Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3773

Search results for: multiple routes

3773 An Efficient Strategy for Relay Selection in Multi-Hop Communication

Authors: Jung-In Baik, Seung-Jun Yu, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient relaying algorithm to obtain diversity for improving the reliability of a signal. The algorithm achieves time or space diversity gain by multiple versions of the same signal through two routes. Relays are separated between a source and destination. The routes between the source and destination are set adaptive in order to deal with different channels and noises. The routes consist of one or more relays and the source transmits its signal to the destination through the routes. The signals from the relays are combined and detected at the destination. The proposed algorithm provides a better performance than the conventional algorithms in bit error rate (BER).

Keywords: multi-hop, OFDM, relay, relaying selection

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3772 Fuzzy Vehicle Routing Problem for Extreme Environment

Authors: G. Sirbiladze, B. Ghvaberidze, B. Matsaberidze

Abstract:

A fuzzy vehicle routing problem is considered in the possibilistic environment. A new criterion, maximization of expectation of reliability for movement on closed routes is constructed. The objective of the research is to implement a two-stage scheme for solution of this problem. Based on the algorithm of preferences on the first stage, the sample of so-called “promising” routes will be selected. On the second stage, for the selected promising routes new bi-criteria problem will be solved - minimization of total traveled distance and maximization of reliability of routes. The problem will be stated as a fuzzy-partitioning problem. Two possible solutions of this scheme are considered.

Keywords: vehicle routing problem, fuzzy partitioning problem, multiple-criteria optimization, possibility theory

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3771 Bi-Criteria Vehicle Routing Problem for Possibility Environment

Authors: Bezhan Ghvaberidze

Abstract:

A multiple criteria optimization approach for the solution of the Fuzzy Vehicle Routing Problem (FVRP) is proposed. For the possibility environment the levels of movements between customers are calculated by the constructed simulation interactive algorithm. The first criterion of the bi-criteria optimization problem - minimization of the expectation of total fuzzy travel time on closed routes is constructed for the FVRP. A new, second criterion – maximization of feasibility of movement on the closed routes is constructed by the Choquet finite averaging operator. The FVRP is reduced to the bi-criteria partitioning problem for the so called “promising” routes which were selected from the all admissible closed routes. The convenient selection of the “promising” routes allows us to solve the reduced problem in the real-time computing. For the numerical solution of the bi-criteria partitioning problem the -constraint approach is used. An exact algorithm is implemented based on D. Knuth’s Dancing Links technique and the algorithm DLX. The Main objective was to present the new approach for FVRP, when there are some difficulties while moving on the roads. This approach is called FVRP for extreme conditions (FVRP-EC) on the roads. Also, the aim of this paper was to construct the solving model of the constructed FVRP. Results are illustrated on the numerical example where all Pareto-optimal solutions are found. Also, an approach for more complex model FVRP with time windows was developed. A numerical example is presented in which optimal routes are constructed for extreme conditions on the roads.

Keywords: combinatorial optimization, Fuzzy Vehicle routing problem, multiple objective programming, possibility theory

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3770 Finding Viable Pollution Routes in an Urban Network under a Predefined Cost

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou, Stefanos Katsavounis, Ria Kalfakakou

Abstract:

In an urban area the determination of transportation routes should be planned so as to minimize the provoked pollution taking into account the cost of such routes. In the sequel these routes are cited as pollution routes. The transportation network is expressed by a weighted graph G= (V, E, D, P) where every vertex represents a location to be served and E contains unordered pairs (edges) of elements in V that indicate a simple road. The distances/cost and a weight that depict the provoked air pollution by a vehicle transition at every road are assigned to each road as well. These are the items of set D and P respectively. Furthermore the investigated pollution routes must not exceed predefined corresponding values concerning the route cost and the route pollution level during the vehicle transition. In this paper we present an algorithm that generates such routes in order that the decision maker selects the most appropriate one.

