Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1354

Search results for: least mean square

1354 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi


In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: energy absorber, square tube, bending, rigidity

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1353 A Review on the Perception of Beşiktaş Public Square

Authors: Neslinur Hizli, Berrak Kirbaş Akyürek


Beşiktaş, one of the historical coastal district of İstanbul, is on the very edge of the radical transformation because of an approaching ‘Beşiktaş Public Square Project’. At this juncture, due its location, presence on the coast, population density and distance to the other centers of the city, the decisions to be taken are critical to whole Istanbul that will be majorly affected from this transformation. As the new project aims to pedestrianize the area by placing the vehicular traffic under the ground, Beşiktaş and its square will change from top to bottom. Among those considerations, through the advantages and disadvantages the perception of the existing conditions of the Beşiktaş play significant role. The motive of this paper is the lack of determination and clarity on the cognition of the Square. After brief analysis on the historical transformation of the area, prominent studies on the criteria of public square are revised. Through cognitive mapping methodology, characteristics of the Square and the public space in general find a place to discuss from individual views. This study aims to discuss and review Beşiktaş Public Square from perspective, mind and behavior of the users. Cognitive map study with thirty subjects (30) is evaluated and categorized upon the five elements that Kevin Lynch defined as the images of the city. The results obtained digitized and represented with tables and graphs. Findings of the research underline the crucial issues on the approaching change in Beşiktaş. Thus, this study may help to develop comprehensive ideas and new suggestions on the Square.

Keywords: Beşiktaş public square, cognitive map, perception, public space

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1352 Strategies of Spatial Optimization for Open Space in the Old-Age Friendly City: An Investigation of the Behavior of the Elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou

Authors: Yunxiang Fang


With the aging trend continuing to accelerate, open space is important for the daily life of the elderly, and its old-age friendliness is worthy of attention. Based on behavioral observation and literature research, this paper studies the behavior of the elderly in urban open space. Through the investigation, classification and quantitative analysis of the activity types, time characteristics and spatial behavior order of the elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou, it summarizes the square space suitable for the psychological needs, physiology and activity needs of the elderly, combined with the basis of literature research. Finally, the suggestions for the improvement of the old-age friendship of Xicheng Square are put forward, from the aspects of microclimate, safety and accessibility, space richness and service facility quality.

Keywords: behavior characteristics, old-age friendliness, open space, square

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1351 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh


Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

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1350 A Study of Rapid Replication of Square-Microlens Structures

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, Jung-Ruey Tsai


This paper reports a method for the replication of micro-scale structures. By using electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting system with magnetic soft stamp written square-microlens cavity, a photopolymer square-microlens structures can be rapidly fabricated. Under the proper processing conditions, the polymeric square-microlens structures with feature size of width 100.3um and height 15.2um across a large area can be successfully fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profiler observations confirm that the micro-scale polymer structures are produced without defects or distortion and with good pattern fidelity over a 60x60mm2 area. This technique shows great potential for the efficient replication of the micro-scale structure array at room temperature and with high productivity and low cost.

Keywords: square-microlens structures, electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting, magnetic soft stamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1349 Comparison Analysis of Multi-Channel Echo Cancellation Using Adaptive Filters

Authors: Sahar Mobeen, Anam Rafique, Irum Baig


Acoustic echo cancellation in multichannel is a system identification application. In real time environment, signal changes very rapidly which required adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS), Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) and average (AFA) having high convergence rate and stable. LMS and NLMS are widely used adaptive algorithm due to less computational complexity and AFA used of its high convergence rate. This research is based on comparison of acoustic echo (generated in a room) cancellation thorough LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA and newly proposed average normalized leaky least mean square (ANLLMS) adaptive filters.


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1348 Nonuniformity Correction Technique in Infrared Video Using Feedback Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Flavio O. Torres, Maria J. Castilla, Rodrigo A. Augsburger, Pedro I. Cachana, Katherine S. Reyes


In this paper, we present a scene-based nonuniformity correction method using a modified recursive least square algorithm with a feedback system on the updates. The feedback is designed to remove impulsive noise contamination images produced by a recursive least square algorithm by measuring the output of the proposed algorithm. The key advantage of the method is based on its capacity to estimate detectors parameters and then compensate for impulsive noise contamination image in a frame by frame basics. We define the algorithm and present several experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison to several previously published recursive least square-based methods. We show that the proposed method removes impulsive noise contamination image.

