Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2300

Search results for: missing requirements

2300 Analytical Study of Data Mining Techniques for Software Quality Assurance

Authors: Mariam Bibi, Rubab Mehboob, Mehreen Sirshar


Satisfying the customer requirements is the ultimate goal of producing or developing any product. The quality of the product is decided on the bases of the level of customer satisfaction. There are different techniques which have been reported during the survey which enhance the quality of the product through software defect prediction and by locating the missing software requirements. Some mining techniques were proposed to assess the individual performance indicators in collaborative environment to reduce errors at individual level. The basic intention is to produce a product with zero or few defects thereby producing a best product quality wise. In the analysis of survey the techniques like Genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, classification and clustering techniques and decision tree are studied. After analysis it has been discovered that these techniques contributed much to the improvement and enhancement of the quality of the product.

Keywords: data mining, defect prediction, missing requirements, software quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2299 Deadline Missing Prediction for Mobile Robots through the Use of Historical Data

Authors: Edwaldo R. B. Monteiro, Patricia D. M. Plentz, Edson R. De Pieri


Mobile robotics is gaining an increasingly important role in modern society. Several potentially dangerous or laborious tasks for human are assigned to mobile robots, which are increasingly capable. Many of these tasks need to be performed within a specified period, i.e., meet a deadline. Missing the deadline can result in financial and/or material losses. Mechanisms for predicting the missing of deadlines are fundamental because corrective actions can be taken to avoid or minimize the losses resulting from missing the deadline. In this work we propose a simple but reliable deadline missing prediction mechanism for mobile robots through the use of historical data and we use the Pioneer 3-DX robot for experiments and simulations, one of the most popular robots in academia.

Keywords: deadline missing, historical data, mobile robots, prediction mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
2298 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju


Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2297 Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates

Authors: Madaki Umar Yusuf, Mohd Rizam B. Abubakar


The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.

Keywords: EM algorithm, incomplete categorical covariates, ignorable missing data, missing at random (MAR), Weibull Distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2296 Inadequate Requirements Engineering Process: A Key Factor for Poor Software Development in Developing Nations: A Case Study

Authors: K. Adu Michael, K. Alese Boniface


Developing a reliable and sustainable software products is today a big challenge among up–coming software developers in Nigeria. The inability to develop a comprehensive problem statement needed to execute proper requirements engineering process is missing. The need to describe the ‘what’ of a system in one document, written in a natural language is a major step in the overall process of Software Engineering. Requirements Engineering is a process use to discover, analyze and validate system requirements. This process is needed in reducing software errors at the early stage of the development of software. The importance of each of the steps in Requirements Engineering is clearly explained in the context of using detailed problem statement from client/customer to get an overview of an existing system along with expectations from the new system. This paper elicits inadequate Requirements Engineering principle as the major cause of poor software development in developing nations using a case study of final year computer science students of a tertiary-education institution in Nigeria.

Keywords: client/customer, problem statement, requirements engineering, software developers

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2295 A Neural Network Based Clustering Approach for Imputing Multivariate Values in Big Data

Authors: S. Nickolas, Shobha K.


The treatment of incomplete data is an important step in the data pre-processing. Missing values creates a noisy environment in all applications and it is an unavoidable problem in big data management and analysis. Numerous techniques likes discarding rows with missing values, mean imputation, expectation maximization, neural networks with evolutionary algorithms or optimized techniques and hot deck imputation have been introduced by researchers for handling missing data. Among these, imputation techniques plays a positive role in filling missing values when it is necessary to use all records in the data and not to discard records with missing values. In this paper we propose a novel artificial neural network based clustering algorithm, Adaptive Resonance Theory-2(ART2) for imputation of missing values in mixed attribute data sets. The process of ART2 can recognize learned models fast and be adapted to new objects rapidly. It carries out model-based clustering by using competitive learning and self-steady mechanism in dynamic environment without supervision. The proposed approach not only imputes the missing values but also provides information about handling the outliers.

