Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1009

Search results for: nozzle plate

1009 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Tung-Hsun Hsu


This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: actuator, nozzle, microejector, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1008 Failure Analysis of Electrode, Nozzle Plate, and Powder Injector during Air Plasma Spray Coating

Authors: Nemes Alexandra


The aim of the research is to develop an optimum microstructure of steel coatings on aluminum surfaces for application on the crankcase cylinder bores. For the proper design of the microstructure of the coat, it is important to control the plasma gun unit properly. The maximum operating time was determined while the plasma gun could optimally work before its destruction. Objectives: The aim of the research is to determine the optimal operating time of the plasma gun between renovations (the renovation shall involve the replacement of the test components of the plasma gun: electrode, nozzle plate, powder injector. Methodology: Plasma jet and particle flux analysis with PFI (PFI is a diagnostic tool for all kinds of thermal spraying processes), CT reconstruction and analysis on the new and the used plasma guns, failure analysis of electrodes, nozzle plates, and powder injectors, microscopic examination of the microstructure of the coating. Contributions: As the result of the failure analysis detailed above, the use of the plasma gun was maximized at 100 operating hours in order to get optimal microstructure for the coat.

Keywords: APS, air plasma spray, failure analysis, electrode, nozzle plate, powder injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1007 Nozzle-to-Surface Distances Effect on Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Impinging Jets

Authors: Aspen W. Glaspell, Victoria J. Rouse, Brian K. Friedrich, Kyosung Choo


Heat transfer of two-phase impinging jet on a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-surface distance and volumetric quality on the Nusselt number are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-surface distance due to the jet deflection effect. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keywords: jet impingement, water jet, air assisted, circular jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
1006 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo


This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x=10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra displays the largest eddies generated by the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.

Keywords: plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1005 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng


This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: micro-bubble, oxygenator, nozzle, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1004 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1003 Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols by Developing a Cascade Impactor

Authors: Sapan Bhatnagar


Micron size particles emitted from different sources and produced by combustion have serious negative effects on human health and environment. They can penetrate deep into our lungs through the respiratory system. Determination of the amount of particulates present in the atmosphere per cubic meter is necessary to monitor, regulate and model atmospheric particulate levels. Cascade impactor is used to collect the atmospheric particulates and by gravimetric analysis, their concentration in the atmosphere of different size ranges can be determined. Cascade impactors have been used for the classification of particles by aerodynamic size. They operate on the principle of inertial impaction. It consists of a number of stages each having an impaction plate and a nozzle. Collection plates are connected in series with smaller and smaller cutoff diameter. Air stream passes through the nozzle and the plates. Particles in the stream having large enough inertia impact upon the plate and smaller particles pass onto the next stage. By designing each successive stage with higher air stream velocity in the nozzle, smaller diameter particles will be collected at each stage. Particles too small to be impacted on the last collection plate will be collected on a backup filter. Impactor consists of 4 stages each made of steel, having its cut-off diameters less than 10 microns. Each stage is having collection plates, soaked with oil to prevent bounce and allows the impactor to function at high mass concentrations. Even after the plate is coated with particles, the incoming particle will still have a wet surface which significantly reduces particle bounce. The particles that are too small to be impacted on the last collection plate are then collected on a backup filter (microglass fiber filter), fibers provide larger surface area to which particles may adhere and voids in filter media aid in reducing particle re-entrainment.

Keywords: aerodynamic diameter, cascade, environment, particulates, re-entrainment

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1002 Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate

Authors: A. H. Alenezi


Cooling by impingement jet is known to have a significant high local and average heat transfer coefficient which make it widely used in industrial cooling systems. The heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet on rib-roughened flat plate has been investigated numerically. This paper was set out to investigate the effect of rib height on the heat transfer rate. Since the flow needs to have enough spacing after passing the rib to allow reattachment especially for high Reynolds numbers, this study focuses on finding the optimum rib height which would be the best to maximize the heat transfer rate downstream the plate. This investigation employs a round nozzle with hydraulic diameter (Dh) of 13.5 mm, Jet-to-target distance of (H/D) of 4, rib location=1.5D and and finally jet angels of 45˚ and 90˚ under the influence of Re =10,000.

Keywords: jet impingement, CFD, turbulence model, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1001 Molecular Clustering and Velocity Increase in Converging-Diverging Nozzle in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Jeoungsu Na, Jaehawn Lee, Changil Hong, Suhee Kim


A molecular dynamics simulation in a converging-diverging nozzle was performed to study molecular collisions and their influence to average flow velocity according to a variety of vacuum levels. The static pressures and the dynamic pressure exerted by the molecule collision on the selected walls were compared to figure out the intensity variances of the directional flows. With pressure differences constant between the entrance and the exit of the nozzle, the numerical experiment was performed for molecular velocities and directional flows. The result shows that the velocities increased at the nozzle exit as the vacuum level gets higher in that area because less molecular collisions.