Keywords: bi-criteria, pollution, shortest paths, computation

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3769 Signal Strength Based Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Chothmal

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a route discovery process which uses the signal strength on a link as a parameter of its inclusion in the route discovery method. The proposed signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) based multipath reactive routing protocol is named as SINR-MP protocol. The proposed SINR-MP routing protocols has two following two features: a) SINR-MP protocol selects routes based on the SINR of the links during the route discovery process therefore it select the routes which has long lifetime and low frame error rate for data transmission, and b) SINR-MP protocols route discovery process is multipath which discovers more than one SINR based route between a given source destination pair. The multiple routes selected by our SINR-MP protocol are node-disjoint in nature which increases their robustness against link failures, as failure of one route will not affect the other route. The secondary route is very useful in situations where the primary route is broken because we can now use the secondary route without causing a new route discovery process. Due to this, the network overhead caused by a route discovery process is avoided. This increases the network performance greatly. The proposed SINR-MP routing protocol is implemented in the trail version of network simulator called Qualnet.

Keywords: ad hoc networks, quality of service, video streaming, H.264/SVC, multiple routes, video traces

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3768 Geographic Aspects of Egyptian Illegal Migration to Europe

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Aly Hassanien

Abstract:

This study examines the geographic aspects of Egyptian illegal migration to Europe. It used files of Egyptian government bodies and data obtained from a field study carried out in 2015 on the areas of origin. The study revealed that the phenomenon has passed historically through four phases. Areas of origin are classified geographically into three areas: coastal, river, and interior. The study developed a map for routes of migration which identified the main and secondary routes. The main routes included the Libyan, the Mediterranean and the Arab-Turkish routes. Recently, The Mediterranean route has been the largest and the most dangerous.

Keywords: areas of destination, areas of origin, illegal migration, routes of migration

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3767 Hospitality Genealogy: Tracing the Ethics and Ontologies of Hospitality-Making on the Silk-Routes

Authors: Neil Michael Walsh, Angelique Lombarts

Abstract:

The authors propose that hospitality is ‘made’ (constituted and performed) in the encounters on the Silk-Routes. Inspired with an initial Derridean perspective on hospitality (the conditional/unconditional) and methodologically underpinned with a Delueuzian relational-rhizomatic approach, the authors contend that hospitality is (re)produced in the encounters of self/other, east/west (among others). Thus, in the spirit of performativity and using the temporal-spatial conduit of the Silk Routes (the sites of ethical, cultural, economic, and material interaction of such exchange), the authors concur that hospitality is produced at the moment in which it is performed. Key themes engaged as units of analysis become welcome, reception, hostility, (and so on) which the authors engage and examine –as they unfold- in the narratives and accounts and material legacies of those who travelled the Silk Routes between the 2nd and 18th Centuries. The preliminary results suggest that these earlier performative moments in hospitality-making on the silk routes continue to resonate and ‘form’ the hospitalities of today. Indeed, these acts of hospitality continue to reconstitute and are never a final state of affairs.

Keywords: hospitality-genealogy, interactions, hospitality-making, Silk-Routes, rhizome, relationality

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3766 Species Diversity of Migratory Birds along Boat Touring Routes in Klong Kone Sub-District, Muang District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: P. Chitman, N. Charoenpokaraj

Abstract:

This research aims to study the species, feeding behavior and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Klong Kone Sub-district, Muang District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand from October 2013 – May 2014. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 11 families and 22 species. Route 1 (Klong Kone canal) had the most species, 20 species. According to feeding behavior, there were insectivorous, piscivorous and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research were finding food, nesting and raise nestlings along boat touring routes.