Keywords: ART2, data imputation, clustering, missing data, neural network, pre-processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2294 Effect of Genuine Missing Data Imputation on Prediction of Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Suzan Arslanturk, Mohammad-Reza Siadat, Theophilus Ogunyemi, Ananias Diokno


Missing data is a common challenge in statistical analyses of most clinical survey datasets. A variety of methods have been developed to enable analysis of survey data to deal with missing values. Imputation is the most commonly used among the above methods. However, in order to minimize the bias introduced due to imputation, one must choose the right imputation technique and apply it to the correct type of missing data. In this paper, we have identified different types of missing values: missing data due to skip pattern (SPMD), undetermined missing data (UMD), and genuine missing data (GMD) and applied rough set imputation on only the GMD portion of the missing data. We have used rough set imputation to evaluate the effect of such imputation on prediction by generating several simulation datasets based on an existing epidemiological dataset (MESA). To measure how well each dataset lends itself to the prediction model (logistic regression), we have used p-values from the Wald test. To evaluate the accuracy of the prediction, we have considered the width of 95% confidence interval for the probability of incontinence. Both imputed and non-imputed simulation datasets were fit to the prediction model, and they both turned out to be significant (p-value < 0.05). However, the Wald score shows a better fit for the imputed compared to non-imputed datasets (28.7 vs. 23.4). The average confidence interval width was decreased by 10.4% when the imputed dataset was used, meaning higher precision. The results show that using the rough set method for missing data imputation on GMD data improve the predictive capability of the logistic regression. Further studies are required to generalize this conclusion to other clinical survey datasets.

Keywords: rough set, imputation, clinical survey data simulation, genuine missing data, predictive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
2293 Two-Phase Sampling for Estimating a Finite Population Total in Presence of Missing Values

Authors: Daniel Fundi Murithi


Missing data is a real bane in many surveys. To overcome the problems caused by missing data, partial deletion, and single imputation methods, among others, have been proposed. However, problems such as discarding usable data and inaccuracy in reproducing known population parameters and standard errors are associated with them. For regression and stochastic imputation, it is assumed that there is a variable with complete cases to be used as a predictor in estimating missing values in the other variable, and the relationship between the two variables is linear, which might not be realistic in practice. In this project, we estimate population total in presence of missing values in two-phase sampling. Instead of regression or stochastic models, non-parametric model based regression model is used in imputing missing values. Empirical study showed that nonparametric model-based regression imputation is better in reproducing variance of population total estimate obtained when there were no missing values compared to mean, median, regression, and stochastic imputation methods. Although regression and stochastic imputation were better than nonparametric model-based imputation in reproducing population total estimates obtained when there were no missing values in one of the sample sizes considered, nonparametric model-based imputation may be used when the relationship between outcome and predictor variables is not linear.

Keywords: finite population total, missing data, model-based imputation, two-phase sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2292 Imputation Technique for Feature Selection in Microarray Data Set

Authors: Younies Saeed Hassan Mahmoud, Mai Mabrouk, Elsayed Sallam


Analysing DNA microarray data sets is a great challenge, which faces the bioinformaticians due to the complication of using statistical and machine learning techniques. The challenge will be doubled if the microarray data sets contain missing data, which happens regularly because these techniques cannot deal with missing data. One of the most important data analysis process on the microarray data set is feature selection. This process finds the most important genes that affect certain disease. In this paper, we introduce a technique for imputing the missing data in microarray data sets while performing feature selection.

Keywords: DNA microarray, feature selection, missing data, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
2291 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal


Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: missing values, incomplete data, distance, incomplete diabetes data

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
2290 Conflicts Identification Approach among Stakeholders in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Suhaib


Requirements Analysis are the most important part of software Engineering for both system application development, and project requirements. Conflicts often arise during the requirements gathering and analysis phase. This research aims to identify conflicts during the requirements gathering phase in software development life cycle, Research, Development, and Technology converted the world into a global village. During requirements elicitation/gathering phase it’s very difficult to understand the main objective of stakeholders, after completion of requirements elicitation task final results are used for Software Requirements Specification (SRS), SRS is the highly important outcome of the requirements analysis phase. this is the foundation between the developers and stakeholders or customers, proposed methodology will be helpful to identify those conflicts in a very easy manner during the initial phase of the project.