Keywords: infrared focal plane arrays, infrared imaging, least mean square, nonuniformity correction

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1347 Tunable in Phase, out of Phase and T/4 Square-Wave Pulses in Delay-Coupled Optoelectronic Oscillators

Authors: Jade Martínez-Llinàs, Pere Colet


By exploring the possible dynamical regimes in a prototypical model for mutually delay-coupled OEOs, here it is shown that two mutually coupled non-identical OEOs, besides in- and out-of-phase square-waves, can generate stable square-wave pulses synchronized at a quarter of the period (T/4) in a broad parameter region. The key point to obtain T/4 solutions is that the two OEO operate with mixed feedback, namely with negative feedback in one and positive in the other. Furthermore, the coexistence of multiple solutions provides a large degree of flexibility for tuning the frequency in the GHz range without changing any parameter. As a result the two coupled OEOs system is good candidate to be implemented for information encoding as a high-capacity memory device.

Keywords: nonlinear optics, optoelectronic oscillators, square waves, synchronization

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1346 Analysis of Space Requirements of Chinese Square-Dancing Space through Newspaper Reports

Authors: Xiaobing Liu, Bo Zhang, Xiaolong Zhao


The square-dancing is one of the most popular new physical activities in China in recent years, which has become a hotspot of Chinese landscape research. This paper collects 749 news reports from four authoritative newspapers in Harbin for 3 years, and probes into the space use needs of participants and non-participants of square-dancing. In this paper, the research results are compared with the contents of three related planning and design codes in China, and some modification or supplementary suggestions are proposed from three aspects, such as decision-making process, total-quantity control, and site design. Different from the traditional research, this research does not use the data from interviews and the questionnaires, but uses the traditional media report content for analyzing. To some extent, it avoids the research result being excessively subjective, enhances objectivity and the authority.

Keywords: China, landscape, space design, square-dancing

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1345 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang


The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, structural-sized test, shear modulus of Glulam beam, photogrammetry approach

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1344 Mean Square Responses of a Cantilever Beam with Various Damping Mechanisms

Authors: Yaping Zhao, Yimin Zhang


In the present paper, the stationary random vibration of a uniform cantilever beam is investigated. Two types of damping mechanism, i.e. the external and internal viscous dampings, are taken into account simultaneously. The excitation form is the support motion, and it is ideal white. Because two type of damping mechanism are considered concurrently, the product of the modal damping ratio and the natural frequency is not a constant anymore. As a result, the infinite definite integral encountered in the process of computing the mean square response is more complex than that in the existing literature. One signal progress of this work is to have calculated these definite integrals accurately. The precise solution of the mean square response is thus obtained in the infinite series form finally. Numerical examples are supplied and the numerical outcomes acquired confirm the validity of the theoretical analyses.

Keywords: random vibration, cantilever beam, mean square response, white noise

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1343 Achieving Conviviality in Terms of Collective Experience through Creative Public Spaces in Namik Kemal Square, Famagusta, North Cyprus

Authors: Shirin Shaideh, Nina Shirkhanloo


Creative public spaces were needed to foster conviviality in an urban form. The conviviality could be enhanced by facilitating variety of opportunities to participate in communal activities and promoting collective experiences. In this regard, The Namik Kemal Square as a major public space of Walled City of Famagusta in North Cyprus was found as the creative public space because it supports collective practices by leisure activities which enclosed the space. The square also utilized creative collaboration such as festivals and outdoor exhibition. Accordingly this paper focuses on the issue of conviviality in urban public space, in the perspective of square, as a major indicator of their success. The survey firstly provides a theoretical framework for understanding conviviality in creative public space to empower collective experience. Secondly it discusses the essential components of conviviality in form of square and finally investigating conviviality and also its determinants in Namik Kemal square. Hence, the main challenges of this study are going to focus on how convivial public spaces impact collective experience, what people expect from a kind of public space, or what they perceive as a good place to be in. Since it seems essential to respond positively, inclusively to the needs of people to socialize in public spaces by involving them in collective and common practices, this article aims to tease out what gives some places personality and conviviality so that we can learn to design, maintain and manage better quality built environment in future.

