Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: codebook

10 Efficient Variable Modulation Scheme Based on Codebook in the MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


Because current wireless communication requires high reliability in a limited bandwidth environment, this paper proposes the variable modulation scheme based on the codebook. The variable modulation scheme adjusts transmission power using the codebook in accordance with hannel state. Also, if the codebook is composed of many bits, the reliability is more improved by the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of proposed scheme has better reliability than the the performance of conventional scheme.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, variable modulation, codebook, channel state

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9 Vector Quantization Based on Vector Difference Scheme for Image Enhancement

Authors: Biji Jacob


Vector quantization algorithm which uses minimum distance calculation for codebook generation, a time consuming calculation performed on each pixel values leads to computation complexity. The codebook is updated by comparing the distance of each vector to their centroid vector and measure for their closeness. In this paper vector quantization is modified based on vector difference algorithm for image enhancement purpose. In the proposed scheme, vector differences between the vectors are considered as the new generation vectors or new codebook vectors. The codebook is updated by comparing the new generation vector with a threshold value having minimum error with the parent vector. The minimum error decides the fitness of each newly generated vector. Thus the codebook is generated in an adaptive manner and the fitness value is determined for the suppression of the degraded portion of the image and thereby leads to the enhancement of the image through the adaptive searching capability of the vector quantization through vector difference algorithm. Experimental results shows that the vector difference scheme efficiently modifies the vector quantization algorithm for enhancing the image with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), Euclidean distance (E_dist) as the performance parameters.

Keywords: codebook, image enhancement, vector difference, vector quantization

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8 Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework

Authors: Yun-Tao Zhang, Jong-Yeop Bae, Whoi-Yul Kim


Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely proved to be an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Over the past years, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are two of the most frequently occurring issues in the practical situation. This paper presents a new two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean values of RGB color channels. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block-wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the outputs of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate a very competitive performance compared to previous models.

Keywords: background subtraction, codebook model, local binary pattern, dynamic background, illumination change

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7 Off-Line Text-Independent Arabic Writer Identification Using Optimum Codebooks

Authors: Ahmed Abdullah Ahmed


The task of recognizing the writer of a handwritten text has been an attractive research problem in the document analysis and recognition community with applications in handwriting forensics, paleography, document examination and handwriting recognition. This research presents an automatic method for writer recognition from digitized images of unconstrained writings. Although a great effort has been made by previous studies to come out with various methods, their performances, especially in terms of accuracy, are fallen short, and room for improvements is still wide open. The proposed technique employs optimal codebook based writer characterization where each writing sample is represented by a set of features computed from two codebooks, beginning and ending. Unlike most of the classical codebook based approaches which segment the writing into graphemes, this study is based on fragmenting a particular area of writing which are beginning and ending strokes. The proposed method starting with contour detection to extract significant information from the handwriting and the curve fragmentation is then employed to categorize the handwriting into Beginning and Ending zones into small fragments. The similar fragments of beginning strokes are grouped together to create Beginning cluster, and similarly, the ending strokes are grouped to create the ending cluster. These two clusters lead to the development of two codebooks (beginning and ending) by choosing the center of every similar fragments group. Writings under study are then represented by computing the probability of occurrence of codebook patterns. The probability distribution is used to characterize each writer. Two writings are then compared by computing distances between their respective probability distribution. The evaluations carried out on ICFHR standard dataset of 206 writers using Beginning and Ending codebooks separately. Finally, the Ending codebook achieved the highest identification rate of 98.23%, which is the best result so far on ICFHR dataset.

Keywords: off-line text-independent writer identification, feature extraction, codebook, fragments

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6 Mathematical Model That Using Scrambling and Message Integrity Methods in Audio Steganography

Authors: Mohammed Salem Atoum


The success of audio steganography is to ensure imperceptibility of the embedded message in stego file and withstand any form of intentional or un-intentional degradation of message (robustness). Audio steganographic that utilized LSB of audio stream to embed message gain a lot of popularity over the years in meeting the perceptual transparency, robustness and capacity. This research proposes an XLSB technique in order to circumvent the weakness observed in LSB technique. Scrambling technique is introduce in two steps; partitioning the message into blocks followed by permutation each blocks in order to confuse the contents of the message. The message is embedded in the MP3 audio sample. After extracting the message, the permutation codebook is used to re-order it into its original form. Md5sum and SHA-256 are used to verify whether the message is altered or not during transmission. Experimental result shows that the XLSB performs better than LSB.