Keywords: bird species diversity, boat touring routes, Samut Songkram, feeding behavior

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3765 The Development of Cultural Routes: The Case of Greece

Authors: Elissavet Kosta

Abstract:

Introduction: In this research, we will propose the methodology, which is required for the planning of the cultural route in order to prepare substantiated proposals for the development and planning of cultural routes in Greece in the near future. Our research has started at 2016. Methodology in our research: Α combination of primary and secondary research will be used as project methodology. Furthermore, this study aims to follow a multidisciplinary approach, using dimensions of qualitative and quantitative data analysis models. Regarding the documentation of the theoretical part of the project, the method of secondary research will be mainly used, yet in combination with bibliographic sources. However, the data collection regarding the research topic will be conducted exclusively through primary research (questionnaires and interviews). Cultural Routes: The cultural route is defined as a brand name touristic product, that is a product of cultural tourism, which is shaped according to a specific connecting element. Given its potential, the cultural route is an important ‘tool’ for the management and development of cultural heritage. Currently, a constant development concerning the cultural routes is observed in an international level during the last decades, as it is widely accepted that cultural tourism has an important role in the world touristic industry. Cultural Routes in Greece: Especially for Greece, we believe, actions have not been taken to the systematic development of the cultural routes yet. The cultural routes that include Greece and have been design in a world scale as well as the cultural routes, which have been design in Greek ground up to this moment are initiations of the Council of Europe, World Tourism Organization UNWTO and ‘Diazoma’ association. Regarding the study of cultural routes in Greece as a multidimensional concept, the following concerns have arisen: Firstly, we are concerned about the general impact of cultural routes at local and national level and specifically in the economic sector. Moreover, we deal with the concerns regarding the natural environment and we delve into the educational aspect of cultural routes in Greece. In addition, the audience we aim at is both specific and broad and we put forward the institutional framework of the study. Finally, we conduct the development and planning of new cultural routes, having in mind the museums as both the starting and ending point of a route. Conclusion: The contribution of our work is twofold and lies firstly on the fact that we attempt to create cultural routes in Greece and secondly on the fact that an interdisciplinary approach is engaged towards realizing our study objective. In particular, our aim is to take advantage of all the ways in which the promotion of a cultural route can have a positive influence on the way of life of society. As a result, we intend to analyze how a cultural route can turn into a well-organized activity that can be used as social intervention to develop tourism, strengthen the economy and improve access to cultural goods in Greece during the economic crisis.

Keywords: cultural heritage, cultural routes, cultural tourism, Greece

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3764 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono

Abstract:

Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

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3763 The Touristic Development of the Archaeological and Heritage Areas in Alexandria City, Egypt

Authors: Salma I. Dwidar, Amal A. Abdelsattar

Abstract:

Alexandria city is one of the greatest cities in the world. It confronted different civilizations throughout the ages due to its special geographical location and climate which left many archaeological areas of great heritage (Ptolemaic, Greek, Romanian, especially sunken monuments, Coptic, Islamic, and finally, the Modern). Also, Alexandria city contains areas with different patterns of urban planning, both Hellenistic and compacted planning which merited the diversity in planning. Despite the magnitude of this city, which contains all the elements of tourism, the city was not included in the tourism map of Egypt properly comparing with similar cities in Egypt. This paper discusses the importance of heritage areas in Alexandria and the relationship between heritage areas and modern buildings. It highlights the absence of a methodology to deal with heritage areas as touristic areas. Also, the paper aims to develop multiple touristic routes to visit archaeological areas and other sights of significance in Alexandria. The research methodology is divided into two main frameworks. The first framework is a historical study of the urban development of Alexandria and the most important remaining monuments throughout the ages, as well as an analytical study of sunken monuments and their importance in increasing the rate of tourism. Moreover, it covers a study of the importance of the Library of Alexandria and its effect on the international focus of the city. The second framework focuses on the proposal of some tourism routes to visit the heritage areas, archaeological monuments, sunken monuments and the sights of Alexandria. The study concludes with the proposal of three tourism routes. The first route, which is the longest one, passes by all the famous monuments of the city as well as its modern sights. The second route passes through the heritage areas, sunken monuments, and Library of Alexandria. The third route includes the sunken monuments and Library of Alexandria. These three tourism routes will ensures the touristic development of the city which leads to the economic growth of the city and the country.

