Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: Biji Jacob

74 Vector Quantization Based on Vector Difference Scheme for Image Enhancement

Authors: Biji Jacob

Abstract:

Vector quantization algorithm which uses minimum distance calculation for codebook generation, a time consuming calculation performed on each pixel values leads to computation complexity. The codebook is updated by comparing the distance of each vector to their centroid vector and measure for their closeness. In this paper vector quantization is modified based on vector difference algorithm for image enhancement purpose. In the proposed scheme, vector differences between the vectors are considered as the new generation vectors or new codebook vectors. The codebook is updated by comparing the new generation vector with a threshold value having minimum error with the parent vector. The minimum error decides the fitness of each newly generated vector. Thus the codebook is generated in an adaptive manner and the fitness value is determined for the suppression of the degraded portion of the image and thereby leads to the enhancement of the image through the adaptive searching capability of the vector quantization through vector difference algorithm. Experimental results shows that the vector difference scheme efficiently modifies the vector quantization algorithm for enhancing the image with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), Euclidean distance (E_dist) as the performance parameters.

Keywords: codebook, image enhancement, vector difference, vector quantization

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73 The Orchestral Composition The Dream of Jacob in the Context of Krzysztof Penderecki’s Musical Oeuvre: Comparing Textural Taxonomies Using the Acousmographe Software

Authors: Luís Raimundo

Abstract:

The renowned polish music composer Krzysztof Penderecki (1933-2020), author of a vast musical work, largely surpassing two hundred compositions, is undoubtedly one of the most prolific and radical artists in the recent music history. However, throughout his musical production, it becomes noticeable a gradual departure from the vigorous avant-garde attitude that characterizes his first creative period towards a later and more refined aesthetic perspective. The composition that definitively marks this stylistic change in Penderecki's music is "Als Jakob erwachte aus dem Schlaf, sah er, daß Gott dagewesen war. Er hat es aber nicht gemerkt" ("When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he saw that God had been there." But he didn't notice"), also known as The Dream of Jacob, or The Awakening of Jacob, written in 1974, to celebrate the Princedom's Silver Jubilee of Prince Rainier III, from Monaco, and dedicated to this Monarch. The title of this orchestral piece refers to the biblical versicle concerning the Dream of Jacob (Genesis 28:16). In spite of the vast number of bibliographical items on Penderecki - and specifically in the context of biblically inspired music, which constitutes a substantial lot of Penderecki's music - and despite the relevance of the aforementioned components in his musical oeuvre and the History of Music in general, this remains one of his less studied compositions, whether from the outlook of its religious theme, its internal structure or, even most, regarding the aesthetic locus in the general context of its artistic production. Although the majority of authors are unanimous in considering The Dream of Jacob as marking the beginning of Penderecki's neo-romantic phase, there is no critical study that approaches the internal elements of this composition within the scope of the aforementioned aesthetic and stylistic change. Thus, this paper intends to shed some light on the technical processes that Penderecki used in this work, stressing some of the musical aspects that unveil the aesthetic distance between this piece and some of the previous ones. This lecture will essentially consist of a brief comparative study between works from the so-called "sonoristic" phase of Penderecki, and The Dream of Jacob, supported by musical and visual examples and preceded by a succinct historical contextualization of this composition. This research is mostly focused on the textural features and sound masses that are a trademark of Penderecki's musical style. Most of this paper will be displayed through the Acousmographe software – developed by GRM (Groupe de Recherches Musicales) – which allows the visualization of graphics associated with sound elements in the music. Also, some comparison tables will be shown to further support the addressed issues. The main objective of this communication is to present a renewed vision of The Dream of Jacob, revealing in which aspects it relates to the works of Penderecki previously written, demonstrating how this musical composition has started a new aesthetic phase in his musical oeuvre.

