Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: B. Ghannam

4 Assessment of Socio-Economic and Water Related Topics at Community Level in Yatta Town, Palestine

Authors: Nibal Al-Batsh, Issam A. Al-Khatib, Subha Ghannam

Abstract:

Yatta is a town in the Governorate of Hebron, located 9 km south of Hebron City in the West Bank. The town houses over 100,000 people, 49% of which are females; a population that doubles every 15 years. Yatta has been connected to a water network since 1974 serving nearly 85% of the households. The water network is old and inadequate to meet the needs of the population. The water supply made available to the area is also very limited, estimated to be around 20 l/c/d. Residents are thus forced to rely on water vendors which supply water with a lower quality compared to municipal water while being 400% more expensive. As a cheaper and more reliable alternative, rainwater harvesting is a common practice in the area, with the majority of the households owning at least one cistern. Rainwater harvesting is of great socioeconomic importance in areas where water sources are scarce or polluted. In this research, the quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the Yatta area was assessed throughout a year. A total of 100 samples, were collected from (cisterns) with an average capacity of 69 m3, which are adjacent to cement-roof catchment areas with an average area of 145 m2. Samples were analyzed for a number of parameters including: pH, alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, NH4, chloride and salinity. Biological and microbiological contents such as Total Coliforms (TCC) and Fecal Coliforms (FC) bacteria were also tested. Results showed that most of the rainwater samples were within WHO and EPA guidelines set for chemical parameters. The research also addressed the impact of different socioeconomic attributes on rainwater harvesting through questionnaire that was pre-tested before the actual statically sample is collected.

Keywords: Water Quality, Harvesting, Rainwater, socio-economic aspects

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3 Topology Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer for Two Fluids under Steady State Laminar Regime: Application on Heat Exchangers

Authors: Maroun Nemer, Rony Tawk, Boutros Ghannam

Abstract:

Topology optimization technique presents a potential tool for the design and optimization of structures involved in mass and heat transfer. The method starts with an initial intermediate domain and should be able to progressively distribute the solid and the two fluids exchanging heat. The multi-objective function of the problem takes into account minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of heat transfer between solid and fluid subdomains. Existing methods account for the presence of only one fluid, while the actual work extends optimization distribution of solid and two different fluids. This requires to separate the channels of both fluids and to ensure a minimum solid thickness between them. This is done by adding a third objective function to the multi-objective optimization problem. This article uses density approach where each cell holds two local design parameters ranging from 0 to 1, where the combination of their extremums defines the presence of solid, cold fluid or hot fluid in this cell. Finite volume method is used for direct solver coupled with a discrete adjoint approach for sensitivity analysis and method of moving asymptotes for numerical optimization. Several examples are presented to show the ability of the method to find a trade-off between minimization of power dissipation and maximization of heat transfer while ensuring the separation and continuity of the channel of each fluid without crossing or mixing the fluids. The main conclusion is the possibility to find an optimal bi-fluid domain using topology optimization, defining a fluid to fluid heat exchanger device.

Keywords: topology optimization, density approach, bi-fluid domain, laminar steady state regime, fluid-to-fluid heat exchanger

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2 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: M. Nemer, S. Wakim, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou

Abstract:

Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, heat exchanger, topology optimization

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1 Factors Affecting Harvested Rain Water Quality and Quantity in Yatta Area, Palestine

Authors: Issam Al-Khatib, Nibal Al-Batsh, Subha Ghannam

Abstract:

Yatta is the study area for this research, located 9 km south of Hebron City in the West Bank in Palestine. It has been connected to a water network since 1974 serving nearly 85% of the households. The water network is old and inadequate to meet the needs of the population. The water supply made available to the area is also very limited, estimated to be around 20 l/c.d. Residents are thus forced to rely on water vendors which supply water with a lower quality compared to municipal water while being 400% more expensive. As a cheaper and more reliable alternative, rainwater harvesting is a common practice in the area, with the majority of the households owning at least one cistern. Rainwater harvesting is of great socio-economic importance in areas where water sources are scarce or polluted. The quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the Yatta area was assessed throughout a year long period. A total of 100 water samples were collected from (50 rainfed cisterns) with an average capacity of 69 m3, adjacent to cement-roof catchment with an average area of 145 m2. Samples were analyzed for a number of parameters including: pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, NH4, chloride and salinity. Microbiological contents such as Total Coliforms (TC) and Fecal Coliforms (FC) bacteria were also analyzed. Results showed that most of the rainwater samples were within WHO and EPA guidelines set for chemical parameters while revealing biological contamination. The pH values of mixed water ranged from 6.9 to 8.74 with a mean value of 7.6. collected Rainwater had lower pH values than mixed water ranging from 7.00 to 7.57 with a mean of 7.21. Rainwater also had lower average values of conductivity (389.11 µScm-1) compared to that of mixed water (463.74 µScm-1) thus indicating lower values of salinity (0.75%). The largest TDS value measured in rainwater was 316 mg/l with a mean of 199.86 mg /l. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, TC and FC were detected in 99%, 52% of collected rainwater samples, respectively. The research also addressed the impact of different socio-economic attributes on rainwater harvesting using information collected through a survey from the area. Results indicated that the majority of homeowners have the primary knowledge necessary to collect and store water in cisterns. Most of the respondents clean both the cisterns and the catchment areas. However, the research also arrives at a conclusion that cleaning is not done in a proper manner. Results show that cisterns with an operating capacity of 69 m3 would provide sufficient water to get through the dry summer months. However, the catchment area must exceed 146 m2 to produce sufficient water to fill a cistern of this size in a year receiving average precipitation.

Keywords: Water Quality, Rainwater Harvesting, runoff coefficient, microbiological contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 99