Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5075

Search results for: market mechanism

5075 Electricity Market Categorization for Smart Grid Market Testing

Authors: Rebeca Ramirez Acosta, Sebastian Lenhoff

Abstract:

Decision makers worldwide need to determine if the implementation of a new market mechanism will contribute to the sustainability and resilience of the power system. Due to smart grid technologies, new products in the distribution and transmission system can be traded; however, the impact of changing a market rule will differ between several regions. To test systematically those impacts, a market categorization has been compiled and organized in a smart grid market testing toolbox. This toolbox maps all actual energy products and sets the basis for running a co-simulation test with the new rule to be implemented. It will help to measure the impact of the new rule, based on the sustainable and resilience indicators.

Keywords: co-simulation, electricity market, smart grid market, market testing

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5074 Compensation Mechanism Applied to Eco-Tourism Development in China

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

With the rapid development eco-tourism resources exploitation, the conflict between economy development and ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The environmental protection laws, however, are lack of necessary legal support to use market mechanism and economic means to carry out ecological compensation and promote the environmental protection. In order to protect the sustainable utilization of eco-tourism resources and the benign development of the interests of various stakeholders, protection of ecological compensation balance should be put on schedule. The main role of institutional guarantee in eco-tourism resources' value compensation mechanism is to solve the question 'how to guarantee compensation'. The evaluation of the game model in this paper reveals that interest balance of stakeholders is an important cornerstone to obtain the sustainable development. The findings result in constructing a sustainable development pattern of eco- tourism industry based on tripartite game equilibrium among government, tourism enterprises and tourists. It is important that the social, economic and ecological environment should be harmonious development during the pursuit of eco-tourism growth.

Keywords: environmental protection, ecological compensation, eco-tourism, market mechanism

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5073 Regulation, Supervision and Accounting Conservatism: Interaction of the Three Pillars of Basel II to Achieve Quality of Reporting Earnings in Worldwide Banks

Authors: I. Diaz Sanchez, I. M. Martinez-Conesa, M. Illueca

Abstract:

Accounting conservatism is a desirable quality of earnings that is positively associated with the stridency of regulatory and supervisory regimen and high market discipline. But how these three pillars interact each other is the main research question that is not empirically solved. We analyze how regulatory and supervisory regimes interact with the market discipline measures, such as listing status, ownership and market concentration using a sample of 14,651 bank-year observations covering 54 countries over the period 1997-2009. We evidence that regulation a supervision and extend on which they are enforcement is a strong mechanism to achieved accounting conservatism in those countries or situations where the market discipline fails. Generally, the supervisory power reinforces the effect of listing status, ownership and concentration on conservatism, while capital regulatory mitigates the effect of market discipline on conservatism. This paper may contribute to debate about the mechanism introduced by Basel III that strongly increases the regulation, his enforcement, and the supervisory power after long deregulation period. Although Market discipline is relevant to achieve the financial stability, strong Pillar I and II can ensure the quality of the accounting earnings to prevent bank failures.

Keywords: accounting conservatism, bank regulation, bank supervision, loan loss recognition, market discipline

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5072 Protection towards Investor: Enforcement of the Authorities of Indonesian Financial Services Authority (OJK) during Capital Market Integration

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim, Muhammad Ikbal

Abstract:

The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) was set up in 2003 with the objectives of creating a single market and production base, enhancing equitable economic development as well as facilitating the integration into the global economy. The AEC involves liberalization and facilitation of trade in goods, skilled labour, services, and investment, as well as protection and promotion of investment. The thesis outlines the AEC Blueprint actions in scope of globalization of investment and capital market. Free flows of investment and freer flows of capital market urge countries in South East Asia to coordinate and to collaborate in securing the interest of public, and this leads to the importance of financial services authorities in ASEAN to prepare the mechanism of guarding the flows of investment. There is no exception, especially for Indonesian Financial Services Authority (OJK) as one of the authorized body in capital market supervision, to enforce its authorities as supervisory body.