Keywords: Krzysztof Penderecki, the dream of Jacob, texture, sonorism, cluster, acousmographe

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72 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Soney C. George, Jibin C. Jacob

Abstract:

Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: human hair, natural rubber, composite, vulcanization, fiber loading

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71 Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Activity of Areca catechu Linn. Extract as Natural Anticancer Agent for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Liza Meutia Sari, Gus Permana Subita, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

Abstract:

Background: Many herbs have been discovered to be potential sources of anticancer drugs. Biji Pinang or areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) has a high content of phenolics and flavonoids, and which is related to antioxidant activity. However, data on its effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma is not available. Objectives: Identification of the cytotoxicity and apoptosis activity in HSC-2 and HSC-3. Methods: The areca nut was extracted by ethanol 96%, MTS assay and apoptosis activity with flow cytometry. Results: The extract of areca nut showed higher toxicity on HSC-3 cell compared to HSC-2. The IC₅₀ of HSC-3 was 164.06 μg/ml vs. 629.50 μg/ml in HSC-2. There was an increase in late apoptosis percentage after 24 and 48 hours in HSC-2. There was a significant increase in early apoptosis percentage after 24 hours and late in 48 hours in HSC-3. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the extract of areca nut might be associated with the selective cytotoxicity on HSC-2 and HSC-3. Apoptosis is the major cell death mechanism involved. The areca nut may play an important role in anticancer herb medicine.

Keywords: areca nut, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oral carcinoma

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70 When Bad News Are Good News: Ambivalent Feelings Towards Firms Adversity

Authors: Jacob Hornik, Matti Rachamim, Ori Grossman

Abstract:

Schadenfreude, a bittersweet phenomenon, is considered atypical and complicated state that might reflect ambivalent types of sentiments -a mixed of both positive and negative reactions towards others misfortunes. This brief note reports a study that examined the association between trait ambivalence, using the Trait Mixed Emotions Scale (TMES), and four different consumer schadenfreude affairs. Results propose that trait ambivalence offers a novel explanation for schadenfreude responses. Showing that trait ambivalence enhances schadenfreude, when consumers encounter misfortune type of information about a disliked or rival marketplace entity.

Keywords: schadenfreude, consumer behavior, mixed emotions, sentiments, ambivalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
69 An Analysis of Business Intelligence Requirements in South African Corporates

Authors: Adheesh Budree, Olaf Jacob, Louis CH Fourie, James Njenga, Gabriel D Hoffman

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Business Intelligence (BI) is implemented by organisations for many reasons and chief among these is improved data support, decision support and savings. The main purpose of this study is to determine BI requirements and availability within South African organisations. The study addresses the following areas as identified as part of a literature review; assessing BI practices in businesses over a range of industries, sectors and managerial functions, determining the functionality of BI (technologies, architecture and methods). It was found that the overall satisfaction with BI in larger organisations is low due to lack of ability to meet user requirements.

Keywords: business intelligence, business value, data management, South Africa

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68 Increased Circularity in Metals Production Using the Ausmelt TSL Process

Authors: Jacob Wood, David Wilson, Stephen Hughes

Abstract:

The Ausmelt Top Submerged Lance (TSL) Process has been widely applied for the processing of both primary and secondary copper, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc-bearing feed materials. Continual development and evolution of the technology over more than 30 years has resulted in a more intense smelting process with higher energy efficiency, improved metal recoveries, lower operating costs, and reduced fossil fuel consumption. This paper covers a number of recent advances to the technology, highlighting their positive impacts on smelter operating costs, environmental performance, and contribution towards increased circularity in metals production.

Keywords: ausmelt TSL, smelting, circular economy, energy efficiency

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67 Applying Sliding Autonomy for a Human-Robot Team on USARSim

Authors: Fang Tang, Jacob Longazo

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This paper describes a sliding autonomy approach for coordinating a team of robots to assist the human operator to accomplish tasks while adapting to new or unexpected situations by requesting help from the human operator. While sliding autonomy has been well studied in the context of controlling a single robot. Much work needs to be done to apply sliding autonomy to a multi-robot team, especially human-robot team. Our approach aims at a hierarchical sliding control structure, with components that support human-robot collaboration. We validated our approach in the USARSim simulation and demonstrated that the human-robot team's overall performance can be improved under the sliding autonomy control.

Keywords: sliding autonomy, multi-robot team, human-robot collaboration, USARSim

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66 The Analysis of a Reactive Hydromagnetic Internal Heat Generating Poiseuille Fluid Flow through a Channel

Authors: Anthony R. Hassan, Jacob A. Gbadeyan

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In this paper, the analysis of a reactive hydromagnetic Poiseuille fluid flow under each of sensitized, Arrhenius and bimolecular chemical kinetics through a channel in the presence of heat source is carried out. An exothermic reaction is assumed while the concentration of the material is neglected. Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) together with Pade Approximation is used to obtain the solutions of the governing nonlinear non – dimensional differential equations. Effects of various physical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields of the fluid flow are investigated. The entropy generation analysis and the conditions for thermal criticality are also presented.