Keywords: conviviality, creative public space, collective experience, Namik Kemal square

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1342 Square Concrete Columns under Axial Compression

Authors: Suniti Suparp, Panuwat Joyklad, Qudeer Hussain


This is a well-known fact that the actual latera forces due to natural disasters, for example, earthquakes, floods and storms are difficult to predict accurately. Among these natural disasters, so far, the highest amount of deaths and injuries have been recorded for the case of earthquakes all around the world. Therefore, there is always an urgent need to establish suitable strengthening methods for existing concrete and steel structures. This paper is investigating the structural performance of square concrete columns strengthened using low cost and easily available steel clamps. The salient features of these steel clamps are comparatively low cost, easy availability and ease of installation. To achieve research objectives, a large-scale experimental program was established in which a total number of 12 square concrete columns were constructed and tested under pure axial compression. Three square concrete columns were tested without any steel lamps to serve as a reference specimen. Whereas, remaining concrete columns were externally strengthened using steel clamps. The steel clamps were installed at a different spacing to investigate the best configuration of the steel clamps. The experimental results indicate that steel clamps are very effective in altering the structural performance of the square concrete columns. The square concrete columns externally strengthened using steel clamps demonstrate higher load carrying capacity and ductility as compared with the control specimens.

Keywords: concrete, strength, ductility, pre-stressed, steel, clamps, axial compression, columns, stress and strain

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1341 Dual Reconfigurable Antenna Using Capacitive Coupling Slot and Parasitic Square Ring

Authors: M. Abou Al-alaa, H. A. Elsadek, E. A. Abdallah, E. A. Hashish


A square patch antenna with both frequency and polarization reconfigurability is presented. The antenna consists of a square patch with coplanar feed on the ground plane. On the patch side, there is a parasitic square ring that is responsible for changing the antenna polarization. On the ground plane, there is a rectangular slot. By changing of length of this slot, the antenna resonance frequency can be changed. The antenna operates at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz that used in GPS and Bluetooth applications, respectively. The length of the slot in the proposed antenna is 40 mm, and the antenna operates at the lower frequency (1.57 GHz). By using switches in the ground plane the slot length can be adjust to 24 mm, so the antenna operates at upper frequency (2.45 GHz). Two switches are mounted on the parasitic ring at optimized positions. By switching between the different states of these two switches, the proposed antenna operates with linear polarization (LP) and circular polarization (CP) at each operating frequency. The antenna gain at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz are 5.9 and 7.64 dBi, respectively. The antenna is analyzed using the CST Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna was fabricated and measured. Results comparison shows good agreement. The antenna has applications in several wireless communication systems.

Keywords: microstrip patch antenna, reconfigurable antenna, frequency reconfigurability, polarization reconfigurability, parasitic square ring, linear polarization, circular polarization

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1340 Classification Earthquake Distribution in the Banda Sea Collision Zone with Point Process Approach

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno


Banda Sea collision zone (BSCZ) of is the result of the interaction and convergence of Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate and Pacific plate. This location in the eastern part of Indonesia. This zone has a very high seismic activity. In this research, we will be calculated rate (λ) and Mean Square Eror (MSE). By this result, we will identification of Poisson distribution of earthquakes in the BSCZ with the point process approach. Chi-square test approach and test Anscombe made in the process of identifying a Poisson distribution in the partition area. The data used are earthquakes with Magnitude ≥ 6 SR and its period 1964-2013 and sourced from BMKG Jakarta. This research is expected to contribute to the Moluccas Province and surrounding local governments in performing spatial plan document related to disaster management.

Keywords: molluca banda sea collision zone, earthquakes, mean square error, poisson distribution, chi-square test, anscombe test

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1339 Improving Efficiencies of Planting Configurations on Draft Environment of Town Square: The Case Study of Taichung City Hall in Taichung, Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Wen Huang, Yi-Cheng Chiang


With urban development, lots of buildings are built around the city. The buildings always affect the urban wind environment. The accelerative situation of wind caused of buildings often makes pedestrians uncomfortable, even causes the accidents and dangers. Factors influencing pedestrian level wind including atmospheric boundary layer, wind direction, wind velocity, planting, building volume, geometric shape of the buildings and adjacent interference effects, etc. Planting has many functions including scraping and slowing urban heat island effect, creating a good visual landscape, increasing urban green area and improve pedestrian level wind. On the other hand, urban square is an important space element supporting the entrance to buildings, city landmarks, and activity collections, etc. The appropriateness of urban square environment usually dominates its success. This research focuses on the effect of tree-planting on the wind environment of urban square. This research studied the square belt of Taichung City Hall. Taichung City Hall is a cuboid building with a large mass opening. The square belt connects the front square, the central opening and the back square. There is often wind draft on the square belt. This phenomenon decreases the activities on the squares. This research applies tree-planting to improve the wind environment and evaluate the effects of two types of planting configuration. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation analysis and extensive field measurements are applied to explore the improve efficiency of planting configuration on wind environment. This research compares efficiencies of different kinds of planting configuration, including the clustering array configuration and the dispersion, and evaluates the efficiencies by the SET*.