Keywords: goal oriented requirements analysis, conflicts identification model, requirements analysis, requirements engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2289 An Approach to Specify Software Requirements in Semantic Form

Authors: Deepa Vijay, Chellammal Surianarayanan, Gopinath Ganapathy


Requirements of a software project serve as a guideline for the entire project team which enable the team towards producing the right outcome. As requirements are the key in deciding the success of the project, it should be specified in an unambiguous manner. Also, the requirements should be complete and consistent. It should be interpreted in the same way by the entire software project team as the customer interprets. Specifying requirements in textual manner is common in software development. This leads to poor understanding of the requirements which results in more errors and degraded quality. There are some literatures which focus on semantic way of specifying functional requirement which ensure the consistency and completeness of requirements. Alternately in the work, a method is proposed to map the syntactic requirements with corresponding semantics in the form of ontologies. This improves the understanding of requirements, prevents errors and improves quality.

Keywords: functional requirement, ontology, requirements management, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2288 Modern Imputation Technique for Missing Data in Linear Functional Relationship Model

Authors: Adilah Abdul Ghapor, Yong Zulina Zubairi, Rahmatullah Imon


Missing value problem is common in statistics and has been of interest for years. This article considers two modern techniques in handling missing data for linear functional relationship model (LFRM) namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and Expectation-Maximization with Bootstrapping (EMB) algorithm using three performance indicators; namely the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and estimated biased (EB). In this study, we applied the methods of imputing missing values in the LFRM. Results of the simulation study suggest that EMB algorithm performs much better than EM algorithm in both models. We also illustrate the applicability of the approach in a real data set.

Keywords: expectation-maximization, expectation-maximization with bootstrapping, linear functional relationship model, performance indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2287 Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area

Authors: JaeHwan Yang, Da-Woon Jeong, Seung-Young Kho, Dong-Kyu Kim


In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that does not have data on it is called “Missing Link”. The purpose of this study is to impute data of these missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With the machine learning process, especially for the deep learning process, missing link data can be estimated from present link data. For deep learning process, this study uses “Recurrent Neural Network” to take time-series data of road. As input data, Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural Network structure has 17 links with present data as input, 2 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, forecasted data of target link show about 94% of accuracy compared with actual data.

Keywords: data estimation, link data, machine learning, road network

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
2286 A Hybrid Data-Handler Module Based Approach for Prioritization in Quality Function Deployment

Authors: P. Venu, Joeju M. Issac


Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a systematic technique that creates a platform where the customer responses can be positively converted to design attributes. The accuracy of a QFD process heavily depends on the data that it is handling which is captured from customers or QFD team members. Customized computer programs that perform Quality Function Deployment within a stipulated time have been used by various companies across the globe. These programs heavily rely on storage and retrieval of the data on a common database. This database must act as a perfect source with minimum missing values or error values in order perform actual prioritization. This paper introduces a missing/error data handler module which uses Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy numbers. The prioritization of customer requirements of sesame oil is illustrated and a comparison is made between proposed data handler module-based deployment and manual deployment.

Keywords: hybrid data handler, QFD, prioritization, module-based deployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2285 Handling Missing Data by Using Expectation-Maximization and Expectation-Maximization with Bootstrapping for Linear Functional Relationship Model

Authors: Adilah Abdul Ghapor, Yong Zulina Zubairi, A. H. M. R. Imon


Missing value problem is common in statistics and has been of interest for years. This article considers two modern techniques in handling missing data for linear functional relationship model (LFRM) namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and Expectation-Maximization with Bootstrapping (EMB) algorithm using three performance indicators; namely the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and estimated biased (EB). In this study, we applied the methods of imputing missing values in two types of LFRM namely the full model of LFRM and in LFRM when the slope is estimated using a nonparametric method. Results of the simulation study suggest that EMB algorithm performs much better than EM algorithm in both models. We also illustrate the applicability of the approach in a real data set.