Keywords: chemical kinetics, entropy generation, thermal criticality, adomian decomposition method (ADM) and pade approximation

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65 Entropy Generation of Unsteady Reactive Hydromagnetic Generalized Couette Fluid Flow of a Two-Step Exothermic Chemical Reaction Through a Channel

Authors: Rasaq Kareem, Jacob Gbadeyan

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In this study, analysis of the entropy generation of an unsteady reactive hydromagnetic generalized couette fluid flow of a two-step exothermic chemical reaction through a channel with isothermal wall temperature under the influence of different chemical kinetics namely: Sensitized, Arrhenius and Bimolecular kinetics was investigated. The modelled nonlinear dimensionless equations governing the fluid flow were simplified and solved using the combined Laplace Differential Transform Method (LDTM). The effects of fluid parameters associated with the problem on the fluid temperature, entropy generation rate and Bejan number were discussed and presented through graphs.

Keywords: couette, entropy, exothermic, unsteady

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64 Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution in Nigeria: Assessing Policy against Implementation

Authors: Jacob Msughter Gwa, Rhys Williams

Abstract:

It is widely known that food security is a major concern in Sub-Saharan Africa. In many regions, including Nigeria, this is due to an agriculture-old problem of soil erosion beyond replacement levels. It seems that the use of fertilizer would be an immediate solution as it can boost agricultural productivity, and low agricultural productivity is attributed to the low use of fertilizers in Nigeria. The Government of Nigeria has been addressing the challenges of food shortage but with limited success. The utilisation of a practical and efficient subsidy programme in addressing this issue seems to be needed. However, the problem of procurement and distribution changes from one stage of subsidy to another. This paper looks at the difference between the ideal and the actual implementation of agricultural fertilizer policies in Nigeria, as it currently runs the risk of meeting required standards on paper but missing the desired real outcomes, and recognises the need to close the gap between the paper work and the realities on the ground.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, fertilizer distribution, fertilizer procurement, Nigeria

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63 Development of MEMS Based 3-Axis Accelerometer for Hand Movement Monitoring

Authors: Zohra Aziz Ali Manjiyani, Renju Thomas Jacob, Keerthan Kumar

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This project develops a hand movement monitoring system, which feeds the data into the computer and gives the 3D image rotation according to the direction of the tilt and hence monitoring the movement of the hand in context to its tilt. Advancement of MEMS Technology has enabled us to get very small and low-cost accelerometer ICs which is based on capacitive principle. Accelerometer based Tilt sensor ADXL335 is used in this paper, based on MEMS technology and the project emphasis on the development of the MEMS-based accelerometer to measure the tilt, interfacing the hardware with the LabVIEW and showing the 3D rotation to the user, which is in his understandable form and tilt data can be saved in the computer. It provides an experience of working on emerging technologies like MEMS and design software like LabVIEW.

Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, tilt sensor ADXL335, LabVIEW simulation, 3D animation

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62 Tourism Development in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro

Authors: Janet Jeanne B. Comia, Camille R. Del Rosario, Ma. Janzen A. Dizon, Jacob Russell A. Gooh, Patricia Ann S. Muli

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The researchers conducted the study in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro.There is a substantial lack of research regarding this place as a destination for tourism as well as its potentials. The researchers aspired to determine how the locals perceive the tourism development in the province in terms of activities, attractions, as well as tourist influx. The main instrument used in the study is the interview method to get more in-depth information regarding the subject. The results showed that attractions and activities greatly increased. There has been a very evident ascent in the number of tourists, foreign and local, visiting the place leading to an increase in tourist influx. Results also presented that tourist congestion is moderate and manageable. It has been observed as well that the town lacked tourism-related merchandise available for tourist consumption and the same can be said for the accommodation and lodging facilities in the destination.