Keywords: AEC blueprint, OJK, capital market, integration

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5071 Optimal Pricing Mechanism for Non-Storable Goods: The Power of Opaque Products

Authors: Juana M. Alonso, M. Pilar Socorro

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to analyze firms’ optimal pricing mechanism for non-storable goods. With non-storable goods, firms may be interested in introducing opaque products in order to have two different markets: the transparent market and the opaque market. This may allow firms to sell all their non-storable goods, discriminate prices between markets, and maximize revenues. We prove that in a situation of low demand in the transparent market, if all consumers are risk neutral or risk loving, introducing opaque products is always the most profitable strategy for the firm. However, if consumers are risk averse, the firm needs to offer opaque products with an additional discount. We analyze under which circumstances selling opaque products with such a discount is the optimal pricing strategy. Throughout the paper, we use airlines’ pricing strategy as an application for non-storable goods (flights), opaque products (blind tickets), and continuously changing demand (as it is nowadays the case in the air transport industry due to the Covid-19 pandemic).

Keywords: opaque products, risk attitude, expected utility, pricing strategy

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5070 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

Abstract:

Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

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5069 Artificial Intelligence Methods for Returns Expectations in Financial Markets

Authors: Yosra Mefteh Rekik, Younes Boujelbene

Abstract:

We introduce in this paper a new conceptual model representing the stock market dynamics. This model is essentially based on cognitive behavior of the intelligence investors. In order to validate our model, we build an artificial stock market simulation based on agent-oriented methodologies. The proposed simulator is composed of market supervisor agent essentially responsible for executing transactions via an order book and various kinds of investor agents depending to their profile. The purpose of this simulation is to understand the influence of psychological character of an investor and its neighborhood on its decision-making and their impact on the market in terms of price fluctuations. Therefore, the difficulty of the prediction is due to several features: the complexity, the non-linearity and the dynamism of the financial market system, as well as the investor psychology. The Artificial Neural Networks learning mechanism take on the role of traders, who from their futures return expectations and place orders based on their expectations. The results of intensive analysis indicate that the existence of agents having heterogeneous beliefs and preferences has provided a better understanding of price dynamics in the financial market.

Keywords: artificial intelligence methods, artificial stock market, behavioral modeling, multi-agent based simulation

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5068 A Historical Overview of the General Implementation of the European Union Market Abuse Directive in the United Kingdom before the Brexit and Its Future Implications

Authors: Howard Chitimira

Abstract:

The European Union (EU) was probably the first body to establish multinational anti-market abuse laws aimed at enhancing the detection and curbing of cross-border market abuse activities in its member states. Put differently, the EU Insider Dealing Directive was adopted in 1989 and was the first law that harmonised the insider trading ban among the EU member states. Thereafter, the European Union Directive on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation (EU Market Abuse Directive) was adopted in a bid to improve and effectively discourage all the forms of market abuse in the EU’s securities and financial markets. However, the EU Market Abuse Directive had its own gaps and flaws. In light of this, the Market Abuse Regulation and the Criminal Sanctions for Market Abuse Directive were enacted to repeal and replace the EU Market Abuse Directive in 2016. The article examines the adequacy of the EU Market Abuse Directive and its implementation in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to the British exit (Brexit). This is done to investigate the possible implications of the Brexit referendum outcome of 23 June 2016 on the future regulation of market abuse in the UK.

Keywords: market abuse, insider trading, market manipulation, European Union, United Kingdom

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5067 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

Abstract:

In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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5066 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

Abstract:

This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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5065 On the Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on Stock Markets: A Multivariate Long-Memory GARCH Framework

Authors: Manel Youssef, Lotfi Belkacem

Abstract:

This paper employs multivariate long memory GARCH models to simultaneously estimate mean and conditional variance spillover effects between oil prices and different financial markets. Since different financial assets are traded based on these market sector returns, it’s important for financial market participants to understand the volatility transmission mechanism over time and across these series in order to make optimal portfolio allocation decisions. We examine weekly returns from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2012 and find evidence of significant transmission of shocks and volatilities between oil prices and some of the examined financial markets. The findings support the idea of cross-market hedging and sharing of common information by investors.