Keywords: cavitation, molecular collision, nozzle, vacuum, velocity increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1000 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh


The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams shows the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle θ is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
999 Comparative Analysis of Turbulent Plane Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice, a Beveled-Edge Orifice and a Radially Contoured Nozzle

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo


This article investigates through experiments the flow characteristics of plane jets from sharp-edged orifice-plate, beveled-edge and radially contoured nozzle. The first two configurations exhibit saddle-backed velocity profiles while the third shows a top-hat. A vena contracta is found for the jet emanating from orifice at x/h = 3 while the contoured case displays a potential core extending to the range x/h = 5. A spurt in jet pressure on the centerline supports vena contracta for the orifice-jet. Momentum thicknesses and integral length scales elongate linearly with x although the growth of the shear-layer and large-scale eddies for the orifice are greater than the contoured case. The near-field spectrum exhibits higher frequency of the primary eddies that concur with enhanced turbulence intensity. Importantly, highly “turbulent” state of the orifice-jet prevails in the far-field where the spectra confirm more energetic secondary eddies associated with greater flapping amplitude of the orifice-jet.

Keywords: orifice, beveled-edge-orifice, radially contoured nozzle, plane jets

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
998 Aerodynamic Design of Axisymmetric Supersonic Nozzle Used by an Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


In this paper, it has been studied the method of optimal design of the supersonic nozzle. It could make viscous axisymmetric nozzles that the quality of their outlet flow is quite desired. In this method, it is optimized the divergent nozzle, at first. The initial divergent nozzle contour is designed through the method of characteristics and adding a suitable boundary layer to the inviscid contour. After that, it is made a proper grid and then simulated flow by the numerical solution and AUSM+ method by using the operation boundary condition. At the end, solution outputs are investigated and optimized. The numerical method has been validated with experimental results. Also, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the present method, the nozzles compared with the previous studies. The comparisons show that the nozzles obtained through this method are sufficiently better in some conditions, such as the flow uniformity, size of the boundary layer, and obtained an axial length of the nozzle. Designing the convergent nozzle part affects by flow uniformity through changing its axial length and input diameter. The results show that increasing the length of the convergent part improves the output flow uniformity.

Keywords: nozzle, supersonic, optimization, characteristic method, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
997 Comparison of Different Methods of Evaluating Nozzle Junction Stresses under External Loads

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Arun Kumar, Surjit Angra


This paper addresses the junction stress analysis of orthogonally intersecting thin walled cylindrical shell and thin walled cylindrical nozzle subjected to external loading on nozzle. Junction stresses have been calculated theoretically by welding research council (WRC) bulletins 107 and 297 for different nozzle loads. WRC bulletins 107 and 297 have been used by design engineers for calculating nozzle-vessel junction stresses since their publication. They give simple empirical relations and easy in application. Also 3D FEA in which material is elastic has been done in ANSYS software with 8 node solid element model and results of FEA have been compared with WRC results. Stress intensities obtained by WRC 297 are generally slightly higher than obtained by WRC 107. Membrane stresses obtained by FEA are much higher than WRC and membrane plus bending stresses obtained by FEA are lower than WRC.

Keywords: FEA, junction stress, solid element, WRC 107, WRC 297

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
996 Development of Portable Water Jet Cutter Mobile Hand Tool: Analysis of Nozzle Geometries and Materials

Authors: Razali Bin Abidin


This paper presents the development of a portable water jet cutter for soft materials such as meat. Twelve geometries of nozzles were simulated using finite element method. Water pressure was set to 1500 lb/in². Through the simulation, highest average water output speed was 133.04 m/s. The nozzle was fabricated from Al - alloy 5052 with the Factor of Safety~ 3. This indicates that the nozzle made of Al-alloy 5052 is capable of performing the cutting process without any fracture. Preliminary design of mobile water jet hand tool is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: water jet, finite element, Al-alloy 5052, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
995 Effect of Submerged Water Jet's Cross Section Shapes on Mixing Length

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Mohammad Rastgoo, Payam Taheri


One of the important applications of hydraulic jets is used for discharge industrial, agricultural and urban wastewater into the rivers or other ambient water to reduce negative effects of pollutant water. Submerged jets due to turbulent condition can mix large amount of dense pollutant water with ambient flow. This study is conducted to investigate the distribution and length of the mixing zone in hydraulic jet's flow field with change in cross section shapes of nozzle. Toward this end, three shapes of cross section (square, circle and rectangular) and three saline densities current with different concentration are considered in a flume with 600 cm as long, 100 cm as high and 150 cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate mixing length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers, Frd, from 100 to 550 that is defined at the nozzle. Consequently, the circular nozzle, in comparison with other sections, has a densimetric Froude number 11% higher than square nozzle and 26% higher than rectangular nozzle.