Keywords: tourism development, tourism activities, tourist attractions, tourist influx

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61 Development of a Nurse Led Tranexamic Acid Administration Protocol for Trauma Patients in Rural South Africa

Authors: Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith

Abstract:

Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within 3 hours of injury. Due to geographical distance and lack of emergency medical services patients often present late, following trauma, to our emergency department. Additionally, we found patients that may have benefited from TXA did not receive it, often due to lack of staff awareness, staff shortages out of hours and lack of equipment for delivering infusions. Our objective was to develop a protocol for nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency department. We developed a protocol using physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We will monitor the use of the protocol to ensure appropriate compliance and for any adverse events reported.

Keywords: emergency department, emergency nursing, rural healthcare, tranexamic acid, trauma, triage

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60 Binarization and Recognition of Characters from Historical Degraded Documents

Authors: Bency Jacob, S.B. Waykar

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Degradations in historical document images appear due to aging of the documents. It is very difficult to understand and retrieve text from badly degraded documents as there is variation between the document foreground and background. Thresholding of such document images either result in broken characters or detection of false texts. Numerous algorithms exist that can separate text and background efficiently in the textual regions of the document; but portions of background are mistaken as text in areas that hardly contain any text. This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by a robust binarization technique that recovers the text from a severely degraded document images and thereby increases the accuracy of optical character recognition systems. The proposed document recovery algorithm efficiently removes degradations from document images. Here we are using the ostus method ,local thresholding and global thresholding and after the binarization training and recognizing the characters in the degraded documents.

Keywords: binarization, denoising, global thresholding, local thresholding, thresholding

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59 Involving Children in Creating a Healthy Environment in Low Socioeconomic Position (SEP) Neighborhoods in the Netherlands: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project.

Authors: Lisa Wilderink, Ingrid Bakker, Albertine J. Schuit, Jacob C. Seidell, Carry M. Renders

Abstract:

To ensure that health behavior interventions for children living in low socioeconomic position (SEP) neighborhoods are in line with children’s wishes and needs, participation of the children in the development, implementation, and evaluation is crucial. In this paper, we show how children living in three low-SEP neighborhoods in the Netherlands can be involved in Participatory Action Research (PAR) and what influences this participation process. The Photovoice method was used and provided comprehensive information from the children’s perspectives. With the help of the community workers, the children identified feasible actions. This paper shows that it is possible to involve children from low SEP neighborhoods in a meaningful way. We found that it is important to constantly discuss the process with participants, start with a concrete question or problem and adapt the project to the local context and skills of participants

Keywords: children, healthy behavior, participatory action research, socioeconomic health inequalities

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58 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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57 Comparative Wound Healing Potential of Mitracarpus villosus Ointment and Honey in Diabetic Albino Rats by Collagen Assessment

Authors: Bawa Inalegwu, Jacob A. Jato, Ovye Akyengo, John Akighir

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All humans will experience some type of wound in every lifetime. Most wounds heal quickly with little or no attention but, many people suffer from wounds that are complex and/or persistent therefore posing a burden. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Mitrcarpus villous ointment against honey in diabetic rats. To achieve this, percentage wound closure and collagen assessments were used to express treatment efficacy. Results show that on day 21, rats treated with M. villosus ointment had the highest percentage closure (94.5%) while honey treated and non-treated recorded 90.0% and 83.3% respectively. Similarly, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed on day 21 in the total collagen deposited in wounds of diabetic rats (10.57 ± 0.7) and M. villous ointment treated wounds (11.77 ± 0.4) as compared with the non-treated diabetic rats. M. villosus ointment was efficacious in healing wounds in diabetic rats and heals wound faster than honey and may hold potential for wound healing in diabetes mellitus sufferers. However, the wound healing mechanism of this ointment

Keywords: collagen, diabetic rats, honey, Mitracarpus villosus, ointment, wound healing

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56 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad Adam Asharaf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba

Abstract:

Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: performance, transmission system, real power efficiency, available transfer capability

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55 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso

Abstract:

Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

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54 Determinants of Income Diversification among Support Zone Communities of National Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Etim Jacob, Samuel Onadeko, Edem A. Eniang, Imaobong Ufot Nelson

Abstract:

This paper examined determinants of income diversification among households in support zones communities of national parks in Nigeria. This involved the use household data collected through questionnaires administered randomly among 1009 household heads in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed using probability and non-probability statistical analysis such as regression and analysis of variance to test for mean difference between parks. The result obtained indicates that majority of the household heads were male (92.57%0, between the age class of 21 – 40 years (44.90%), had non-formal education (38.16%), were farmers (65.21%), owned land (95.44%), with a household size of 1 – 5 (36.67%) and an annual income range of ₦401,000 - ₦600,000 (24.58%). Mean Simpson index of diversity showed a general low (0.375) level of income diversification among the households. Income, age, off-farm dependence, education, household size and occupation where significant (p<0.01) factors that affected households’ income diversification. The study recommends improvement in the existing infrastructures and social capital in the communities as avenues to improve the livelihood and ensure positive conservation behaviors in the study area.

Keywords: income diversification, protected area, livelihood, poverty, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
53 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Calcium Mixed Ferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: Sijo S. Thomas, S. Hridya, Manoj Mohan, Bibin Jacob, Hysen Thomas

Abstract:

Ferrites are iron based oxides with technologically significant magnetic properties and have widespread applications in medicine, technology, and industry. There has been a growing interest in the study of magnetic, electrical and structural properties of mixed ferrites. In the present work, structural and magnetic properties of Nickel and Calcium substituted Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were investigated. NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the samples were subsequently sintered at 900°C. The magnetic and structural properties of NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and X-Ray diffraction. The XRD results revealed that the synthesized particles have nanometer size and it varies from 46-72 nm as the calcium concentration diminishes. The variation is explained based on the increase in the reaction rate with Ni concentration which favors the formation of ultrafine particles of mixed ferrites. VSM results show pure CaFe₂O₄ exhibit paramagnetic behavior with low saturation value. As the concentration of Ca decreases, a transition occurs from paramagnetic state to ferromagnetic state. When the concentration of Ni becomes dominant, magnetic saturation, coercivity, and retentivity become high, indicating near ferromagnetic behavior of the compound.

Keywords: co-precipitation, ferrites, magnetic behavior, structure

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52 Mathematical Model of the Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 in Heterosexual Relations with and without Condom Usage in a College Population

Authors: Jacob A. Braun

Abstract:

This paper uses mathematical modeling to show the spread of Herpes Simplex type-2 with and without the usage of condoms in a college population. The model uses four differential equations to calculate the data for the simulation. The dt increment used is one week. It also runs based on a fixated period. The period chosen was five years to represent time spent in college. The average age of the individual is 21, once again to represent the age of someone in college. In the total population, there are almost two times as many women who have Herpes Simplex Type-2 as men. Additionally, Herpes Simplex Type-2 does not have a known cure. The goal of the model is to show how condom usage affects women’s chances of receiving the virus in the hope of being able to reduce the number of women infected. In the end, the model demonstrates that condoms offer significant protection to women from the virus. Since fewer women are infected with the virus when condoms are used, in turn, fewer males are infected. Since Herpes Simplex Type-2 affects the carrier for their whole life, a small decrease of infections could lead to large ramifications over time. Specifically, a small decrease of infections at a young age, such as college, could have a very big effect on the long-term number of people infected with the virus.

Keywords: college, condom, Herpes, mathematical modelling

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51 Acclimatation of Bacterial Communities for Biohydrogen Production by Co-Digestion Process in Batch and Continuous Systems

Authors: Gómez Romero Jacob, García Peña Elvia Inés

Abstract:

The co-digestion process of crude cheese whey (CCW) with fruit vegetable waste (FVW) for biohydrogen production was investigated in batch and continuous systems, in stirred 1.8 L bioreactors at 37°C. Five different C/N ratios (7, 17, 21, 31, and 46) were tested in batch systems. While, in continuous system eight conditions were evaluated, hydraulic retention time (from 60 to 10 h) and organic load rate (from 21.96 to 155.87 g COD/L d). Data in batch tests showed a maximum specific biohydrogen production rate of 10.68 mmol H2/Lh and a biohydrogen yield of 449.84 mL H2/g COD at a C/N ratio of 21. In continuous co-digestion system, the optimum hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate were 17.5 h and 80.02 g COD/L d, respectively. Under these conditions, the highest volumetric production hydrogen rate (VPHR) and hydrogen yield were 11.02 mmol H2/L h, 800 mL H2/COD, respectively. A pyrosequencing analysis showed that the main acclimated microbial communities for co-digestion studies consisted of Bifidobacterium, with 85.4% of predominance. Hydrogen producing bacteria such as Klebsiella (9.1%), Lactobacillus (0.97%), Citrobacter (0.21%), Enterobacter (0.27%), and Clostridium (0.18%) were less abundant at this culture period. The microbial population structure was correlated with the lactate, acetate, and butyrate profiles obtained. Results demonstrated that the co-digestion of CCW with FVW improves biohydrogen production due to a better nutrient balance and improvement of the system’s buffering capacity.

