Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4150

Search results for: multiple markers

4150 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
4149 Interactive Multiple Functions User Interface

Authors: Manjit Singh Sidhu, Waleed Maqableh, Jee Geak Ying

Abstract:

Tangible user interfaces (TUI) that employ markers in the augmented reality (AR) environment has hampered the interactivity between the user and the software application. This is because the user lacks focus on visualizing the contents due to the interaction mechanisms whereby multiple markers may need to be used to perform a particular function. In this research, we have designed a novel TUI user interface where multiple functions could be triggered similar to a natural keyboard thus allowing user to focus more on its digital contents such as 2D/3D, text input, animation and sound. Test results of the user interface with potential users and HCI experts revealed that the multiple functions user interface was new, preferred and appreciated more as opposed to marker based user interface.

Keywords: multimedia, augmented reality, engineering, user interface, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
4148 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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4147 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly

Abstract:

Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: correlation, molecular markers, polymorphism, marker index

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4146 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

Abstract:

Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: colorectal carcinoma, stem cells, CD133+, CD44+

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4145 An Analysis of Discourse Markers Awareness in Writing Undergraduate Thesis of English Education Student in Sebelas Maret University

Authors: Oktanika Wahyu Nurjanah, Anggun Fitriana Dewi

Abstract:

An undergraduate thesis is one of the academic writings which should fulfill some characteristics, one of them is coherency. Moreover, a coherence of a text depends on the usage of discourse markers. In other word, discourse markers take an essential role in writing. Therefore, the researchers aim to know the awareness of the discourse markers usage in writing the under-graduate thesis of an English Education student at Sebelas Maret University. This research uses a qualitative case study in order to obtain a deep analysis. The sample of this research is an under-graduate thesis of English Education student in Sebelas Maret University which chosen based on some criteria. Additionally, the researchers were guided by some literature attempted to group the discourse markers based on their functions. Afterward, the analysis was held based on it. From the analysis, it found that the awareness of discourse markers usage is moderate. The last point, the researcher suggest undergraduate students to familiarize themselves with discourse markers, especially for those who want to write thesis.

Keywords: discourse markers, English education, thesis writing, undergraduate student

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4144 Visualize Global Warming and Its Consequences Using Augmented Reality

Authors: K. R. Parvathy, R. Rao Bhavani , M. L. McLain, Kamal Bijlani, R. Jayakrishnan

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) technology is considered to be an important emerging technology used in education today. One potentially key use of AR in education is to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI), topics that inure students towards social conscience and critical thinking. This work uses multiple markers and virtual buttons that interact with each other, creating a life-like visual spectacle. Learning about issues such as global warming by using AR technology, students will have an increased sense of experiencing immersion, immediacy, and presence, thereby enhancing their learning as well as likely improving their ability to make better informed decisions about considerations of such issues. Another advantage of AR is that it is a low cost technology, making it advantageous for educators to adapt to their classrooms. Also in this work we compare the effectiveness of AR versus ordinary video by polling a group of students to assess the content understandability, effectiveness and interaction of both the delivery methods.

Keywords: augmented reality, global warming, multiple markers, virtual buttons

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4143 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

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Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: augmented reality, multimedia, user interface, engineering, education technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
4142 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

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This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
4141 Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Conferring Downy Mildew Resistance in Cucumis sativus

Authors: Pawinee Innark, Hudsaya Punyanitikul, Chanuluk Khanobdee, Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat, Sompid Samipak

Abstract:

One of the most devastating diseases in cucumber is downy mildew caused by the fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis. To enable the use of marker-assisted breeding for resistance cultivars, sixty six microsatellite markers were used to map (quantitative trait loci) QTLs for DM resistance. Total of 315 F2 population from the cross between DM-resistant inbred line CSL0067 and susceptible CSL0139 were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in cotyledon, first and second true leaf at 7, 10, and 14 day after inoculation. The QTL analysis revealed that the downy mildew resistant genes were controlled by multiple recessive genes. From eight linkage groups (LG 1.1, 1.2, 2, 3, 4, 5.1, 5.2 and 6), fourteen QTL positions were detected on 4 linkage groups (LG 1.1, 2, 5.1 and 6) with the log of odd scores ranged from 3.538 to 9.165. Among them, Cot7_5.1_2 and Cot10_5.1 had major-effect QTL with the R2 values of 10.9 and 12.5%, respectively. The flanking markers for Cot7_5.1_2 were SSR19172 - SSR07531 markers and for Cot10_5.1 were SSR03943 - SSR00772. Besides QTLs on chromosome 1, 5 and 6 that were previously reported, this study also revealed a QTL for DM resistance on chromosome 2 that can be used as a new source in cucumber breeding program.

Keywords: cucumber, DNA marker, downy mildew, QTL

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4140 An Examination of Self-Mentions and Engagement Markers on the Academic IELTS Reading Exam

Authors: Hilda Freimuth

Abstract:

This study examined the interactional resources of self-mentions and engagement markers in twenty official IELTS reading exam passages to determine the passages’ similarity to academic research papers. Although the findings revealed a variation ranging from zero to 22 instances for any given passage, the study found the average number of markers (5.5) per passage in line with those found on research papers. This finding confirms that the IELTS exam’s reading passages mirror the academic nature of research papers in this regard.