Keywords: archeological buildings, heritage buildings, heritage tourism, planning of Islamic cities

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3762 Analyze Long-Term Shoreline Change at Yi-Lan Coast, Taiwan Using Multiple Sources

Authors: Geng-Gui Wang, Chia-Hao Chang, Jee-Cheng Wu

Abstract:

A shoreline is a line where a body of water and the shore meet. It provides economic and social security to coastal habitations. However, shorelines face multiple threats due to both natural processes and man-made effects because of disasters, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and sand deposition and erosion, etc. In this study, we analyzed multi-temporal satellite images of the Yilan coast, Taiwan from 1978 to 2016, using the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), weather information (as rainfall records and typhoon routes), and man-made construction project data to explore the causes of shoreline changes. The results showed that the shoreline at Yilan coast is greatly influenced by typhoons and anthropogenic interventions.

Keywords: shoreline change, multi-temporal satellite, digital shoreline analysis system, DSAS, Yi-Lan coast

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3761 New Approaches to the Determination of the Time Costs of Movements

Authors: Dana Kristalova

Abstract:

This article deals with geographical conditions in terrain and their effect on the movement of vehicles, their effect on speed and safety of movement of people and vehicles. Finding of the optimal routes outside the communication is studied in the army environment, but it occur in civilian as well, primarily in crisis situation, or by the provision of assistance when natural disasters such as floods, fires, storms, etc. have happened. These movements require the optimization of routes when effects of geographical factors should be included. The most important factor is surface of the terrain. It is based on several geographical factors as are slopes, soil conditions, micro-relief, a type of surface and meteorological conditions. Their mutual impact has been given by coefficient of deceleration. This coefficient can be used for commander´s decision. New approaches and methods of terrain testing, mathematical computing, mathematical statistics or cartometric investigation are necessary parts of this evaluation.

Keywords: surface of a terrain, movement of vehicles, geographical factor, optimization of routes

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3760 Bird Diversity along Boat Touring Routes in Tha Ka Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: N. Charoenpokaraj, P. Chitman

Abstract:

This research aims to study species, abundance, status of birds, the similarities and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Tha Ka sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. from October 2012 – September 2013. The data was analyzed to find the abundance, and similarity index of the birds. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 33 families and 63 species. Route 3 (traditional coconut sugar making kiln – resort) had the most species; 56 species. There were 18 species of commonly found birds with an abundance level of 5, which calculates to 28.57% of all bird species. In August, 46 species are found, being the greatest number of bird species benefiting from this route. As for the status of the birds, there are 51 resident birds, 7 resident and migratory birds, and 5 migratory birds. On Route 2 and Route 3, the similarity index value is equal to 0.881. The birds are classified by their activity characteristics i.e. insectivore, piscivore, granivore, nectrivore and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Some birds also use the area for nesting.

Keywords: bird diversity, boat touring routes, Samut Songkram, similarity index

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3759 Modeling Average Paths Traveled by Ferry Vessels Using AIS Data

Authors: Devin Simmons

Abstract:

At the USDOT’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics, a biannual census of ferry operators in the U.S. is conducted, with results such as route mileage used to determine federal funding levels for operators. AIS data allows for the possibility of using GIS software and geographical methods to confirm operator-reported mileage for individual ferry routes. As part of the USDOT’s work on the ferry census, an algorithm was developed that uses AIS data for ferry vessels in conjunction with known ferry terminal locations to model the average route travelled for use as both a cartographic product and confirmation of operator-reported mileage. AIS data from each vessel is first analyzed to determine individual journeys based on the vessel’s velocity, and changes in velocity over time. These trips are then converted to geographic linestring objects. Using the terminal locations, the algorithm then determines whether the trip represented a known ferry route. Given a large enough dataset, routes will be represented by multiple trip linestrings, which are then filtered by DBSCAN spatial clustering to remove outliers. Finally, these remaining trips are ready to be averaged into one route. The algorithm interpolates the point on each trip linestring that represents the start point. From these start points, a centroid is calculated, and the first point of the average route is determined. Each trip is interpolated again to find the point that represents one percent of the journey’s completion, and the centroid of those points is used as the next point in the average route, and so on until 100 points have been calculated. Routes created using this algorithm have shown demonstrable improvement over previous methods, which included the implementation of a LOESS model. Additionally, the algorithm greatly reduces the amount of manual digitizing needed to visualize ferry activity.