Keywords: XLSB, scrambling, audio steganography, security

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5 Human Action Retrieval System Using Features Weight Updating Based Relevance Feedback Approach

Authors: Munaf Rashid


For content-based human action retrieval systems, search accuracy is often inferior because of the following two reasons 1) global information pertaining to videos is totally ignored, only low level motion descriptors are considered as a significant feature to match the similarity between query and database videos, and 2) the semantic gap between the high level user concept and low level visual features. Hence, in this paper, we propose a method that will address these two issues and in doing so, this paper contributes in two ways. Firstly, we introduce a method that uses both global and local information in one framework for an action retrieval task. Secondly, to minimize the semantic gap, a user concept is involved by incorporating features weight updating (FWU) Relevance Feedback (RF) approach. We use statistical characteristics to dynamically update weights of the feature descriptors so that after every RF iteration feature space is modified accordingly. For testing and validation purpose two human action recognition datasets have been utilized, namely Weizmann and UCF. Results show that even with a number of visual challenges the proposed approach performs well.

Keywords: relevance feedback (RF), action retrieval, semantic gap, feature descriptor, codebook

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4 Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Rong-Terng Juang


Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, data compression, remote monitoring, controller area networks (CAN), Lidar

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3 Exploring the Development of Communicative Skills in English Teaching Students: A Phenomenological Study During Online Instruction

Authors: Estephanie S. López Contreras, Vicente Aranda Palacios, Daniela Flores Silva, Felipe Oliveros Olivares, Romina Riquelme Escobedo, Iñaki Westerhout Usabiaga


This research explored whether the context of online instruction has influenced the development of first-year English-teaching students' communication skills, being these speaking and listening. The theoretical basis finds its niche in the need to bridge the gap in knowledge about the Chilean online educational context and the development of English communicative skills. An interpretative paradigm and a phenomenological design were implemented in this study. Twenty- two first-year students and two teachers from an English teaching training program participated in the study. The students' ages ranged from 18 to 26 years of age, and the teachers' years of experience ranged from 5 to 13 years in the program. For data collection purposes, semi- structured interviews were applied to both students and teachers. Interview questions were based on the initial conceptualization of the central phenomenon. Observations, field notes, and focus groups with the students are also part of the data collection process. Data analysis considered two-cycle methods. The first included descriptive coding for field notes, initial coding for interviews, and creating a codebook. The second cycle included axial coding for both field notes and interviews. After data analysis, the findings show that students perceived online classes as instances in which active communication cannot always occur. In addition, changes made to the curricula as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic have affected students' speaking and listening skills.

Keywords: attitudes, communicative skills, EFL teaching training program, online instruction, and perceptions

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2 A Rapid Assessment of the Impacts of COVID-19 on Overseas Labor Migration: Findings from Bangladesh