Keywords: IELTS exam, IELTS reading, interpersonal resources, self-mentions, engagement markers

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4139 Image Segmentation of Visual Markers in Robotic Tracking System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm with Connected-Component Labeling

Authors: Shu-Yu Hsu, Chen-Chien Hsu, Wei-Yen Wang

Abstract:

Color segmentation is a basic and simple way for recognizing the visual markers in a robotic tracking system. In this paper, we propose a new method for color segmentation by incorporating differential evolution algorithm and connected component labeling to autonomously preset the HSV threshold of visual markers. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a ROBOTIS OP2 humanoid robot is used to conduct the experiment, where five most commonly used color including red, purple, blue, yellow, and green in visual markers are given for comparisons.

Keywords: color segmentation, differential evolution, connected component labeling, humanoid robot

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4138 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta

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Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers

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4137 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad

Abstract:

In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: wheat, molecular markers, SSR, RAPD

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
4136 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono

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Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

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4135 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4134 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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4133 Effect of High-Pressure and Thermal Treatments on Quality Markers of Strawberry Nectars

Authors: Karen Louise Lacey, Dario Javier Pavon Vargas, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Luca Cattani, Sara Rainieri

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The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatments (TT) on quality markers of strawberry nectar (12 °Brix, 3,3 pH) was studied before and after treatments. TT and HPP treatments ensured a 3-log aerobic bacteria inactivation. No significant difference was detected in terms of pH and °Brix. TT samples were less red (a* less positive) than all HPP treated samples, while all samples were less red than the control. Apparent viscosity was significantly increased in all the HPP treatments, at 10 1/s shear rate, control was 79.04±7.94 mPa•s and the 600 MPa-20 min treatment were 327.10±1.64 mPa•s. This work suggests that HPP treatments may maintain the quality markers of strawberry nectar better.

Keywords: HPP, strawberry nectar, colour , viscosity

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4132 Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Genomic-SSR Markers in Asian Long-Horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Authors: Zhao Yang Liu, Jing Tao

Abstract:

The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is a wood-borer and polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and killing healthy trees. As it causes serious danger to trees, the beetle has been paid close attention in the world. However, the genetic markers limited, especially microsatellite. In this study, 24 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. We developed SSR loci of 2 to 6 repeated and perfect units including 9895 points, the density of SSRs was found one SSR per 56.57 kb and the abundance of SSR was 0.02/kb, besides 140 types of repeats motifs were found. Half of the 48 pairs SSR primers (containing 4 di-, 7 tri-, 2 tetra- and 11 hexamers SSRs) we selected randomly from 1222 pairs of primers were polymorphism. The number of alleles for these markers in 48 individuals varied from 3 to 21 with an average of 7.71, the number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 9.97 with an average of 3.54. Besides this, the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.18 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.65, And Shannon's Information index (I) ranged from 0.46 to 2.62 with an average of 1.44. The results suggest that the method for screening of SSR in the whole genome is feasible and efficient. SSR markers developed in this study can be used for population genetic studies of A. glabripennis. Moreover, they may also be helpful for the development of microsatellites for other Coleoptera.

Keywords: SSR markers, Anoplophora glabripennis, genetic diversity, whole genome

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4131 Molecular Characterization of Polyploid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Rajendra K. Meena, Maneesh S. Bhandari, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal

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Microsatellite markers are the most valuable tools for the characterization of plant genetic resources or population genetic analysis. Since it is codominant and allelic markers, utilizing them in polyploid species remained doubtful. In such cases, the microsatellite marker is usually analyzed by treating them as a dominant marker. In the current study, it has been showed that despite losing the advantage of co-dominance, microsatellite markers are still a powerful tool for genotyping of polyploid species because of availability of large number of reproducible alleles per locus. It has been studied by genotyping of 19 subpopulations of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (hexaploid bamboo species) with 17 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Among these, ten primers gave typical banding pattern of microsatellite marker as expected in diploid species, but rest 7 gave an unusual pattern, i.e., more than two bands per locus per genotype. In such case, genotyping data are generally analyzed by considering as dominant markers. In the current study, data were analyzed in both ways as dominant and co-dominant. All the 17 primers were first scored as nonallelic data and analyzed; later, the ten primers giving standard banding patterns were analyzed as allelic data and the results were compared. The UPGMA clustering and genetic structure showed that results obtained with both the data sets are very similar with slight variation, and therefore the SSR marker could be utilized to characterize polyploid species by considering them as a dominant marker. The study is highly useful to widen the scope for SSR markers applications and beneficial to the researchers dealing with polyploid species.

Keywords: microsatellite markers, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, dominant and codominant, polyploids

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4130 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

Abstract:

Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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4129 Implementation of Metabolomics in Conjunction with Chemometrics for the Dentification of the Differential Chemical Markers of Different Grades of Sri Lankan White, Green and Black Tea: Camellia Sinenesis L.