Keywords: micro-climate, wind environment, planting configuration, comfortableness, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

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1338 Roll Forming Process and Die Design for a Large Size Square Tube

Authors: Jinn-Jong Sheu, Cang-Fu Liang, Cheng-Hsien Yu


This paper proposed the cold roll forming process and the die design methods for a 400mm by 400 mm square tube with 16 mm in thickness. The tubular blank made by cold roll forming is 508mm in diameter. The square tube roll forming process was designed considering the layout of rolls and the compression ratio distribution for each stand. The final tube corner radius and the edge straightness in the front end of the tube are to be controlled according to the tube specification. A five-stand forming design using four rolls at each stand was proposed to establish the base reference of square tube roll forming quality. Different numbers of pass and roll designs were proposed and compared to the base design in order to find the feasibility of increase pass number to improve the square tube quality. The proposed roll forming processes were simulated using FEM analysis. The thickness variations of the corner and the edge areas were examined. The maximum loads and the torques of each stand were calculated to study the power consumption of the roll forming machine. The simulation results showed the square tube thickness variations and concavity of the edge are acceptable with the JIS tube specifications for the base design. But the maximum loads and torques are very high. By changing the layout and the number of the rolls were able to obtain better tube geometry and decrease the maximum load and torque of each stand. This paper had shown the feasibility of designing the roll forming process and the layout of dies using FEM simulation. The obtained information is helpful to the roll forming machine design for a large size square tube making.

Keywords: cold roll forming, FEM analysis, roll forming die design, tube roll forming

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1337 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz


A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

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1336 Stability of Square Plate with Concentric Cutout

Authors: B. S. Jayashankarbabu, Karisiddappa


The finite element method is used to obtain the elastic buckling load factor for square isotropic plate containing circular, square and rectangular cutouts. ANSYS commercial finite element software had been used in the study. The applied inplane loads considered are uniaxial and biaxial compressions. In all the cases the load is distributed uniformly along the plate outer edges. The effects of the size and shape of concentric cutouts with different plate thickness ratios and the influence of plate edge condition, such as SSSS, CCCC and mixed boundary condition SCSC on the plate buckling strength have been considered in the analysis.

Keywords: concentric cutout, elastic buckling, finite element method, inplane loads, thickness ratio

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1335 Model Order Reduction of Continuous LTI Large Descriptor System Using LRCF-ADI and Square Root Balanced Truncation

Authors: Mohammad Sahadet Hossain, Shamsil Arifeen, Mehrab Hossian Likhon


In this paper, we analyze a linear time invariant (LTI) descriptor system of large dimension. Since these systems are difficult to simulate, compute and store, we attempt to reduce this large system using Low Rank Cholesky Factorized Alternating Directions Implicit (LRCF-ADI) iteration followed by Square Root Balanced Truncation. LRCF-ADI solves the dual Lyapunov equations of the large system and gives low-rank Cholesky factors of the gramians as the solution. Using these cholesky factors, we compute the Hankel singular values via singular value decomposition. Later, implementing square root balanced truncation, the reduced system is obtained. The bode plots of original and lower order systems are used to show that the magnitude and phase responses are same for both the systems.

Keywords: low-rank cholesky factor alternating directions implicit iteration, LTI Descriptor system, Lyapunov equations, Square-root balanced truncation

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1334 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery


The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

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1333 Identification and Control the Yaw Motion Dynamics of Open Frame Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Mirza Mohibulla Baig, Imil Hamda Imran, Tri Bagus Susilo, Sami El Ferik


The paper deals with system identification and control a nonlinear model of semi-autonomous underwater vehicle (UUV). The input-output data is first generated using the experimental values of the model parameters and then this data is used to compute the estimated parameter values. In this study, we use the semi-autonomous UUV LAURS model, which is developed by the Sensors and Actuators Laboratory in University of Sao Paolo. We applied three methods to identify the parameters: integral method, which is a classical least square method, recursive least square, and weighted recursive least square. In this paper, we also apply three different inputs (step input, sine wave input and random input) to each identification method. After the identification stage, we investigate the control performance of yaw motion of nonlinear semi-autonomous Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) using feedback linearization-based controller. In addition, we compare the performance of the control with an integral and a non-integral part along with state feedback. Finally, disturbance rejection and resilience of the controller is tested. The results demonstrate the ability of the system to recover from such fault.

