Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Radoslaw Maczka

5 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Various Types of Rocket Engine Nozzles

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy, Pawel Karpinski, Radoslaw Maczka

Abstract:

The nozzle is an element of the rocket engine in which the conversion of the potential energy of gases generated during combustion into the kinetic energy of the gas stream takes place. The design parameters of the nozzle have a decisive influence on the ballistic characteristics of the engine. Designing a nozzle assembly is, therefore, one of the most responsible stages in developing a rocket engine design. The paper presents the results of the simulation of three types of rocket propulsion nozzles. Calculations were made using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) in ANSYS Fluent software. The next types of nozzles differ in shape. The analysis was made of a conical nozzle, a bell type nozzle with a conical supersonic part and a bell type nozzle. Calculation results are presented in the form of pressure, velocity and kinetic energy distributions of turbulence in the longitudinal section. The courses of these values along the nozzles are also presented. The results show that the cone nozzle generates strong turbulence in the critical section. Which negatively affect the flow of the working medium. In the case of a bell nozzle, the transformation of the wall caused the elimination of flow disturbances in the critical section. This reduces the probability of waves forming before or after the trailing edge. The most sophisticated construction is the bell type nozzle. It allows you to maximize performance without adding extra weight. The bell type nozzle can be used as a starter and auxiliary engine nozzle due to its advantages. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, nozzle, rocket engine, supersonic flow

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4 Numerical Study of Dynamic Buckling of Fiber Metal Laminates's Profile

Authors: Monika Kamocka, Radoslaw Mania

Abstract:

The design of Fiber Metal Laminates - combining thin aluminum sheets and prepreg layers, allows creating a hybrid structure with high strength to weight ratio. This feature makes FMLs very attractive for aerospace industry, where thin-walled structures are commonly used. Nevertheless, those structures are prone to buckling phenomenon. Buckling could occur also under static load as well as dynamic pulse loads. In this paper, the problem of dynamic buckling of open cross-section FML profiles under axial dynamic compression in the form of pulse load of finite duration is investigated. In the numerical model, material properties of FML constituents were assumed as nonlinear elastic-plastic aluminum and linear-elastic glass-fiber-reinforced composite. The influence of pulse shape was investigated. Sinusoidal and rectangular pulse loads of finite duration were compared in two ways, i.e. with respect to magnitude and force pulse. The dynamic critical buckling load was determined based on Budiansky-Hutchinson, Ari Gur, and Simonetta dynamic buckling criteria.

Keywords: dynamic buckling, dynamic stability, Fiber Metal Laminate, Finite Element Method

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3 LHCII Proteins Phosphorylation Changes Involved in the Dark-Chilling Response in Plant Species with Different Chilling Tolerance

Authors: Malgorzata Krysiak, Anna Wegrzyn, Maciej Garstka, Radoslaw Mazur

Abstract:

Under constantly fluctuating environmental conditions, the thylakoid membrane protein network evolved the ability to dynamically respond to changing biotic and abiotic factors. One of the most important protective mechanism is rearrangement of the chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes, induced by protein phosphorylation. In a temperate climate, low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses that heavily affect plant growth and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the role of LHCII antenna complex phosphorylation in the dark-chilling response. The study included an experimental model based on dark-chilling at 4 °C of detached chilling sensitive (CS) runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) and chilling tolerant (CT) garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. This model is well described in the literature as used for the analysis of chilling impact without any additional effects caused by light. We examined changes in thylakoid membrane protein phosphorylation, interactions between phosphorylated LHCII (P-LHCII) and CP complexes, and their impact on the dynamics of photosystem II (PSII) under dark-chilling conditions. Our results showed that the dark-chilling treatment of CS bean leaves induced a substantial increase of phosphorylation of LHCII proteins, as well as changes in CP complexes composition and their interaction with P-LHCII. The PSII photochemical efficiency measurements showed that in bean, PSII is overloaded with light energy, which is not compensated by CP complexes rearrangements. On the contrary, no significant changes in PSII photochemical efficiency, phosphorylation pattern and CP complexes interactions were observed in CT pea. In conclusion, our results indicate that different responses of the LHCII phosphorylation to chilling stress take place in CT and CS plants, and that kinetics of LHCII phosphorylation and interactions of P-LHCII with photosynthetic complexes may be crucial to chilling stress response. Acknowledgments: presented work was financed by the National Science Centre, Poland grant No.: 2016/23/D/NZ3/01276