Authors: Dina A. Selim, Eman Shawky, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair

Abstract:

In the current study, UPLC-MS/MS combined to chemometrics were applied on seven Sri Lankan tea grades; Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings, Broken Orange Pekoe black tea, green tea, silver tips and golden tips white tea grades for their comprehensive metabolic profiling. Certain metabolites, namely, Theasensinin C and E, theaflavin and theacitrin appeared to be the main chemical markers of black tea type, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, methyl epigallocatechin were the main discriminatory markers of green tea type, while theanine, oolongotheanine and quercetin glycosides were the main chemical markers of white tea type. Theogalloflavin, epigallocatechin and flavonoid glycosides were the main down-accumulated metabolites while theaflavin gallate, and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin were the chief up- accumulated metabolites between whole and broken black tea leave grades while puerin A and C and gallic acid was the main down- accumulated metabolites and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin gallate was the main up-accumulated one between broken and fanning black tea grades.

Keywords: tea grading, Sri Lankan tea, chemometrics, metabolomics, chemical markers

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4128 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan

Abstract:

The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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4127 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana

Abstract:

In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, microsatellite, polymorphism

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4126 The Morphological Picture of the Reinke``S Oedema

Authors: Dins Sumerags, Mara Pilmane, Vita Konopecka, Gunta Sumeraga

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Reinke’s oedema is a specific type of chronic laryngitis evolving only in smokers. Our study aimed to identify the presence and interaction of the immunohistochemical markers for inflammation [IL-1α] and [IL-10], proliferation [Ki-67] and immunoreactive innervation [PGP 9.5] in the laryngeal mucosa using biotin-streptavidin immunochemical staining method. The laryngeal tissue samples were taken from the vocal cord during the surgery of the Reinke’s oedema and compared to the control group from the tissue samples of the cadavers without any visual laryngeal disease. The study results confirm increased cellular proliferation and elevation of the inflammation markers in the laryngeal mucosa in the case of Reinke’s oedema by comparing with the control.

Keywords: reinke`s oedema, immunohistochemical markers, laryngeal mucosa, biotin-streptavidin

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4125 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

Abstract:

The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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4124 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar

Abstract:

For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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4123 A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA

Authors: Junghwa An, Sungkyoung Choi, Eun Ye, San Hoon Han, Young-Gun Choi, Chul Oun Jung

Abstract:

The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.

Keywords: copper-winged bat, microsatellite, population genetics, South Korea

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4122 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath

Abstract:

Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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4121 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Dalmatian Pyrethrum Using Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Ante Turudic, Filip Varga, Zlatko Liber, Jernej Jakse, Zlatko Satovic, Ivan Radosavljevic, Martina Grdisa

Abstract:

Microsatellites (SSRs) are highly informative repetitive sequences of 2-6 base pairs, which are the most used molecular markers in assessing the genetic diversity of plant species. Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir./ Sch. Bip) is an outcrossing diploid (2n = 18) endemic to the eastern Adriatic coast and source of the natural insecticide pyrethrin. Due to the high repetitiveness and large size of the genome (haploid genome size of 9,58 pg), previous attempts to develop microsatellite markers using the standard methods were unsuccessful. A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied on genomic DNA extracted from fresh leaves of Dalmatian pyrethrum. The sequencing was conducted using NovaSeq6000 Illumina sequencer, after which almost 400 million high-quality paired-end reads were obtained, with a read length of 150 base pairs. Short reads were assembled by combining two approaches; (1) de-novo assembly and (2) joining of overlapped pair-end reads. In total, 6.909.675 contigs were obtained, with the contig average length of 249 base pairs. Of the resulting contigs, 31.380 contained one or multiple microsatellite sequences, in total 35.556 microsatellite loci were identified. Out of detected microsatellites, dinucleotide repeats were the most frequent, accounting for more than half of all microsatellites identifies (21,212; 59.7%), followed by trinucleotide repeats (9,204; 25.9%). Tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides had similar frequency of 1,822 (5.1%), 1,472 (4.1%), and 1,846 (5.2%), respectively. Contigs containing microsatellites were further filtered by SSR pattern type, transposon occurrences, assembly characteristics, GC content, and the number of occurrences against the draft genome of T. cinerariifolium published previously. After the selection process, 50 microsatellite loci were used for primer design. Designed primers were tested on samples from five distinct populations, and 25 of them showed a high degree of polymorphism. The selected loci were then genotyped on 20 samples belonging to one population resulting in 17 microsatellite markers. Availability of codominant SSR markers will significantly improve the knowledge on population genetic diversity and structure as well as complex genetics and biochemistry of this species. Acknowledgment: This work has been fully supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project ‘Genetic background of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir/ Sch. Bip.) insecticidal potential’ - (PyrDiv) (IP-06-2016-9034).

Keywords: genome assembly, NGS, SSR, Tanacetum cinerariifolium

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