Keywords: hydraulic jet, mixing zone, densimetric Froude number, nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
994 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Various Types of Rocket Engine Nozzles

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy, Pawel Karpinski, Radoslaw Maczka


The nozzle is an element of the rocket engine in which the conversion of the potential energy of gases generated during combustion into the kinetic energy of the gas stream takes place. The design parameters of the nozzle have a decisive influence on the ballistic characteristics of the engine. Designing a nozzle assembly is, therefore, one of the most responsible stages in developing a rocket engine design. The paper presents the results of the simulation of three types of rocket propulsion nozzles. Calculations were made using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) in ANSYS Fluent software. The next types of nozzles differ in shape. The analysis was made of a conical nozzle, a bell type nozzle with a conical supersonic part and a bell type nozzle. Calculation results are presented in the form of pressure, velocity and kinetic energy distributions of turbulence in the longitudinal section. The courses of these values along the nozzles are also presented. The results show that the cone nozzle generates strong turbulence in the critical section. Which negatively affect the flow of the working medium. In the case of a bell nozzle, the transformation of the wall caused the elimination of flow disturbances in the critical section. This reduces the probability of waves forming before or after the trailing edge. The most sophisticated construction is the bell type nozzle. It allows you to maximize performance without adding extra weight. The bell type nozzle can be used as a starter and auxiliary engine nozzle due to its advantages. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, nozzle, rocket engine, supersonic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
993 Finite Element Analysis of Thermally-Induced Bistable Plate Using Four Plate Elements

Authors: Jixiao Tao, Xiaoqiao He


The present study deals with the finite element (FE) analysis of thermally-induced bistable plate using various plate elements. The quadrilateral plate elements include the 4-node conforming plate element based on the classical laminate plate theory (CLPT), the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin plate element based on the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), and a displacement-based 4-node quadrilateral element (RDKQ-NL20). Using the von-Karman’s large deflection theory and the total Lagrangian (TL) approach, the nonlinear FE governing equations for plate under thermal load are derived. Convergence analysis for four elements is first conducted. These elements are then used to predict the stable shapes of thermally-induced bistable plate. Numerical test shows that the plate element based on FSDT, namely the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin, and the RDKQ-NL20 plate element can predict two stable cylindrical shapes while the 4-node conforming plate predicts a saddles shape. Comparing the simulation results with ABAQUS, the RDKQ-NL20 element shows the best accuracy among all the elements.

Keywords: Bistable, finite element method, geometrical nonlinearity, quadrilateral plate elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
992 Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Responses of the Plate Subjected to Impulsive Loads

Authors: Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Huyk Chun Noh


The plate is one of the popular structural elements used in a wide range of industries and structures. They may be subjected to blast loads during explosion events, missile attacks or aircraft attacks. This study is to investigate dynamic responses of the rectangular plate subjected to explosive loads. The effects of material properties and plate thickness on responses of the plate are to be investigated. The compressive pressure is applied to the surface of the plate. Different amounts of thickness in the range from 10mm to 30mm are considered for the plate to evaluate the changes in responses of the plate with respect to the plate thickness. Two different properties are considered for the steel. First, the analysis is performed by considering only the elastic-plastic properties for the steel plate. Later on damping is considered to investigate its effects on the responses of the plate. To do analysis, the numerical method using a finite element based package ABAQUS is applied. Finally, dynamic responses and graphs showing the relation between maximum displacement of the plate and aim parameters are provided.