Keywords: oil prices, stock indices returns, oil volatility, contagion, DCC-multivariate (FI) GARCH

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5064 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz

Abstract:

This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

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5063 A Comparative Synopsis of the Enforcement of Market Abuse Prohibition in Australia and South Africa

Authors: Howard Chitimira

Abstract:

In Australia, the market abuse prohibition is generally well accepted by the investing and non-investing public as well as by the government. This co-operative and co-ordinated approach on the part of all the relevant stakeholders has to date given rise to an increased awareness and commendable combating of market abuse activities in the Australian corporations, companies, and securities markets. It is against this background that this article seeks to comparatively explore the general enforcement approaches that are employed to combat market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation) activity in Australia and South Africa. In relation to this, the role of selected enforcement authorities and possible enforcement methods which may be learnt from both the Australian and South African experiences will be isolated where necessary for consideration by such authorities, especially, in the South African market abuse regulatory framework.

Keywords: insider trading, market abuse, market manipulation, regulation

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5062 The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe

Abstract:

The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, investments, money market, money market challenges, money market instruments

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5061 Hepatological Alterations in Market Gardeners Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Authors: M. G. Tanga, P. B. Telefo, D. N. Tarla

Abstract:

Even though the WHO, the EPA and other regulatory bodies have recognized the effects of acute pesticide poisoning little data exists on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures especially in Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticides on the hepatic functions of market gardeners in the Western Region of Cameroon by studying some biochemical parameters. Sixty six male market gardeners in Foumbot, Massangam, and Bantoum were interviewed on their health status, habits and pesticide use in agriculture, including the spray frequency, application method, and pesticide dosage. Thirty men with no history of pesticide exposure were recruited as control group. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of hepatic function biomarkers (ALT, AST, and albumin). The results showed that 56 pesticides containing 25 active ingredients were currently used by market gardeners enrolled in our study and most of their symptoms (headache, fatigue, skin rashes, eye irritation, and nausea) were related to the use of these chemicals. Compared to the control subjects market gardeners’ ALT levels (32.9 ± 7.19 UL-1 vs. 82.11 ± 35.40 UL-1; P < 0.001) and, AST levels (40.63 ± 6.52 UL-1 vs. 112.11 UL-1 ± 47.15 UL-1; P < 0.001) were significantly increased. These results suggest that liver function tests can be used as biomarkers to indicate toxicity before overt clinical signs occur. The market gardeners’ chronic exposure to pesticides due to poor application measures could lead to hepatic function impairment. Further research on larger scale is needed to confirm these findings and to establish a mechanism of toxicity.

Keywords: biomarkers, liver, pesticides, occupational exposure

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5060 Heterogeneous Intelligence Traders and Market Efficiency: New Evidence from Computational Approach in Artificial Stock Markets

Authors: Yosra Mefteh Rekik

Abstract:

A computational agent-based model of financial markets stresses interactions and dynamics among a very diverse set of traders. The growing body of research in this area relies heavily on computational tools which by-pass the restrictions of an analytical method. The main goal of this research is to understand how the stock market operates and behaves how to invest in the stock market and to study traders’ behavior within the context of the artificial stock markets populated by heterogeneous agents. All agents are characterized by adaptive learning behavior represented by the Artificial Neuron Networks. By using agent-based simulations on artificial market, we show that the existence of heterogeneous agents can explain the price dynamics in the financial market. We investigate the relation between market diversity and market efficiency. Our empirical findings demonstrate that greater market heterogeneity play key roles in market efficiency.

Keywords: agent-based modeling, artificial stock market, heterogeneous expectations, financial stylized facts, computational finance

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5059 Relationship between Creative Market Actor and Traditional Market Vendor toward a Sustainable Market Model in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Galuh Pramesti

Abstract:

In Indonesia, the rise of the middle class and consumer purchasing power has created a trend of shifting the traditional into a modern retail market. Development of the creative economy as an impact of the global economy has invaded the traditional market, due to low rents and minimum innovation, raising the issue of sustainability and urban resilience for survival of the traditional market. The study aims to understand the current market conditions by examining the challenges, resiliency, and identify the relationship between the traditional market and creative market. Using a single-case study approach as the research methodology, Santa Market has been chosen as the case study. It is a pilot project of collaboration between a traditional market and creative economy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research was conducted as a qualitative study through in-depth interviews with the market vendors and the market management, besides a desk-based study of the leasing data and spatial analysis. The findings indicate traffic fluctuation as the main challenge. It is related to the tenant’s presence, rental fluctuation, gentrification, infrastructure, and market competition. Thus, the findings on resilience show a different response for creative and traditional markets. The traditional market’s response remained stable with minimum innovation, whereas the creative market relies on technological development. Regarding the relationship, supply and demand have become the main relationship occurring in Santa Market. It is then developed into the context of society and regulation. The conclusion provides recommendations for more solid regulation to protect the market tenants from stakeholder interests that can disrupt market viability, and a critical discussion on the concept of collaboration between traditional and creative markets. There is also a suggestion for further study on relation with the surroundings, to create a holistic study on how the collaboration can work well in the traditional market.

Keywords: creative economy, market sustainability, traditional market, urban resilience

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5058 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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5057 Combining Mobile Intelligence with Formation Mechanism for Group Commerce

Authors: Lien Fa Lin, Yung Ming Li, Hsin Chen Hsieh

Abstract:

The rise of smartphones brings new concept So-Lo-Mo (social-local-mobile) in mobile commerce area in recent years. However, current So-Lo-Mo services only focus on individual users but not a group of users, and the development of group commerce is not enough to satisfy the demand of real-time group buying and less to think about the social relationship between customers. In this research, we integrate mobile intelligence with group commerce and consider customers' preference, real-time context, and social influence as components in the mechanism. With the support of this mechanism, customers are able to gather near customers with the same potential purchase willingness through mobile devices when he/she wants to purchase products or services to have a real-time group-buying. By matching the demand and supply of mobile group-buying market, this research improves the business value of mobile commerce and group commerce further.

Keywords: group formation, group commerce, mobile commerce, So-Lo-Mo, social influence

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5056 Discussion on the Impact and Improvement Strategy of Bike Sharing on Urban Space

Authors: Bingying Liu, Dandong Ge, Xinlan Zhang, Haoyang Liang

Abstract:

Over the past two years, a new generation of No-Pile Bike sharing, represented by the Ofo, Mobike and HelloBike, has sprung up in various cities in China, and spread rapidly in countries such as Britain, Japan, the United States and Singapore. As a new green public transportation mode, bike sharing can bring a series of benefits to urban space. At first, this paper analyzes the specific impact of bike sharing on urban space in China. Based on the market research and data analyzing, it is found that bike sharing can improve the quality of urban space in three aspects: expanding the radius of public transportation service, filling service blind spots, alleviating urban traffic congestion, and enhancing the vitality of urban space. On the other hand, due to the immature market and the imperfect system, bike sharing has gradually revealed some difficulties, such as parking chaos, malicious damage, safety problems, imbalance between supply and demand, and so on. Then the paper investigates the characteristics of shared bikes, business model, operating mechanism on Chinese market currently. Finally, in order to make bike sharing serve urban construction better, this paper puts forward some specific countermeasures from four aspects. In terms of market operations, it is necessary to establish a public-private partnership model and set up a unified bike-sharing integrated management platform. From technical methods level, the paper proposes to develop an intelligent parking system for regulating parking. From policy formulation level, establishing a bike-sharing assessment mechanism would strengthen supervision. As to urban planning, sharing data and redesigning slow roadway is beneficial for transportation and spatial planning.

Keywords: bike sharing, impact analysis, improvement strategy, urban space

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5055 The Development of Chinese Film Market as Factor of Change in Global Hollywood

Authors: Marcin Adamczak

Abstract:

The growth of Chinese film market and its dynamic incomparable to any other historical phenomenon has already made China the second world market and potential future leader in 2-3 years period. The growing power of Chines box-office and its future prospects is then the crucial and potentially disturbing factor for persistence of global Hollywood reality. The paper is based on market statistical data. The main findings of the analysis are defining of essential obstacles for the development of Chinese market and its foreign expansion. However, the new strategies employed by the industry (acquisitions of cinema chains abroad, blockbuster made with the involvement of figures from Hollywood star system, coproduction ties within Pacific basin) could be a successful remedy for current shortcomings. The main factor for development will be wider economical framework and maintenance of growth pace. The future state of Chinese film market will be one of the main factors shaping global film culture and film market in following decades of XXI century.

