity Designs

Authors: Jamal Hussain Al-Smail

Abstract:

Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are environmentally friendly, energy converter devices that convert the chemical energy of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) to electricity through electrochemical reactions. The level of the electricity production of HFCs mainly increases depending on the oxygen distribution in the HFC’s cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL). With a constant porosity of the GDL, the electrochemical reaction can have a great variation that reduces the cell’s productivity and stability. Our findings bring a methodology in finding porosity designs of the diffusion layer to improve the oxygen distribution such that it results in a stable oxygen-hydrogen reaction. We first introduce a mathematical model involving the mass and momentum transport equations, in which a porosity function of the GDL is incorporated as a control for the fluid flow. We then derive numerical methods for solving the mathematical model. In conclusion, we present our numerical results to show how to design the GDL porosity to result in a uniform oxygen distribution.

Keywords: fuel cells, material porosity design, mathematical modeling, porous media

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2720 Analyzing the Factors Effecting Ceramic Porosity Using Integrated Taguchi-Fuzzy Method

Authors: Enes Furkan Erkan, Özer Uygun, Halil Ibrahim Demir, Zeynep Demir

Abstract:

Companies require increase in quality perception level of their products due to competitive conditions. As a result, the tendency to quality and researches to develop the quality are increasing day by day. Cost and time constraints are the biggest problems that companies face in their quality improvement efforts. In this study, factors that affect the porosity of ceramic products are determined and analyzed in a factory producing ceramic tiles. Then, Taguchi method is used in the design phase in order to decrease the number of tests to be performed by means of orthogonal sequences. The most important factors affecting the porosity of ceramic tiles are determined using Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. Based on the analyses, the most affecting factors are determined to be used in the fuzzy implementation stage. Then, the fuzzy rules were established with the factors affecting porosity by the experts’ opinion. Thus, porosity result could be obtained not only for the specified factor levels but also for intermediate values. In this way, it has been provided convenience to the factory in terms of cost and quality improvement.

Keywords: fuzzy, porosity, Taguchi Method, Taguchi-Fuzzy

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2719 Rock Property Calculation for Determine Hydrocarbon Zone Based on Petrophysical Principal and Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation in Blok M

Authors: Muhammad Tarmidzi, Reza M. G. Gani, Andri Luthfi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify rock zone containing hydrocarbons with calculating rock property includes volume shale, total porosity, effective porosity and water saturation. Identification method rock property based on GR log, resistivity log, neutron log and density rock. Zoning is based on sequence stratigraphic markers that are sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and flooding surface (FS) which correlating ten well log in blok “M”. The results of sequence stratigraphic correlation consist of eight zone that are two LST zone, three TST zone and three HST zone. The result of rock property calculation in each zone is showing two LST zone containing hydrocarbons. LST-1 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 25%, average total porosity (PHIT) 14%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 11% and average water saturation 0,83. LST-2 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 19%, average total porosity (PHIT) 21%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 17% and average water saturation 0,82.

Keywords: hydrocarbons zone, petrophysic, rock property, sequence stratigraphic

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2718 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: S. Wakim, M. Nemer, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou

Abstract:

Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: computational methods, finite element method, heat exchanger, porous media, topology optimization

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2717 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch

Abstract:

Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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2716 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas

Abstract:

Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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2715 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

Abstract:

Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, alumina

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2714 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu

Abstract:

In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

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2713 An Overview of the Porosity Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and Their Challenges: An Example of Macro-Microporosity Classification from Offshore Miocene Carbonate in Central Luconia, Malaysia

Authors: Hammad T. Janjuhah, Josep Sanjuan, Mohamed K. Salah

Abstract:

Biological and chemical activities in carbonates are responsible for the complexity of the pore system. Primary porosity is generally of natural origin while secondary porosity is subject to chemical reactivity through diagenetic processes. To understand the integrated part of hydrocarbon exploration, it is necessary to understand the carbonate pore system. However, the current porosity classification scheme is limited to adequately predict the petrophysical properties of different reservoirs having various origins and depositional environments. Rock classification provides a descriptive method for explaining the lithofacies but makes no significant contribution to the application of porosity and permeability (poro-perm) correlation. The Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia) represents a good example of pore complexity (in terms of nature and origin) mainly related to diagenetic processes which have altered the original reservoir. For quantitative analysis, 32 high-resolution images of each thin section were taken using transmitted light microscopy. The quantification of grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types) was achieved using a petrographic analysis of thin sections and FESEM images. The point counting technique was used to estimate the amount of macroporosity from thin section, which was then subtracted from the total porosity to derive the microporosity. The quantitative observation of thin sections revealed that the mouldic porosity (macroporosity) is the dominant porosity type present, whereas the microporosity seems to correspond to a sum of 40 to 50% of the total porosity. It has been proven that these Miocene carbonates contain a significant amount of microporosity, which significantly complicates the estimation and production of hydrocarbons. Neglecting its impact can increase uncertainty about estimating hydrocarbon reserves. Due to the diversity of geological parameters, the application of existing porosity classifications does not allow a better understanding of the poro-perm relationship. However, the classification can be improved by including the pore types and pore structures where they can be divided into macro- and microporosity. Such studies of microporosity identification/classification represent now a major concern in limestone reservoirs around the world.

Keywords: overview of porosity classification, reservoir characterization, microporosity, carbonate reservoir

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2712 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo

Abstract:

While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: optimal power flow, time period, security, economy

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2711 Optimal Management of Internal Capital of Company

Authors: S. Sadallah

Abstract:

In this paper, dynamic programming is used to determine the optimal management of financial resources in company. Solution of the problem by consider into simpler substructures is constructed. The optimal management of internal capital of company are simulated. The tools applied in this development are based on graph theory. The software of given problems is built by using greedy algorithm. The obtained model and program maintenance enable us to define the optimal version of management of proper financial flows by using visual diagram on each level of investment.

Keywords: management, software, optimal, greedy algorithm, graph-diagram

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2710 A Comprehensive Study on the Porosity Effect of Ti-20Zr Alloy Produced by Powder Metallurgy as a Biomaterial

Authors: Eyyup Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Huseyin Demirtas

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the porosity effect of Ti-20Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy as a biomaterial was investigated experimentally. The Ti based alloys (Ti-20%Zr (at.) were produced under 300 MPa, for 6 h at 1200 °C. Afterward, the microstructure of the Ti-based alloys was analyzed by optical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, compression tests were applied to determine the mechanical behaviour of samples. As a result, highly porous Ti-20Zr alloys exhibited an elastic modulus close to human bone. The results later were compared theoretically and experimentally.

Keywords: porosity effect, Ti based alloys, elastic modulus, compression test

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2709 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porosity Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya

Abstract:

The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser generation of ultrasound pulses combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, porosity, composite, local elastic moduli

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2708 Optimum Design for Cathode Microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Riazat, H. Abdolvand, M. Baniassadi

Abstract:

In this present work, 3D reconstruction of cathode of SOFC is developed with various volume fractions and porosity. Three Phase Boundary (TPB) of construction of such derived micro structures is calculated. The neural network is used to optimize the porosity and volume fraction of each phase to reach a structure with maximum TPB.

Keywords: fuel cell, solid oxide, TPB, 3D reconstruction

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2707 Synchronization of Chaotic T-System via Optimal Control as an Adaptive Controller

Authors: Hossein Kheiri, Bashir Naderi, Mohamad Reza Niknam

Abstract:

In this paper we study the optimal synchronization of chaotic T-system with complete uncertain parameter. Optimal control laws and parameter estimation rules are obtained by using Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) technique and Lyapunov stability theorem. The derived control laws are optimal adaptive control and make the states of drive and response systems asymptotically synchronized. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, synchronization, chaos, optimal control, adaptive control

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2706 Effects of Stirring Time and Reinforcement Preheating on the Porosity of Particulate Periwinkle Shell-Aluminium 6063 Metal Matrix Composite (PPS-ALMMC) Produced by Two-Step Casting

Authors: Reginald Umunakwe, Obinna Chibuzor Okoye, Uzoma Samuel Nwigwe, Damilare John Olaleye, Akinlabi Oyetunji

Abstract:

The potential for the development of PPS-AlMMCs as light weight material for industrial applications was investigated. Periwinkle shells were milled and the density of the particles determined. Particulate periwinkle shell of particle size 75µm was used to reinforce aluminium 6063 alloy at 10wt% filler loading using two-step stir casting technique. The composite materials were stirred for five minutes in a semi-solid state and the stirring time varied as 3, 6 and 9 minutes at above the liquidus temperature. A specimen was also produced with pre-heated filler. The effect of variation in stirring time and reinforcement pre-heating on the porosity of the composite materials was investigated. The results of the analysis show that a composition of reinforcement pre-heating and stirring for 3 minutes produced a composite material with the lowest porosity of 1.05%.

Keywords: composites, periwinkle shell, two-step casting, porosity

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2705 Effect of Powder Shape on Physical Properties of Porous Coatings

Authors: M. Moayeri, A. Kaflou

Abstract:

Decreasing the size of heat exchangers in industries is favorable due to a reduction in the initial costs and maintenance. This can be achieved generally by increasing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be done by increasing tube surface by passive methods named “porous coat”. Since these coatings are often in contact with the fluid, mechanical strength of coatings should be considered as main concept beside permeability and porosity in design, especially in high velocity services. Powder shape affected mechanical property more than other factors. So in this study, the Copper powder with three different shapes (spherical, dendritic and irregular) was coated on Cu-Ni base metal with thickness of ~300µm in a reduction atmosphere (5% H2-N2) and programmable furnace. The morphology and physical properties of coatings, such as porosity, permeability and mechanical strength were investigated. Results show although irregular particle have maximum porosity and permeability but strength level close to spherical powder, in addition, mentioned particle has low production cost, so for creating porous coats in high velocity services these powder recommended.

Keywords: porous coat, permeability, mechanical strength, porosity

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2704 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian

Abstract:

Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

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2703 On the Analysis of Strategies of Buechi Games

Authors: Ahmad Termimi Ab Ghani, Kojiro Higuchi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some results of simultaneous infinite games. We mainly work with generalized reachability games and Buechi games. These games are two-player concurrent games where each player chooses simultaneously their moves at each step. Our goal is to give simple expressions of values for each game. Moreover, we are interested in the question of what type of optimal (ε-optimal) strategy exists for both players depending on the type of games. We first show the determinacy (optimal value) and optimal (ε-optimal) strategies in generalized reachability games. We provide a simple expressions of value of this game and prove the existence of memoryless randomized ε-optimal strategy for Player I in any generalized reachability games. We then observe games with more complex objectives, games with Buechi objectives. We present how to compute an ε-optimal strategies and approximate a value of game in some way. Specifically, the results of generalized reachability games are used to show the value of Buechi games can be approximated as values of some generalized reachability games.

Keywords: optimal Strategies, generalized reachability games, Buechi games

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2702 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: operations research applications, audit frequency, audit-staff scheduling, audit planning

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2701 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles, porosity

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2700 Correlation between Initial Absorption of the Cover Concrete, the Compressive Strength and Carbonation Depth

Authors: Bouzidi Yassine

Abstract:

This experimental work was aimed to characterize the porosity of the concrete cover zone using the capillary absorption test, and establish the links between open porosity characterized by the initial absorption, the compressive strength and carbonation depth. Eight formulations of workability similar made from ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5) and a compound cement (CEM II/B 42.5) four of each type are studied. The results allow us to highlight the effect of the cement type. Indeed, concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5 carbonatent approximately faster than concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5. This effect is attributed in part to the lower content of portlandite Ca(OH)2 of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5, but also the impact of the cement type on the open porosity of the cover concrete. The open porosity of concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5 is lower than that of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5. The carbonation depth is a decreasing function of the compressive strength at 28 days and increases with the initial absorption. Through the results obtained, correlations between the quantity of water absorbed in 1 h, the carbonation depth at 180 days and the compressive strength at 28 days were performed in an acceptable manner.

Keywords: initial absorption, cover concrete, compressive strength, carbonation depth

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2699 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan

Abstract:

Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: lithology, porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, mishrif formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 267