Keywords: system identification, underwater vehicle, integral method, recursive least square, weighted recursive least square, feedback linearization, integral error

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1332 Design of Reconfigurable Fixed-Point LMS Adaptive FIR Filter

Authors: S. Padmapriya, V. Lakshmi Prabha


In this paper, an efficient reconfigurable fixed-point Least Mean Square Adaptive FIR filter is proposed. The proposed architecture has two methods of operation: one is area efficient design and the other is optimized power. Pipelining of the adder blocks and partial product generator are used to achieve low area and reversible logic is used to obtain low power design. Depending upon the input samples and filter coefficients, one of the techniques is chosen. Least-Mean-Square adaptation is performed to update the weights. The architecture is coded using Verilog and synthesized in cadence encounter 0.18μm technology. The synthesized results show that the area reduction ratio of the proposed when compared with conventional technique is about 1.2%.

Keywords: adaptive filter, carry select adder, least mean square algorithm, reversible logic

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1331 Significance of Square Non-Spiral Microcoils for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Himanshu Chandrakar, Krishnapriya S., Rama Komaragiri, Suja K. J.


Micro coils are significant components for micro magnetic sensors and actuators especially in biomedical devices. Non-spiral planar microcoils of square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes are introduced for the first time in this paper. Comparison between different planar spiral and non-spiral coils are also discussed. The fabrication advantages and low power dissipation of non-spiral structures make them a strong alternative for conventional spiral planar coils. Series resistance of non-spiral coil is lesser than that of spiral coils though magnetic field is slightly lesser for non-spiral coils. Comparison of different planar microcoils shows that the proposed square non-spiral coil gives better performance than other structures.

Keywords: non-spiral planar microcoil, power dissipation, series resistance, spiral

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1330 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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1329 Combined Analysis of Sudoku Square Designs with Same Treatments

Authors: A. Danbaba


Several experiments are conducted at different environments such as locations or periods (seasons) with identical treatments to each experiment purposely to study the interaction between the treatments and environments or between the treatments and periods (seasons). The commonly used designs of experiments for this purpose are randomized block design, Latin square design, balanced incomplete block design, Youden design, and one or more factor designs. The interest is to carry out a combined analysis of the data from these multi-environment experiments, instead of analyzing each experiment separately. This paper proposed combined analysis of experiments conducted via Sudoku square design of odd order with same experimental treatments.

Keywords: combined analysis, sudoku design, common treatment, multi-environment experiments

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1328 Identification of Wiener Model Using Iterative Schemes

Authors: Vikram Saini, Lillie Dewan


This paper presents the iterative schemes based on Least square, Hierarchical Least Square and Stochastic Approximation Gradient method for the Identification of Wiener model with parametric structure. A gradient method is presented for the parameter estimation of wiener model with noise conditions based on the stochastic approximation. Simulation results are presented for the Wiener model structure with different static non-linear elements in the presence of colored noise to show the comparative analysis of the iterative methods. The stochastic gradient method shows improvement in the estimation performance and provides fast convergence of the parameters estimates.

Keywords: hard non-linearity, least square, parameter estimation, stochastic approximation gradient, Wiener model

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1327 An EWMA P-Chart Based on Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: Saowanit Sukparungsee


Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: number of defects, exponentially weighted moving average, average run length, square root transformations

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1326 Genetic Algorithm to Construct and Enumerate 4×4 Pan-Magic Squares

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad, Mohamed A. Alshaari


Since 2700 B.C the problem of constructing magic squares attracts many researchers. Magic squares one of most difficult challenges for mathematicians. In this work, we describe how to construct and enumerate Pan- magic squares using genetic algorithm, using new chromosome encoding technique. The results were promising within reasonable time.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, magic square, pan-magic square, computational intelligence

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1325 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim


A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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