Keywords: impulsive loaded plates, dynamic analysis, ABAQUS, material nonlinearity

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
991 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi


Cavitation inside the diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with, mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real-size nozzle was simulated, and it was found that among different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, RME fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
990 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig


A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: clogging, continuous casting, inclusion, simulation, submerged entry nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
989 Heat Transfer Performance of a Small Cold Plate with Uni-Directional Porous Copper for Cooling Power Electronics

Authors: K. Yuki, R. Tsuji, K. Takai, S. Aramaki, R. Kibushi, N. Unno, K. Suzuki


A small cold plate with uni-directional porous copper is proposed for cooling power electronics such as an on-vehicle inverter with the heat generation of approximately 500 W/cm2. The uni-directional porous copper with the pore perpendicularly orienting the heat transfer surface is soldered to a grooved heat transfer surface. This structure enables the cooling liquid to evaporate in the pore of the porous copper and then the vapor to discharge through the grooves. In order to minimize the cold plate, a double flow channel concept is introduced for the design of the cold plate. The cold plate consists of a base plate, a spacer, and a vapor discharging plate, totally 12 mm in thickness. The base plate has multiple nozzles of 1.0 mm in diameter for the liquid supply and 4 slits of 2.0 mm in width for vapor discharging, and is attached onto the top surface of the porous copper plate of 20 mm in diameter and 5.0 mm in thickness. The pore size is 0.36 mm and the porosity is 36 %. The cooling liquid flows into the porous copper as an impinging jet flow from the multiple nozzles, and then the vapor, which is generated in the pore, is discharged through the grooves and the vapor slits outside the cold plate. A heated test section consists of the cold plate, which was explained above, and a heat transfer copper block with 6 cartridge heaters. The cross section of the heat transfer block is reduced in order to increase the heat flux. The top surface of the block is the grooved heat transfer surface of 10 mm in diameter at which the porous copper is soldered. The grooves are fabricated like latticework, and the width and depth are 1.0 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. By embedding three thermocouples in the cylindrical part of the heat transfer block, the temperature of the heat transfer surface ant the heat flux are extrapolated in a steady state. In this experiment, the flow rate is 0.5 L/min and the flow velocity at each nozzle is 0.27 m/s. The liquid inlet temperature is 60 °C. The experimental results prove that, in a single-phase heat transfer regime, the heat transfer performance of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper is 2.1 times higher than that without the porous copper, though the pressure loss with the porous copper also becomes higher than that without the porous copper. As to the two-phase heat transfer regime, the critical heat flux increases by approximately 35% by introducing the uni-directional porous copper, compared with the CHF of the multiple impinging jet flow. In addition, we confirmed that these heat transfer data was much higher than that of the ordinary single impinging jet flow. These heat transfer data prove high potential of the cold plate with the uni-directional porous copper from the view point of not only the heat transfer performance but also energy saving.

Keywords: cooling, cold plate, uni-porous media, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
988 Aerodynamic Sound from a Sawtooth Plate with Different Thickness

Authors: Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali


The effect of sawtooth plate thickness on the aerodynamic noise generated in flow at a Reynolds number of 150 is numerically investigated. Two types of plate thickness (hthick=0.2D and hthin=0.02D) are proposed. Flow simulations are carried out using Direct Numerical Simulation, whereas the calculation of aerodynamic noise radiated from the flow is solved using Curle’s equation. It is found that the flow behavior of thin sawtooth plate, consisting counter-rotating-vortices, is more complex than that of the thick plate. This then explains well the generated sound in both plates cases. Sound generated from thin plat is approximately 0.5 dB lower than the thick plate. Findings from current study provide better understanding of the flow and noise behavior in edge serrations via understanding the case of a sawtooth plate.

Keywords: aerodynamic sound, bluff body, sawtooth plate, Curle analogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
987 Improvement Performances of the Supersonic Nozzles at High Temperature Type Minimum Length Nozzle

Authors: W. Hamaidia, T. Zebbiche


This paper presents the design of axisymmetric supersonic nozzles, in order to accelerate a supersonic flow to the desired Mach number and that having a small weight, in the same time gives a high thrust. The concerned nozzle gives a parallel and uniform flow at the exit section. The nozzle is divided into subsonic and supersonic regions. The supersonic portion is independent to the upstream conditions of the sonic line. The subsonic portion is used to give a sonic flow at the throat. In this case, nozzle gives a uniform and parallel flow at the exit section. It’s named by minimum length Nozzle. The study is done at high temperature, lower than the dissociation threshold of the molecules, in order to improve the aerodynamic performances. Our aim consists of improving the performances both by the increase of exit Mach number and the thrust coefficient and by reduction of the nozzle's mass. The variation of the specific heats with the temperature is considered. The design is made by the Method of Characteristics. The finite differences method with predictor-corrector algorithm is used to make the numerical resolution of the obtained nonlinear algebraic equations. The application is for air. All the obtained results depend on three parameters which are exit Mach number, the stagnation temperature, the chosen mesh in characteristics. A numerical simulation of nozzle through Computational Fluid Dynamics-FASTRAN was done to determine and to confirm the necessary design parameters.