Keywords: ferry vessels, transportation, modeling, AIS data

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3758 A Method Development for Improving the Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection System Using Network Analyst

Authors: Dhvanidevi N. Jadeja, Daya S. Kaul, Anurag A. Kandya

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection in a city is performed in less effective manner which results in the poor management of the environment and natural resources. Municipal corporation does not possess efficient waste management and recycling programs because of the complex task involving many factors. Solid waste collection system depends upon various factors such as manpower, number and size of vehicles, transfer station size, dustbin size and weight, on-road traffic, and many others. These factors affect the collection cost, energy and overall municipal tax for the city. Generally, different types of waste are scattered throughout the city in a heterogeneous way that poses changes for efficient collection of solid waste. Efficient waste collection and transportation strategy must be effectively undertaken which will include optimization of routes, volume of waste, and manpower. Being these optimized, the overall cost can be reduced as the fuel and energy requirements would be less and also the municipal waste taxes levied will be less. To carry out the optimization study of collection system various data needs to be collected from the Ahmedabad municipal corporation such as amount of waste generated per day, number of workers, collection schedule, road maps, number of transfer station, location of transfer station, number of equipment (tractors, machineries), number of zones, route of collection etc. The ArcGis Network Analyst is introduced for the best routing identification applied in municipal waste collection. The simulation consists of scenarios of visiting loading spots in the municipality of Ahmedabad, considering dynamic factors like network traffic changes, closed roads due to natural or technical causes. Different routes were selected in a particular area of Ahmedabad city, and present routes were optimized to reduce the length of the routes, by using ArcGis Network Analyst. The result indicates up to 35% length minimization in the routes.

Keywords: collection routes, efficiency, municipal solid waste, optimization

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3757 Changing Routes: The Adaptability of Somali Migrants and Their Smuggling Networks

Authors: Alexandra Amling, Emina Sadic

Abstract:

The migration routes linking the Horn of Africa to Europe shift in response to political and humanitarian developments across the region. Abrupt changes to those routes can have profound effects on the relative ease of movement and the well-being of migrants. Somali migrants have traditionally been able to rely on a sophisticated, well-established, and reliable network of smugglers to facilitate their journey through the Sahel to Libya, but changes to the routes have undermined those networks. Recently, these shifts have made the journey from Somalia to Europe much more perilous. As the Libyan coast guard intensifies its efforts to stymie boats leaving its coast for Italian shores, arrivals in Spain are trending upwards. This paper thus, will examine how the instability in transit countries that are most commonly used by Somali migrants has had an impact on the reliability of their massive network of smuggling, and how resurgence in the Western route toward Spain provides a potentially new opportunity to reach Europe—a route that has rarely been used by the Somali migrant population in the past. First, the paper will discuss what scholars have called the pastoralist, nomadic tradition of Somalis which reportedly has allowed them to endure the long journeys from Somalia to their chosen destinations. Facilitated by relatives or clan affiliation, Somali migrants have historically been able to rely on a smuggling network that – at least tangentially – provided more security nets during their travels. Given the violence and chaos that unfolded both in Libya and Yemen in 2011 and 2015, respectively, the paper will, secondly, examine which actors in smuggling hubs increase the vulnerabilities of Somalis, pushing them to consider other routes. As a result, this paper will consider to what extent Somalis could follow the stream of other migrants to Algeria and Morocco to enter Europe via Spain. By examining one particular group of migrants and the nature and limitations of the networks associated with their movements, the paper will demonstrate the resilience and adaptability of both the migrants and the networks regardless of the ever-changing nature of migration routes and actors.