Keywords: expectation-maximization, expectation-maximization with bootstrapping, linear functional relationship model, performance indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2284 University Students’ Fear of Missing out and Night Eating Syndrome. A Descriptive Correlational Study

Authors: Mohammed Qutishat, Omar Al-Omari, Kholoud Al-Damery, Mohammed Al-Qadiri


Objective: The current study aims to explore the relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and the experiences of Fear of Missing out (FOMO) among college students in Oman. Methods: The study adopted a descriptive correlational design. The total sample was 366 based on defined inclusion criteria. The questionnaires were distributed over one month during the spring semester of 2020. We used a self-report instrument as a measurement tool to investigate the extents of the research phenomena, and it consists of two major sections: fear of missing out Questionnaires and Night Eating Questionnaire. Results: The respondents' age ranged between 18 and 30. The majority of the participants were female 76.7% (204), single 97.7% (266), in their third academic year 28.6% (76), live in –campus, 57.1% (152). The findings of this study showed that fear of missing out experiences are significantly correlated with age (P=.010), gender (P= .005), and daily sleeping hours (P= .007). However, night eating experiences are significantly associated with age (p=018), living arrangement (P= .017), and sleeping hours (P= .000). Conclusion: This article can define a limiting aspect of the relationship between fear of missing out and night eating behaviors. During academic life, students may find themselves overloaded and use their smartphones to do the simplest tasks they have, leading them to skip their meals frequently and interfere with their eating patterns and psychological function. Health awareness programs or the implementation of healthy eating standards and technology uses can be introduced for undergraduates.

Keywords: fear of missing out, night eating syndrome, smartphone, addiction

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
2283 Teaching Students Collaborative Requirements Engineering: Case Study of Red:Wire

Authors: Dagmar Monett, Sven-Erik Kujat, Marvin Hartmann


This paper discusses the use of a template-based approach for documenting high-quality requirements as part of course projects in an undergraduate Software Engineering course. In order to ease some of the Requirements Engineering activities that are performed when defining requirements by using the template, a new CASE tool, RED:WIRE, was first developed and later tested by students attending the course. Two questionnaires were conceived around a study that aims to analyze the new tool’s learnability as well as other obtained results concerning its usability in particular and the Requirements Engineering skills developed by the students in general.

Keywords: CASE tool, requirements engineering, SOPHIST template, undergraduate course

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2282 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
2281 Analyzing the Performance of Machine Learning Models to Predict Alzheimer's Disease and its Stages Addressing Missing Value Problem

Authors: Carlos Theran, Yohn Parra Bautista, Victor Adankai, Richard Alo, Jimwi Liu, Clement G. Yedjou


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by deteriorating cognitive functions. AD has gained relevant attention in the last decade. An estimated 24 million people worldwide suffered from this disease by 2011. In 2016 an estimated 40 million were diagnosed with AD, and for 2050 is expected to reach 131 million people affected by AD. Therefore, detecting and confirming AD at its different stages is a priority for medical practices to provide adequate and accurate treatments. Recently, Machine Learning (ML) models have been used to study AD's stages handling missing values in multiclass, focusing on the delineation of Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI), Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI), and normal cognitive (CN). But, to our best knowledge, robust performance information of these models and the missing data analysis has not been presented in the literature. In this paper, we propose studying the performance of five different machine learning models for AD's stages multiclass prediction in terms of accuracy, precision, and F1-score. Also, the analysis of three imputation methods to handle the missing value problem is presented. A framework that integrates ML model for AD's stages multiclass prediction is proposed, performing an average accuracy of 84%.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, missing value, machine learning, performance evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2280 Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology

Authors: Lara F. Horani, Shurong Tong


Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2279 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell


Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centered Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: requirements gathering, usability, usage-centred design, computer science

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2278 Requirements Management in Agile