Keywords: production studies, film market, Chinese film market, distribution

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5054 Network Traffic Classification Scheme for Internet Network Based on Application Categorization for Ipv6

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammed Aloryani

Abstract:

The rise of recent applications in everyday implementation like videoconferencing, online recreation and voice speech communication leads to pressing the need for novel mechanism and policy to serve this steep improvement within the application itself and users‟ wants. This diversity in web traffics needs some classification and prioritization of the traffics since some traffics merit abundant attention with less delay and loss, than others. This research is intended to reinforce the mechanism by analysing the performance in application according to the proposed mechanism implemented. The mechanism used is quite direct and analytical. The mechanism is implemented by modifying the queue limit in the algorithm.

Keywords: traffic classification, IPv6, internet, application categorization

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5053 Analytical Approach to Reinsurance in Algeria as an Emerging Market

Authors: Nesrine Bouzaher, Okba Necira

Abstract:

The financial aspect of the Algerian economy is part of all sectors that have undergone great changes these two last decades; the goal is to enable economic mechanisms for real growth. Insurance is an indispensable tool for stabilizing these mechanisms. Therefore the national economy needs to develop the insurance market in order to support the investments, externally and internally; it turns out that reinsurance is one of the area which could prove their performance in several markets mainly emerging ones. The expansion of reinsurance in the domestic market is the preoccupation of this work, focusing on factors that could enhance the demand of reinsurance in the Algerian market. This work will be based on an analytical research of the economic contribution of the reinsurance and it’s collusion with insurance; market, then it will be necessary to provide an overview of the product in the national emerging market, finally we will try to investigate on the factors that could enhance the demand in the national reinsurance market so as to determine the potential of Algeria in this area.

Keywords: Algerian reinsurance data, demand trend of Algerian reinsurance, reinsurance, reinsurance market

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5052 Consumer Market for Georgian Hazelnut and the Strategy to Improve Its Competitiveness

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the trends of Georgian hazelnut market development and analyses the competitive advantages which will help Georgia to enter international hazelnut market using modern technologies. The history of hazelnut crop development and hazelnut species in Georgia are discussed. For hazelnut supply analysis trends in hazelnut production are considered, trends in export and import development is evaluated, domestic hazelnut market is studied and analysed based on expert interviews and initial accounting materials. In order to achieve and strengthen its position in international market, potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian hazelnut are revealed, analysis of export and import possibilities of hazelnut is presented. Recommendations are developed based on the conclusions, which are made through identifying the key factors that hinder development of Georgian hazelnut market.

Keywords: hazelnut market, hazelnut export and import, competitiveness of hazelnut

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5051 Analytical Approach to Reinsurance in Algeria as an Emerging Market

Authors: Necira Okba, Nesrine Bouzaher

Abstract:

The financial aspect of the Algerian economy is part of all sectors that have undergone great changes these two last decades; the goal is to enable economic mechanisms for real growth. Insurance is an indispensable tool for stabilizing these mechanisms. Therefore, the national economy needs to develop the insurance market in order to support the investments, externally and intern ally; it turns out that reinsurance is one of the area which could prove their performance in several markets mainly emerging ones. The expansion of reinsurance in the domestic market is the preoccupation of this work, focusing on factors that could enhance the demand of reinsurance in the Algerian market. This work will be based on an analytical research of the economic contribution of the reinsurance and it’s collusion with insurance market, then it will be necessary to provide an overview of the product in the national emerging market, finally we will try to investigate on the factors that could enhance the demand in the national reinsurance market so as to determine the potential of Algeria in this area.

