Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 225

Search results for: blind equalizations

225 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh

Abstract:

Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
224 A Goms Model for Blind Users Website Navigation

Authors: Suraina Sulong

Abstract:

Keyboard support is one of the main accessibility requirements for web pages and web applications for blind user. But it is not sufficient that the blind user can perform all actions on the page using the keyboard. In addition, designers of web sites or web applications have to make sure that keyboard users can use their pages with acceptable performance. We present GOMS models for navigation in web pages with specific task given to the blind user to accomplish. These models can be used to construct the user model for accessible website.

Keywords: GOMS analysis, usability factor, blind user, human computer interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
223 Interactive Fun Activities for Blind and Sighted Teenagers

Authors: Haif Alharthy, Samar Altarteer

Abstract:

Blind and sighted teenagers might find it challenging to communicate and have fun interaction with each other. The previous studies emphasize the importance of the interactive communication of the blind with the sighted people in developing the interpersonal and social skills of the blind people . Playing games is one of the effective ways used to engage the blind with the sighted people and help in enhancing their social skills. However, it is difficult to find a fun game that is designed to encourage interaction between blind and sighted teenagers in which the blind can play it independently without help and that the sighted find its design attractive and satisfying. The aim of this paper is to examine how challenging is to have fun interaction between blind and sighted people and offer interactive tabletop game solution in which both of them can independently participate and enjoy. The paper discusses the importance and the impact of the interactive fun communication between blind and sighted people and how to get them involved with each other through games. The paper investigates several approaches to design a universal game. A survey was conducted for blind teenager’s family members to discover what difficulties they face while playing and communicating with their blind family member and to identify the blind’s needs and interests in games. The study reveals that although families like to play tabletop games with their blind member, they find difficulties in finding universal games that is interesting and adequate for both. Also, qualitative interviews were conducted with blind teenager shows the sufficiency in tabletop games that do not require help from another family member to play the game. The results suggested that an effective approach is to develop an interactive tabletop game embedded with audio and tactile techniques. The findings of the pilot study highlighted the necessary information such as tools, visuals, and game concepts that should be considered in developing interactive card game for blind and sighted teenagers.

Keywords: Blind, card game, communication, interaction, play, tabletop game, teenager

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
222 Teachers’ Perceptions on Communicating with Students Who Are Deaf-Blind in Regular Classes

Authors: Phillimon Mahanya

Abstract:

Learners with deaf-blindness use touch to communicate. However, teachers are not well versed with tactile communication technicalities. Lack of technical know-how is compounded with a lack of standardisation of the tactile signs the world over. Thus, this study arose from the need to have efficient and effective tactile sign communication for learners who are deaf-blind. A qualitative approach that adopted a case study design was used. A sample of 22 participants comprising school administrators and teachers was purposively drawn from the institutions that enrolled learners who are deaf-blind. Data generated using semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and document analysis were thematically analysed. It emerged that administrators and teachers used mammoth and solo touches that are not standardised to communicate with learners who are deaf-blind. It was recommended that there should be a standardised tactile sign manual in Zimbabwe to promote the inclusion of learners who are deaf-blind.

Keywords: communication, deaf-blind, signing, tactile

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
221 Rehabilitation of the Blind Using Sono-Visualization Tool

Authors: Ashwani Kumar

Abstract:

In human beings, eyes play a vital role. A very less research has been done for rehabilitation of blindness for the blind people. This paper discusses the work that helps blind people for recognizing the basic shapes of the objects like circle, square, triangle, horizontal lines, vertical lines, diagonal lines and the wave forms like sinusoidal, square, triangular etc. This is largely achieved by using a digital camera, which is used to capture the visual information present in front of the blind person and a software program, which achieves the image processing operations, and finally the processed image is converted into sound. After the sound generation process, the generated sound is fed to the blind person through headphones for visualizing the imaginary image of the object. For visualizing the imaginary image of the object, it needs to train the blind person. Various training process methods had been applied for recognizing the object.

Keywords: image processing, pixel, pitch, loudness, sound generation, edge detection, brightness

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
220 Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra

Abstract:

The research “Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind” aims to provide original tactile format to institutions for the blind, as supplementary textbooks, to accumulate Buddhist knowledge, so that it could be extracurricular learning. The research studied on 33 students with both total and partial blindness, the latter with the ability to read Braille’s signs, of elementary 4 – 6, who are pursuing their studies on the second semester of the academic year 2013 at Bangkok School for the Blind. The researcher opted samples specifically, studied data acquired from both documents and fieldworks. Those methods must be related to the blind, tactile format production, and Buddha images in mudras representing days of a week. Afterwards, the formats will be analyzed and designed so that there would be 8 format pictures of Buddha images in mudras representing days of the week. Experts will next evaluate the media and try out.

Keywords: blind, tactile texture, Thai Buddha images, Mudras, texture design

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
219 Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Nikita. R. Sonthalia, Khushbu. A. Dodiya

Abstract:

Research leads to development of science and technology and hence to the betterment of humankind. Journals and conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way that they do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called double-blind review process. It is called single-blind review process, if identity of any one party (generally authors) is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be made out even through double-blind review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or unintentional disclosure of identity revealing information by either party to the other.