Keywords: Europe, migration, smuggling networks, Somalia

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3756 Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS): Children’ Safety Improvement Under COVID-19 Pandemic Conditions in Jordan

Authors: Khair Jadaan, Qasem Alqasem

Abstract:

School children are vulnerable road user groups and are particularly at high risk calling for the need to improve their safety. Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS) concept is considered as one safety improvement approach that would effectively help improve school children’s safety. This paper aims to determine the best practice SRTS for Jordan based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review falling under the 5 E’s and additionally on information/data collected through a survey performed using an online predesigned questionnaire to investigate the reactions and attitudes of students and their parents towards the proposed SRTS program. Data are analyzed using SPSS and MS software, especially Excel, in addition to some literature reviews inserted in this study. The results represent some recommendations that are strongly believed to help decision makers to develop the current safety conditions of the school routes. The challenges that the implementation of this program would face including COVID-19 protection for teachers and students are addressed.

Keywords: children, COVID-19, Jordan, safety, school, SRTS, 5 E’s

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3755 Public Transport Planning System by Dijkstra Algorithm: Case Study Bangkok Metropolitan Area

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the promotion of the public transportation system in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area is increased such as the “Free Bus for Thai Citizen” Campaign and the prospect of the several MRT routes to increase the convenient and comfortable to the Bangkok Metropolitan area citizens. But citizens do not make full use of them it because the citizens are lack of the data and information and also the confident to the public transportation system of Thailand especially in the time and safety aspects. This research is the Public Transport Planning System by Dijkstra Algorithm: Case Study Bangkok Metropolitan Area by focusing on buses, BTS and MRT schedules/routes to give the most information to passengers. They can choose the way and the routes easily by using Dijkstra STAR Algorithm of Graph Theory which also shows the fare of the trip. This Application was evaluated by 30 normal users to find the mean and standard deviation of the developed system. Results of the evaluation showed that system is at a good level of satisfaction (4.20 and 0.40). From these results we can conclude that the system can be used properly and effectively according to the objective.

Keywords: Dijkstra algorithm, graph theory, public transport, Bangkok metropolitan area

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3754 Travel Planning in Public Transport Networks Applying the Algorithm A* for Metropolitan District of Quito

Authors: M. Fernanda Salgado, Alfonso Tierra, Wilbert Aguilar

Abstract:

The present project consists in applying the informed search algorithm A star (A*) to solve traveler problems, applying it by urban public transportation routes. The digitization of the information allowed to identify 26% of the total of routes that are registered within the Metropolitan District of Quito. For the validation of this information, data were taken in field on the travel times and the difference with respect to the times estimated by the program, resulting in that the difference between them was not greater than 2:20 minutes. We validate A* algorithm with the Dijkstra algorithm, comparing nodes vectors based on the public transport stops, the validation was established through the student t-test hypothesis. Then we verified that the times estimated by the program using the A* algorithm are similar to those registered on field. Furthermore, we review the performance of the algorithm generating iterations in both algorithms. Finally, with these iterations, a hypothesis test was carried out again with student t-test where it was concluded that the iterations of the base algorithm Dijsktra are greater than those generated by the algorithm A*.

Keywords: algorithm A*, graph, mobility, public transport, travel planning, routes

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3753 A Novel Solution Methodology for Transit Route Network Design Problem

Authors: Ghada Moussa, Mamoud Owais

Abstract:

Transit Route Network Design Problem (TrNDP) is the most important component in Transit planning, in which the overall cost of the public transportation system highly depends on it. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel solution methodology for the TrNDP, which goes beyond pervious traditional sophisticated approaches. The novelty of the solution methodology, adopted in this paper, stands on the deterministic operators which are tackled to construct bus routes. The deterministic manner of the TrNDP solution relies on using linear and integer mathematical formulations that can be solved exactly with their standard solvers. The solution methodology has been tested through Mandl’s benchmark network problem. The test results showed that the methodology developed in this research is able to improve the given network solution in terms of number of constructed routes, direct transit service coverage, transfer directness and solution reliability. Although the set of routes resulted from the methodology would stand alone as a final efficient solution for TrNDP, it could be used as an initial solution for meta-heuristic procedures to approach global optimal. Based on the presented methodology, a more robust network optimization tool would be produced for public transportation planning purposes.