Authors: Vaiddehi Bansal, Ridhi Sahai, Kareem Kysia


Overseas labor migration is currently one of the most important contributors to the economy of Bangladesh and is a highly profitable form of labor for Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries. In 2019, 700,159 migrant workers from Bangladeshtraveled abroad for employment. GCC countries are a major destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers, with Saudi Arabia being the most common destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers since 2016. Despite the high rate of migration between these countries every year, the OLR industry remains complex and often leaves migrants susceptible to human trafficking, forced labor, and modern slavery. While the prevalence of forced labor among Bangladeshi migrants in GCC countries is still unknown, the IOM estimates international migrant workers comprise one fourth of the victims of forced labor. Moreover, the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic has exposed migrant workers to additional adverse situations, making them even more vulnerable to forced labor and health risks. This paper presents findings from a rapid assessment of the impacts of COVID-19 on OLR in Bangladesh, with an emphasis on the increased risk of forced labor among vulnerable migrant worker populations, particularly women.Rapid reviews are a useful approach to swiftly provide actionable evidence for informed decision-making during emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The research team conducted semi-structured key information interviews (KIIs) with a range of stakeholders, including government officials, local NGOs, international organizations, migration researchers, and formal and informal recruiting agencies, to obtain insights on the multi-facted impacts of COVID-19 on the OLR sector. The research team also conducted a comprehensive review of available resources, including media articles, blogs, policy briefs, reports, white papers, and other online content, to triangulate findings from the KIIs. After screening for inclusion criteria, a total of 110 grey literature documents were included in the review. A total of 31 KIIs were conducted, data from which was transcribed and translated from Bangla to English, andanalyzed using a detailed codebook. Findings indicate that there was limited reintegration support for returnee migrants. Facing increasing amounts of debt, financial insecurity, and social discrimination, returnee migrants, were extremely vulnerable to forced labor and exploitation. Growing financial debt and limited job opportunities in their home country will likely push migrants to resort to unsafe migration channels. Evidence suggests that women, who are primarily domestic works in GCC countries, were exposed to increased risk of forced labor and workplace violence. Due to stay-at-home measures, women migrant workers were tasked with additional housekeeping working and subjected to longer work hours, wage withholding, and physical abuse. In Bangladesh, returnee women migrant workers also faced an increased risk of domestic violence.

Keywords: forced labor, migration, gender, human trafficking

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1 Impact of Lack of Testing on Patient Recovery in the Early Phase of COVID-19: Narratively Collected Perspectives from a Remote Monitoring Program

Authors: Nicki Mohammadi, Emma Reford, Natalia Romano Spica, Laura Tabacof, Jenna Tosto-Mancuso, David Putrino, Christopher P. Kellner


Introductory Statement: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic demanded an unprecedented need for the rapid development, dispersal, and application of infection testing. However, despite the impressive mobilization of resources, individuals were incredibly limited in their access to tests, particularly during the initial months of the pandemic (March-April 2020) in New York City (NYC). Access to COVID-19 testing is crucial in understanding patients’ illness experiences and integral to the development of COVID-19 standard-of-care protocols, especially in the context of overall access to healthcare resources. Succinct Description of basic methodologies: 18 Patients in a COVID-19 Remote Patient Monitoring Program (Precision Recovery within the Mount Sinai Health System) were interviewed regarding their experience with COVID-19 during the first wave (March-May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Patients were asked about their experiences navigating COVID-19 diagnoses, the health care system, and their recovery process. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for thematic codes, using grounded theory to guide the identification of emergent themes and codebook development through an iterative process. Data coding was performed using NVivo12. References for the domain “testing” were then extracted and analyzed for themes and statistical patterns. Clear Indication of Major Findings of the study: 100% of participants (18/18) referenced COVID-19 testing in their interviews, with a total of 79 references across the 18 transcripts (average: 4.4 references/interview; 2.7% interview coverage). 89% of participants (16/18) discussed the difficulty of access to testing, including denial of testing without high severity of symptoms, geographical distance to the testing site, and lack of testing resources at healthcare centers. Participants shared varying perspectives on how the lack of certainty regarding their COVID-19 status affected their course of recovery. One participant shared that because she never tested positive she was shielded from her anxiety and fear, given the death toll in NYC. Another group of participants shared that not having a concrete status to share with family, friends and professionals affected how seriously onlookers took their symptoms. Furthermore, the absence of a positive test barred some individuals from access to treatment programs and employment support. Concluding Statement: Lack of access to COVID-19 testing in the first wave of the pandemic in NYC was a prominent element of patients’ illness experience, particularly during their recovery phase. While for some the lack of concrete results was protective, most emphasized the invalidating effect this had on the perception of illness for both self and others. COVID-19 testing is now widely accessible; however, those who are unable to demonstrate a positive test result but who are still presumed to have had COVID-19 in the first wave must continue to adapt to and live with the effects of this gap in knowledge and care on their recovery. Future efforts are required to ensure that patients do not face barriers to care due to the lack of testing and are reassured regarding their access to healthcare. Affiliations- 1Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 2Abilities Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

Keywords: accessibility, COVID-19, recovery, testing

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