Keywords: acclimatation, biohydrogen, co-digestion, microbial community

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50 Political Economy of Ungoverned Spaces and Rural Armed Banditry in Nigeria

Authors: Collins Ogbu, Godwin Johnny Akpan, James NDA Jacob

Abstract:

The debilitating outcomes of violent conflict, consummated by rural armed banditry have nonetheless, occasioned the need for the mapping of crime zones in Nigeria. As a step towards understanding the scourge of armed bandits, ungoverned spaces have been uncovered as the most dominant excuse for rural crimes and fierce confrontations. From the creeks of the Niger Delta to the forest of Sambisa, Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) have proliferated to the vagaries of national insecurity. While the trends present indications of State fragility, the paucity of governance in these so-called ungoverned spaces has persistently reflected a Hobbesian state of nature, where the fittest survives. This study, therefore, interrogates the demographic implications of these ungoverned spaces by specifically identifying the most immediate features of the characters in the areas under investigation. The Farmers-Herders Crises, Niger-Delta Militancy, Boko-Haram Insurgency, Armed Robbery, Kidnapping and Cattle Rustling all define the major focus. In undertaking this study, anecdotal sources will be relied on, while extant information on the concept of ungoverned spaces will be content-analyzed. It is hoped that the knowledge gathered, as a result, will ultimately aid in proffering a dependable panacea to the crises of rural armed banditry in Nigeria.

Keywords: ungoverned spaces, rural armed banditry, state fragility, conflicts

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49 Evaluation of Nutrition Supplement on Body Composition during Catch-Up Growth, in a Pre-Clinical Model of Growth Restriction

Authors: Bindya Jacob

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of catchup growth induced by Oral Nutrition Supplement (ONS), in animal model of growth restriction due to under nutrition. Quality of catch-up growth was assessed by proportion of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM). Young SD rats were food restricted at 70% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks; and re-fed at 120% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks. Refeeding diet had 50% calories from animal diet and 50% from ONS formulated for optimal growth. After refeeding, the quantity and quality of catch-up growth were measured including weight, length, LBM and FM. During nutrient restriction, body weight and length of animals was reduced compared to healthy controls. Both LBM and FM were significantly lower than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Refeeding with ONS resulted in increase of weight and length, with significant catch-up growth compared to baseline (p < 0.001). Detailed examination of body composition showed that the catch-up in body weight was due to proportionate increase of LBM and FM, resulting in a final body composition similar to healthy controls. This data supports the use of well-designed ONS for recovery from growth restriction due to under nutrition, and return to normal growth trajectory characterized by normal ratio of lean and fat mass.

Keywords: catch up growth, body composition, nutrient restriction, healthy growth

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48 Correlation to Predict Thermal Performance According to Working Fluids of Vertical Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

Authors: Niti Kammuang-lue, Kritsada On-ai, Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai, Pradit Terdtoon

Abstract:

The objectives of this paper are to investigate effects of dimensionless numbers on thermal performance of the vertical closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (VCLPHP) and to establish a correlation to predict the thermal performance of the VCLPHP. The CLPHPs were made of long copper capillary tubes with inner diameters of 1.50, 1.78, and 2.16mm and bent into 26 turns. Then, both ends were connected together to form a loop. The evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections length were equal to 50 and 150 mm. R123, R141b, acetone, ethanol, and water were chosen as variable working fluids with constant filling ratio of 50% by total volume. Inlet temperature of heating medium and adiabatic section temperature was constantly controlled at 80 and 50oC, respectively. Thermal performance was represented in a term of Kutateladze number (Ku). It can be concluded that when Prandtl number of liquid working fluid (Prl), and Karman number (Ka) increases, thermal performance increases. On contrary, when Bond number (Bo), Jacob number (Ja), and Aspect ratio (Le/Di) increases, thermal performance decreases. Moreover, the correlation to predict more precise thermal performance has been successfully established by analyzing on all dimensionless numbers that have effect on the thermal performance of the VCLPHP.