Keywords: integer programming, transit route design, transportation, urban planning

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3752 Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal

Abstract:

The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 600. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modelling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, multi-linear regression, earth sciences

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3751 Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles and Other Selected Gases among Cyclists near and Away from Busy Roads of Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Anu Shrestha, Krassi Rumchev, Ben Mullins, Yun Zhao, Linda Selvey

Abstract:

Cycling is often promoted as a means of reducing vehicular congestion, noise and greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in urban areas. It is also indorsed as a healthy means of transportation in terms of reducing the risk of developing a range of physical and psychological conditions. However, people who cycle regularly may not be aware that they can become exposed to high levels of Vehicular Air Pollutants (VAP) emitted by nearby traffics and therefore experience adverse health effects as a result. The study will highlight the present scenario of ambient air pollution level in different cycling routes in Perth and also highlight significant contribution to the understanding of health risks that cyclist may face from exposure to particulate air pollution. Methodology: This research was conducted in Perth, Western Austral and consisted of two groups of cyclists cycling near high (2 routes) and low (two routes) vehicular traffic roads, at high and low levels of exertion, during the cold and warm seasons. A sample size of 123 regular cyclists who cycled at least 80 km/week, aged 20-55, and non-smoker were selected for this study. There were altogether 100 male and 23 female who were asked to choose one or more routes among four different routes, and each participant cycled the route for warm or cold or both seasons. Cyclist who reported cardiovascular and other chronic health conditions (excluding asthma) were not invited into the study. Exposures to selected air pollutants were assessed by undertaking background and personal measurements alone with the measurement of heart and breathe rate of each participant. Finding: According to the preliminary study findings, the cyclists who used cycling route close to high traffic route were exposed to higher levels of measured air pollutants Nitrogen Oxide (NO₂) =0.12 ppm, sulfur dioxide (SO₂)=0.06 ppm and carbon monoxide (CO)=0.25 PPM compared to those who cycled away from busy roads. However, we measured high concentrations of particulate air pollution near one of the low traffic route which we associate with the close proximity to ferry station. Concluding Statement: As a conclusion, we recommend that cycling routes should be selected away from high traffic routes. If possible, we should also consider that if the cycling route is surrounded by the dense populated infrastructures, it can trap the pollutants and always facilitate in increasing inhalation of particle count among the cyclists.

Keywords: air pollution, carbon monoxide, cyclists' health, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, respirable particulate matters

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3750 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Multiple Resources for Multi-Projects

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Sarah A. Fotouh

Abstract:

Optimization of resources is very important in all fields, as in construction management. Project managers have to face problems regarding management of cost, time and available resources of single projects and more problems arise when managing multiple projects. Most of the studies focused on optimization of resources for a single project, but, this paper will discuss the design and modeling of multiple resources optimization for multiple projects using Genetic Algorithm. Most of the companies in construction industry optimize the resources for single projects only, but with the presence of several mega projects in several developing countries running at the same time, there is a need for a model to enhance the efficiency of available resources and decreases the fluctuation as much as possible. The proposed model calculates the cost of each resource, tries to minimize the cost of extra resources as much as possible and generates the schedule of each project within a selected program.

Keywords: construction management, genetic algorithm, multiple projects, multiple resources, optimization

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3749 Improved FP-Growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FP-growth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy.