Authors: Ravneet Kaur


The concept of Agile Requirements Engineering and Management is not new. However, the struggle to figure out how traditional Requirements Management Process fits within an Agile framework remains complex. This paper talks about a process that can merge the organization’s traditional Requirements Management Process nicely into the Agile Software Development Process. This process provides Traceability of the Product Backlog to the external documents on one hand and User Stories on the other hand. It also gives sufficient evidence that the system will deliver the right functionality with good quality in the form of various statistics and reports. In the nutshell, by overlaying a process on top of Agile, without disturbing the Agility, we are able to get synergic benefits in terms of productivity, profitability, its reporting, and end to end visibility to all Stakeholders. The framework can be used for just-in-time requirements definition or to build a repository of requirements for future use. The goal is to make sure that the business (specifically, the product owner) can clearly articulate what needs to be built and define what is of high quality. To accomplish this, the requirements cycle follows a Scrum-like process that mirrors the development cycle but stays two to three steps ahead. The goal is to create a process by which requirements can be thoroughly vetted, organized, and communicated in a manner that is iterative, timely, and quality-focused. Agile is quickly becoming the most popular way of developing software because it fosters continuous improvement, time-boxed development cycles, and more quickly delivering value to the end users. That value will be driven to a large extent by the quality and clarity of requirements that feed the software development process. An agile, lean, and timely approach to requirements as the starting point will help to ensure that the process is optimized.

Keywords: requirements management, Agile

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2277 Prediction Modeling of Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Prodromal Stages from Multimodal Data with Missing Values

Authors: M. Aghili, S. Tabarestani, C. Freytes, M. Shojaie, M. Cabrerizo, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, R. E. Curiel, D. Loewenstein, R. Duara, M. Adjouadi


A major challenge in medical studies, especially those that are longitudinal, is the problem of missing measurements which hinders the effective application of many machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, recent Alzheimer's Disease studies have focused on the delineation of Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI) and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI) from cognitively normal controls (CN) which is essential for developing effective and early treatment methods. To address the aforementioned challenges, this paper explores the potential of using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm in handling missing values in multiclass classification. We seek a generalized classification scheme where all prodromal stages of the disease are considered simultaneously in the classification and decision-making processes. Given the large number of subjects (1631) included in this study and in the presence of almost 28% missing values, we investigated the performance of XGBoost on the classification of the four classes of AD, NC, EMCI, and LMCI. Using 10-fold cross validation technique, XGBoost is shown to outperform other state-of-the-art classification algorithms by 3% in terms of accuracy and F-score. Our model achieved an accuracy of 80.52%, a precision of 80.62% and recall of 80.51%, supporting the more natural and promising multiclass classification.

Keywords: eXtreme gradient boosting, missing data, Alzheimer disease, early mild cognitive impairment, late mild cognitive impair, multiclass classification, ADNI, support vector machine, random forest

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2276 On Deterministic Chaos: Disclosing the Missing Mathematics from the Lorenz-Haken Equations

Authors: Meziane Belkacem


We aim at converting the original 3D Lorenz-Haken equations, which describe laser dynamics –in terms of self-pulsing and chaos- into 2-second-order differential equations, out of which we extract the so far missing mathematics and corroborations with respect to nonlinear interactions. Leaning on basic trigonometry, we pull out important outcomes; a fundamental result attributes chaos to forbidden periodic solutions inside some precisely delimited region of the control parameter space that governs the bewildering dynamics.

Keywords: Physics, optics, nonlinear dynamics, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2275 User Requirements Analysis for the Development of Assistive Navigation Mobile Apps for Blind and Visually Impaired People

Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones


In the context of the development process of two assistive navigation mobile apps for blind and visually impaired people (BVI) an extensive qualitative analysis of the requirements of potential users has been conducted. The analysis was based on interviews with BVIs and aimed to elicit not only their needs with respect to autonomous navigation but also their preferences on specific features of the apps under development. The elicited requirements were structured into four main categories, namely, requirements concerning the capabilities, functionality and usability of the apps, as well as compatibility requirements with respect to other apps and services. The main categories were then further divided into nine sub-categories. This classification, along with its content, aims to become a useful tool for the researcher or the developer who is involved in the development of digital services for BVI.