Keywords: LHCII, phosphorylation, chilling stress, pea, runner bean

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2 Planning a Haemodialysis Process by Minimum Time Control of Hybrid Systems with Sliding Motion

Authors: Radoslaw Pytlak, Damian Suski

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to provide a computational tool for planning a haemodialysis process. It is shown that optimization methods can be used to obtain the most effective treatment focused on removing both urea and phosphorus during the process. In order to achieve that, the IV–compartment model of phosphorus kinetics is applied. This kinetics model takes into account a rebound phenomenon that can occur during haemodialysis and results in a hybrid model of the process. Furthermore, vector fields associated with the model equations are such that it is very likely that using the most intuitive objective functions in the planning problem could lead to solutions which include sliding motions. Therefore, building computational tools for solving the problem of planning a haemodialysis process has required constructing numerical algorithms for solving optimal control problems with hybrid systems. The paper concentrates on minimum time control of hybrid systems since this control objective is the most suitable for the haemodialysis process considered in the paper. The presented approach to optimal control problems with hybrid systems is different from the others in several aspects. First of all, it is assumed that a hybrid system can exhibit sliding modes. Secondly, the system’s motion on the switching surface is described by index 2 differential–algebraic equations, and that guarantees accurate tracking of the sliding motion surface. Thirdly, the gradients of the problem’s functionals are evaluated with the help of adjoint equations. The adjoint equations presented in the paper take into account sliding motion and exhibit jump conditions at transition times. The optimality conditions in the form of the weak maximum principle for optimal control problems with hybrid systems exhibiting sliding modes and with piecewise constant controls are stated. The presented sensitivity analysis can be used to construct globally convergent algorithms for solving considered problems. The paper presents numerical results of solving the haemodialysis planning problem.

Keywords: haemodialysis planning process, hybrid systems, optimal control, sliding motion

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1 Diversification of Productivity of the Oxfordian Subtidal Carbonate Factory in the Holy Cross Mountains

Authors: Radoslaw Lukasz Staniszewski

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to verify lateral extent and thickness variability of individual limestone layers within early-Jurassic medium- and thick-bedded limestone interbedded with marlstones. Location: The main research area is located in the south-central part of Poland in the south-western part of Permo-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. It includes outcroppings located on the line between Mieczyn and Wola Morawicka. The analyses were carried out on six profiles (Mieczyn, Gniezdziska, Tokarnia, Wola Morawicka, Morawica and Wolica) representing three early-Jurassic links: Jasna Gora layers, grey limestone, Morawica limestone. Additionally, an attempt was made to correlate the thickness sequence from the Holy Cross Mountains to the profile from the quarry in Zawodzie located 3 km east of Czestochowa. The distance between the outermost profiles is 122 km in a straight line. Methodology of research: The Callovian-Oxfordian border was taken as the reference point during the correlation. At the same time, ammonite-based stratigraphic studies were carried out, which allowed to identify individual packages in the remote outcroppings. The analysis of data collected during fieldwork was mainly devoted to the correlation of thickness sequences of limestone layers in subsequent profiles. In order to check the objectivity of the subsequent outcroppings, the profiles have been presented in the form of the thickness functions of the subsequent layers. The generated functions were auto-correlated, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The next step in the research was to statistically determine the percentage increment of the individual layers thickness in the subsequent profiles, and on this basis to plot the function of relative carbonate productivity. Results: The result of the above-mentioned procedures consists in illustrating the extent of 34 rock layers across the examined area in demonstrating the repeatability of their success in subsequent outcroppings. It can also be observed that the thickness of individual layers in the Holy Cross Mountains is increasing from north-west towards south-east. Despite changes in the thickness of the layers in the profiles, their relations within the sequence remain constant. The lowest matching ratio of thickness sequence calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient formula is 0.67, while the highest is 0.84. The thickness of individual layers changes between 4% and 230% over the examined area. Interpretation: Layers in the outcroppings covered by the research show continuity throughout the examined area and it is possible to precisely correlate them, which means that the process determining the formation of the layers was regional and probably included both the fringe of the Holy Cross Mountains and the north-eastern part of the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura Upland. Local changes in the sedimentation environment affecting the productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory only cause the thickness of the layers to change without altering the thickness proportions of the profiles. Based on the percentage of changes in the thickness of individual layers in the subsequent profiles, it can be concluded that the local productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory is increasing logarithmically.

Keywords: Oxfordian, Holy Cross Mountains, carbonate factory, Limestone

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