Keywords: association rules, FP-growth, multiple minimum supports, Weka tool

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3748 Variable Selection in a Data Envelopment Analysis Model by Multiple Proportions Comparison

Authors: Jirawan Jitthavech, Vichit Lorchirachoonkul

Abstract:

A statistical procedure using multiple comparisons test for proportions is proposed for variable selection in a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The test statistic in the multiple comparisons is the proportion of efficient decision making units (DMUs) in a DEA model. Three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions: multiple Z tests with Bonferroni correction, multiple tests in 2Xc crosstabulation and the Marascuilo procedure, are used in the proposed statistical procedure of iteratively eliminating the variables in a backward manner. Two simulation populations of moderately and lowly correlated variables are used to compare the results of the statistical procedure using three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions with the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that the proposed statistical procedure using multiple Z tests for proportions with Bonferroni correction clearly outperforms the proposed statistical procedure using the remaining two methods of multiple comparisons and the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure.

Keywords: Bonferroni correction, efficient DMUs, Marascuilo procedure, Pastor et al. method, 2xc crosstabulation

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3747 Benefit Of Waste Collection Route Optimisation

Authors: Bojana Tot, Goran BošKović, Goran Vujić

Abstract:

Route optimisation is a process of planning one or multiple routes, with the purpose of minimizing overall costs, while achieving the highest possible performance under a set of given constraints. It combines routing or route planning, which is the process of creating the most cost-effective route by minimizing the distance or travelled time necessary to reach a set of planned stops, and route scheduling, which is the process of assigning an arrival and service time for each stop, with drivers being given shifts that adhere to their working hours. The objective of this paper is to provide benefits on the implementation of waste collection route optimisation and thus achieve economic efficiency for public utility companies, better service for citizens and positive environment and health.

Keywords: waste management, environment, collection route optimisation, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3746 Sum Capacity with Regularized Channel Inversion in Multi-Antenna Downlink Systems under Equal Power Constraint

Authors: Attaullah Khawaja, Amna Shabbir

Abstract:

Channel inversion is one of the simplest techniques for multiuser downlink systems with single-antenna users. In this paper regularized channel inversion under equal power constraint in the multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channels has been considered. Sum capacity with plain channel inversion also known as Zero Forcing Beam Forming (ZFBF) and optimum sum capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) has also been investigated. Analysis and simulations show that regularization enhances the system performance and empower linear growth in Sum Capacity and specially work well at low signal to noise ratio (SNRs) regime.

Keywords: broadcast channel, channel inversion, multiple antenna multiple-user wireless, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), regularization, dirty paper coding (DPC), sum capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3745 Formulation and Evaluation of Ethosomes of Plumeria indica Linn. Flowers

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

Abstract:

The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. These biopharmaceuticals present challenges to drug delivery scientists because of their unique nature and difficulty in delivery through conventional routes. Therefore, future research will focus on the delivery of these complex molecules through different routes, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, vaginal, rectal, etc. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate ethosomes of Plumeria indica flowers which may deliver the drug to targeted site more efficiently than marketed preparation and also overcome the problems related with oral administration of drug. The formulations were prepared with ethanol, lecithin, propylene glycol and were evaluated.

Keywords: ethosomes, herbal extract, plumeria alba, lecithin

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3744 Multi-Sensor Target Tracking Using Ensemble Learning

Authors: Bhekisipho Twala, Mantepu Masetshaba, Ramapulana Nkoana

Abstract:

Multiple classifier systems combine several individual classifiers to deliver a final classification decision. However, an increasingly controversial question is whether such systems can outperform the single best classifier, and if so, what form of multiple classifiers system yields the most significant benefit. Also, multi-target tracking detection using multiple sensors is an important research field in mobile techniques and military applications. In this paper, several multiple classifiers systems are evaluated in terms of their ability to predict a system’s failure or success for multi-sensor target tracking tasks. The Bristol Eden project dataset is utilised for this task. Experimental and simulation results show that the human activity identification system can fulfill requirements of target tracking due to improved sensors classification performances with multiple classifier systems constructed using boosting achieving higher accuracy rates.

Keywords: single classifier, ensemble learning, multi-target tracking, multiple classifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 128