Keywords: accessibility, assistive mobile apps, blind and visually impaired people, user requirements analysis

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2274 Knowledge Audit Model for Requirement Elicitation Process

Authors: Laleh Taheri, Noraini C. Pa, Rusli Abdullah, Salfarina Abdullah


Knowledge plays an important role to the success of any organization. Software development organizations are highly knowledge-intensive organizations especially in their Requirement Elicitation Process (REP). There are several problems regarding communicating and using the knowledge in REP such as misunderstanding, being out of scope, conflicting information and changes of requirements. All of these problems occurred in transmitting the requirements knowledge during REP. Several researches have been done in REP in order to solve the problem towards requirements. Knowledge Audit (KA) approaches were proposed in order to solve managing knowledge in human resources, financial, and manufacturing. There is lack of study applying the KA in requirements elicitation process. Therefore, this paper proposes a KA model for REP in supporting to acquire good requirements.

Keywords: knowledge audit, requirement elicitation process, KA model, knowledge in requirement elicitation

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2273 A Review of Methods for Handling Missing Data in the Formof Dropouts in Longitudinal Clinical Trials

Authors: A. Satty, H. Mwambi


Much clinical trials data-based research are characterized by the unavoidable problem of dropout as a result of missing or erroneous values. This paper aims to review some of the various techniques to address the dropout problems in longitudinal clinical trials. The fundamental concepts of the patterns and mechanisms of dropout are discussed. This study presents five general techniques for handling dropout: (1) Deletion methods; (2) Imputation-based methods; (3) Data augmentation methods; (4) Likelihood-based methods; and (5) MNAR-based methods. Under each technique, several methods that are commonly used to deal with dropout are presented, including a review of the existing literature in which we examine the effectiveness of these methods in the analysis of incomplete data. Two application examples are presented to study the potential strengths or weaknesses of some of the methods under certain dropout mechanisms as well as to assess the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions.

Keywords: incomplete longitudinal clinical trials, missing at random (MAR), imputation, weighting methods, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2272 RGB-D SLAM Algorithm Based on pixel level Dense Depth Map

Authors: Hao Zhang, Hongyang Yu


Scale uncertainty is a well-known challenging problem in visual SLAM. Because RGB-D sensor provides depth information, RGB-D SLAM improves this scale uncertainty problem. However, due to the limitation of physical hardware, the depth map output by RGB-D sensor usually contains a large area of missing depth values. These missing depth information affect the accuracy and robustness of RGB-D SLAM. In order to reduce these effects, this paper completes the missing area of the depth map output by RGB-D sensor and then fuses the completed dense depth map into ORB SLAM2. By adding the process of obtaining pixel-level dense depth maps, a better RGB-D visual SLAM algorithm is finally obtained. In the process of obtaining dense depth maps, a deep learning model of indoor scenes is adopted. Experiments are conducted on public datasets and real-world environments of indoor scenes. Experimental results show that the proposed SLAM algorithm has better robustness than ORB SLAM2.

Keywords: RGB-D, SLAM, dense depth, depth map

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2271 From User's Requirements to UML Class Diagram

Authors: Zeineb Ben Azzouz, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa


The automated extraction of UML class diagram from natural language requirements is a highly challenging task. Many approaches, frameworks and tools have been presented in this field. Nonetheless, the experiments of these tools have shown that there is no approach that can work best all the time. In this context, we propose a new accurate approach to facilitate the automatic mapping from textual requirements to UML class diagram. Our new approach integrates the best properties of statistical Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to reduce ambiguity when analysing natural language requirements text. In addition, our approach follows the best practices defined by conceptual modelling experts to determine some patterns indispensable for the extraction of basic elements and concepts of the class diagram. Once the relevant information of class diagram is captured, a XMI document is generated and imported with a CASE tool to build the corresponding UML class diagram.

Keywords: class diagram, user’s requirements, XMI, software engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 388