Keywords: Algerian reinsurance data, demand trend of Algerian reinsurance, reinsurance, reinsurance market

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5050 Microeconomic Consequences of the Housing Market Deformation in the Selected Region of the Czech Republic

Authors: Hana Janáčková

Abstract:

Housing can be sorted as basic needs of households. Purchase of acceptable ownership housing is important investments for most them. For rental housing households must consider the part of rent expenditure paid in the total household income. For this reason, financial considerations of households in this area depend on the government innervations (public administration) in housing - on housing policy. Market system of housing allocation, whether ownership or tenancy, is based on the fact that housing is a scarce good. The allocation of housing is based on demand and supply. The market system of housing can sometimes have a negative impact on some households, the market is unable to satisfy certain groups of the population that are not able or willing to accept market price. For these reasons, there is a more or less regulation of the market. Regulation is both on the demand and supply side, and the state determines the rules of behaviour for all economic entities of the housing market. This article submits results of analysis of selected regulatory interference of the state in the housing market and assesses their implications deforming the market in the selected region of the Czech Republic. The first part describes tools of supports and the second part discusses deformations and analyses their consequences on the demand side of housing market and on supply side.

Keywords: housing, housing market, microeconomic consequences, deformation

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5049 The Profitability Management Mechanism of Leather Industry-Based on the Activity-Based Benefit Approach

Authors: Mei-Fang Wu, Shu-Li Wang, Tsung-Yueh Lu, Feng-Tsung Cheng

Abstract:

Strengthening core competitiveness is the main goal of enterprises in a fierce competitive environment. Accurate cost information is a great help for managers in dealing with operation strategies. This paper establishes a profitability management mechanism that applies the Activity-Based Benefit approach (ABBA) to solve the profitability for each customer from the market. ABBA provides financial and non-financial information for the operation, but also indicates what resources have expired in the operational process. The customer profit management model shows the level of profitability of each customer for the company. The empirical data were gathered from a case company operating in the leather industry in Taiwan. The research findings indicate that 30% of customers create little profit for the company as a result of asking for over 5% of sales discounts. Those customers ask for sales discount because of color differences of leather products. This paper provides a customer’s profitability evaluation mechanism to help enterprises to greatly improve operating effectiveness and promote operational activity efficiency and overall operation profitability.

Keywords: activity-based benefit approach, customer profit analysis, leather industry, profitability management mechanism

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5048 Mean and Volatility Spillover between US Stocks Market and Crude Oil Markets

Authors: Kamel Malik Bensafta, Gervasio Bensafta

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and socks markets. The empirical analysis in this paper is conducted within the context of Multivariate GARCH models, using a transform version of the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show that mean and uncertainty of US market are transmitted to oil market and European market. We also identify an important transmission from WTI prices to Brent Prices.

Keywords: oil volatility, stock markets, MGARCH, transmission, structural break

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5047 A Study of Environmental Investment on the Sustainable Development in United States

Authors: K. Y. Chen, Y. N. Jia, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

In United States (US), the environmental policy went through two stages that are government control period and market mechanism period. In the government control period in the 1970s, environmental problems in U.S. are treated by mandatory direct control method, including promulgation of laws, formulation of emission standards and mandatory installation of pollution treatment equipment. After the 1980s, the environmental policy in U.S. went into the second stage, in which the government strengthened the incentives and coordination effects of market. Since then, environmental governance had been partially replaced by means of economic regulation of the market. Green Tax Policy and Marketable Pollution Permits are good examples of government's economic interventions. U.S. Federal Government regards environmental industry as high-tech industry which is promoted in this period. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of environmental investment on the sustainable development in the US. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: United States, public environmental investment, analysis, sustainable development

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5046 Research on the Strategy of Old City Reconstruction under Market Orientation: Taking Mutoulong Community in Shenzhen as an Example

Authors: Ziwei Huang

Abstract:

In order to promote Inventory development in Shenzhen, the market-oriented real estate development mode has occupied a dominant position in the urban renewal activities of Shenzhen. This research is based on the theory of role relationship and urban regime, taking the Mutoulong community as the research object. Carries on the case depth analysis found that: Under the situation of absence and dislocation of the government's role, land property rights disputes and lack of communication platforms is the main reason for the problems of nail households and market failures, and the long-term delay in the progress of old city reconstruction. Through the analysis of the cause of the transformation problem and the upper planning and interest coordination mechanism, the optimization strategy of the old city transformation is finally proposed as follows: the establishment of interest coordination platform, the risk assessment of the government's intervention in the preliminary construction of the land, the adaptive construction of laws and regulations, and the re-examination of the interest relationship between the government and the market.

Keywords: Shenzhen city, Mutoulong community, urban regeneration, urban regime theory, role relationship theory

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