Keywords: flux supersonic flow, axisymmetric minimum length nozzle, high temperature, method of characteristics, calorically imperfect gas, finite difference method, trust coefficient, mass of the nozzle, specific heat at constant pressure, air, error

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
986 Experimental Research of High Pressure Jet Interaction with Supersonic Crossflow

Authors: Bartosz Olszanski, Zbigniew Nosal, Jacek Rokicki


An experimental study of cold-jet (nitrogen) reaction control jet system has been carried out to investigate the flow control efficiency for low to moderate jet pressure ratios (total jet pressure p0jet over free stream static pressure in the wind tunnel p∞) and different angles of attack for infinite Mach number equal to 2. An investigation of jet influence was conducted on a flat plate geometry placed in the test section of intermittent supersonic wind tunnel of Department of Aerodynamics, WUT. Various convergent jet nozzle geometries to obtain different jet momentum ratios were tested on the same test model geometry. Surface static pressure measurements, Schlieren flow visualizations (using continuous and photoflash light source), load cell measurements gave insight into the supersonic crossflow interaction for different jet pressure and jet momentum ratios and their influence on the efficiency of side jet control as described by the amplification factor (actual to theoretical net force generated by the control nozzle). Moreover, the quasi-steady numerical simulations of flow through the same wind tunnel geometry (convergent-divergent nozzle plus test section) were performed using ANSYS Fluent basing on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver incorporated with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model to assess the possible spurious influence of test section walls over the jet exit near field area of interest. The strong bow shock, barrel shock, and Mach disk as well as lambda separation region in front of nozzle were observed as images taken by high-speed camera examine the interaction of the jet and the free stream. In addition, the development of large-scale vortex structures (counter-rotating vortex pair) was detected. The history of complex static pressure pattern on the plate was recorded and compared to the force measurement data as well as numerical simulation data. The analysis of the obtained results, especially in the wake of the jet showed important features of the interaction mechanisms between the lateral jet and the flow field.

Keywords: flow visualization techniques, pressure measurements, reaction control jet, supersonic cross flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
985 Experimental Study on Dehumidification Performance of Supersonic Nozzle

Authors: Esam Jassim


Supersonic nozzles are commonly used to purify natural gas in gas processing technology. As an innovated technology, it is employed to overcome the deficit of the traditional method, related to gas dynamics, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics theory. An indoor test rig is built to study the dehumidification process of moisture fluid. Humid air was chosen for the study. The working fluid was circulating in an open loop, which had provision for filtering, metering, and humidifying. A stainless steel supersonic separator is constructed together with the C-D nozzle system. The result shows that dehumidification enhances as NPR increases. This is due to the high intensity in the turbulence caused by the shock formation in the divergent section. Such disturbance strengthens the centrifugal force, pushing more particles toward the near-wall region. In return return, the pressure recovery factor, defined as the ratio of the outlet static pressure of the fluid to its inlet value, decreases with NPR.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, dehumidification, particle separation, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
984 Development of Surface Modification Technology for Control Element Drive Mechanism Nozzle and Fatigue Enhancement of Ni-Based Alloys

Authors: Auezhan Amanov, Inho Cho, Young-Sik Pyun


Control element drive mechanism (CEDM) nozzle is manufactured as welded on the reactor vessel and currently uses Alloy 690 material. The top of the reactor is equipped with about 100 CEDM nozzles with an internal diameter of about 70 mm. Relatively large Inlet/Outlet nozzles are equipped with two outlet nozzles and four inlet nozzles on the reactor wall. The inner diameter of the nozzle is vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and in order to solve this problem, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment is performed on the inner diameter of the nozzle and the weld surface. The ultimate goal is to improve the service life of parts by applying compressive residual stress and suppressing primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The main purpose is to design and fabricate a UNSM treatment device for the internal diameter processing of CEDM nozzles and inlet/outlet nozzles. In order to develop the system, the basic technology such as the development of UNSM tooling is developed and the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of before and after UNSM treatment of reactor nozzle material made of Ni-based alloys using the specimen are compared and evaluated. The inner diameter of the nozzle was treated by a newly developed UNSM treatment under the optimized treatment parameters. It was found that the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of nozzle were improved in comparison with the untreated nozzle, which may be attributed to the increase in hardness, induced compressive residual stress.

Keywords: control element drive mechanism nozzle, fatigue, Ni-based alloy, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification, UNSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
983 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam


Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
982 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir


The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: arc nozzle, CFD simulation, droplets, oil spills

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981 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim


The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
980 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz


Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 430