Keywords: vertical closed-loop pulsating heat pipe, working fluid, thermal performance, dimensionless parameter

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47 Development and Power Characterization of an IoT Network for Agricultural Imaging Applications

Authors: Jacob Wahl, Jane Zhang

Abstract:

This paper describes the development and characterization of a prototype IoT network for use with agricultural imaging and monitoring applications. The sensor and gateway nodes are designed using the ESP32 SoC with integrated Bluetooth Low Energy 4.2 and Wi-Fi. A development board, the Arducam IoTai ESP32, is used for prototyping, testing, and power measurements. Google’s Firebase is used as the cloud storage site for image data collected by the sensor. The sensor node captures images using the OV2640 2MP camera module and transmits the image data to the gateway via Bluetooth Low Energy. The gateway then uploads the collected images to Firebase via a known nearby Wi-Fi network connection. This image data can then be processed and analyzed by computer vision and machine learning pipelines to assess crop growth or other needs. The sensor node achieves a wireless transmission data throughput of 220kbps while consuming 150mA of current; the sensor sleeps at 162µA. The sensor node device lifetime is estimated to be 682 days on a 6600mAh LiPo battery while acquiring five images per day based on the development board power measurements. This network can be utilized by any application that requires high data rates, low power consumption, short-range communication, and large amounts of data to be transmitted at low-frequency intervals.

Keywords: Bluetooth low energy, ESP32, firebase cloud, IoT, smart farming

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46 A Pragma-Rhetorical Study of Christian Religious Pentecostal Sermons in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu

Abstract:

Effectiveness in communication requires the deployment of pragmatic and rhetorical strategies in religious sermons. In spite of high volume of works in religious discourse, scholars have not adequately accounted for the persuasive and argumentation strategies employed in Christian religious Pentecostal sermons. This study examines communicative intentions and the pragma-rhetorical strategies deployed to maintain balance and effectiveness in selected sermons of Pastor E. A. Adeboye, Bishop D. Oyedepo and Pastor W. F. Kumuyi. Fifteen sermons, delivered orally and transcribed into the written mode, were selected and analysed using Jacob Mey’s theory of pragmeme, Aristotle’s rhetoric and the theory of argumentation by van Eemeren and Grootendorst. Speakers pract stating, encouraging, assuring, warning, condemning, directing, praising, thanking, etc. through rhetorical question, repetition, direct address, direct command and structural parallelism. They assume divine role by speaking authoritatively and they tactically and logically select words to legitimise their ideology. They also categorise and portray individuals and/or issues either as good or bad, sinner/sin or righteous/righteousness, etc. The study provides clearer insight into the pragmatic import and the communicative effectiveness of Christian Pentecostal sermons. Further research can juxtapose the pragma-rhetorical and argumentation strategies of preachers of two clearly differentiated movements within the Christian religion.

Keywords: argumentation, communicative intentions, pentecostal sermons, pragmeme, rhetoric

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45 Moderating Effects of Future Career Interest in Science and Gender on Students' Achievement in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Segun Jacob Ogunkunle

Abstract:

The study examined the moderating effects of future career interest in science and gender on achievement in basic science of students taught in a simulated laboratory and enriched laboratory guide material environments. It adopted the pretest-posttest control group quasi experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. A total of 277 (130 males, 147 females; ± 17 years) junior secondary three students randomly selected from six purposively selected secondary schools based on availability of functional computer and physics laboratories participated in the study. Data were collected using achievement test in basic science (r=0.87) and future career interest in science (r=0.99) while analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means were used to test three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study show that future career interest in science had significant effect on students’ achievement in basic science whereas gender did not. The interaction effect of future career interest in science and gender on students’ achievement in basic science was not significant. It is therefore recommended that prior knowledge of students’ future career interest in science could be used to improve participation in basic science practical in order to enhance achievement in biology, chemistry, and physics at the post-basic education level in Nigeria.

Keywords: future career interest in science, basic science, simulated laboratory, enriched laboratory guide materials, achievement in science

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