Keywords: author, conference, double blind paper, journal, reviewer, single blind paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
218 Digital Recording System Identification Based on Audio File

Authors: Michel Kulhandjian, Dimitris A. Pados

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to develop a theoretical framework for reliable digital recording system identification from digital audio files alone, for forensic purposes. A digital recording system consists of a microphone and a digital sound processing card. We view the cascade as a system of unknown transfer function. We expect same manufacturer and model microphone-sound card combinations to have very similar/near identical transfer functions, bar any unique manufacturing defect. Input voice (or other) signals are modeled as non-stationary processes. The technical problem under consideration becomes blind deconvolution with non-stationary inputs as it manifests itself in the specific application of digital audio recording equipment classification.

Keywords: blind system identification, audio fingerprinting, blind deconvolution, blind dereverberation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
217 Blind Speech Separation Using SRP-PHAT Localization and Optimal Beamformer in Two-Speaker Environments

Authors: Hai Quang Hong Dam, Hai Ho, Minh Hoang Le Ngo

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of blind speech separation from the speech mixture of two speakers. A voice activity detector employing the Steered Response Power - Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is presented for detecting the activity information of speech sources and then the desired speech signals are extracted from the speech mixture by using an optimal beamformer. For evaluation, the algorithm effectiveness, a simulation using real speech recordings had been performed in a double-talk situation where two speakers are active all the time. Evaluations show that the proposed blind speech separation algorithm offers a good interference suppression level whilst maintaining a low distortion level of the desired signal.

Keywords: blind speech separation, voice activity detector, SRP-PHAT, optimal beamformer

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
216 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Cheng-Gang Xie, Wai Lam Loh

Abstract:

A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: blind-tee, flow visualization, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
215 Understanding the Experience of the Visually Impaired towards a Multi-Sensorial Architectural Design

Authors: Sarah M. Oteifa, Lobna A. Sherif, Yasser M. Mostafa

Abstract:

Visually impaired people, in their daily lives, face struggles and spatial barriers because the built environment is often designed with an extreme focus on the visual element, causing what is called architectural visual bias or ocularcentrism. The aim of the study is to holistically understand the world of the visually impaired as an attempt to extract the qualities of space that accommodate their needs, and to show the importance of multi-sensory, holistic designs for the blind. Within the framework of existential phenomenology, common themes are reached through "intersubjectivity": experience descriptions by blind people and blind architects, observation of how blind children learn to perceive their surrounding environment, and a personal lived blind-folded experience are analyzed. The extracted themes show how visually impaired people filter out and prioritize tactile (active, passive and dynamic touch), acoustic and olfactory spatial qualities respectively, and how this happened during the personal lived blind folded experience. The themes clarify that haptic and aural inclusive designs are essential to create environments suitable for the visually impaired to empower them towards an independent, safe and efficient life.

Keywords: architecture, architectural ocularcentrism, multi-sensory design, visually impaired

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
214 The Implementation of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) as the Media Innovation for Blind People to Learn English Tenses

Authors: Aji Budi Rinekso, Revika Niza Artiyana, Lisa Widayanti

Abstract:

English is one of the international languages in the world. People use this language to communicate with each other in the international forums, international events or international organizations. As same as other languages, English has a rule which is called grammar. Grammar is the part of english which has a role as the language systems. In grammar, there are tenses which provide a time period system for past, present and future. Sometimes it is difficult for some English learner to remember all of the tenses completely. Especially for those with special needs or exceptional children with vision restrictiveness. The aims of this research are 1) To know the design of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) as the media for blind people to learn english grammar. 2) To know the work of Special Gramar Circle (Spegraci) as the media for blind people to learn english grammar. 3) To know the function of this device in increasing tenses ability for blind people. The method of this research is Research and Development which consists of several testing and revision of this device. The implementation of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) is to make blind people easily to learn the tenses. This device is easy to use. Users only roll this device and find out the tense formula and match to the name of the formula in braille. In addition, this device also enables to be used by normal people because normal written texts are also provided.

Keywords: blind people, media innovation, spegraci, tenses

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
213 Source Separation for Global Multispectral Satellite Images Indexing

Authors: Aymen Bouzid, Jihen Ben Smida

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose to prove the importance of the application of blind source separation methods on remote sensing data in order to index multispectral images. The proposed method starts with Gabor Filtering and the application of a Blind Source Separation to get a more effective representation of the information contained on the observation images. After that, a feature vector is extracted from each image in order to index them. Experimental results show the superior performance of this approach.

Keywords: blind source separation, content based image retrieval, feature extraction multispectral, satellite images

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
212 Arbitrarily Shaped Blur Kernel Estimation for Single Image Blind Deblurring

Authors: Aftab Khan, Ashfaq Khan

Abstract:

The research paper focuses on an interesting challenge faced in Blind Image Deblurring (BID). It relates to the estimation of arbitrarily shaped or non-parametric Point Spread Functions (PSFs) of motion blur caused by camera handshake. These PSFs exhibit much more complex shapes than their parametric counterparts and deblurring in this case requires intricate ways to estimate the blur and effectively remove it. This research work introduces a novel blind deblurring scheme visualized for deblurring images corrupted by arbitrarily shaped PSFs. It is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and utilises the Blind/Reference-less Image Spatial QUality Evaluator (BRISQUE) measure as the fitness function for arbitrarily shaped PSF estimation. The proposed BID scheme has been compared with other single image motion deblurring schemes as benchmark. Validation has been carried out on various blurred images. Results of both benchmark and real images are presented. Non-reference image quality measures were used to quantify the deblurring results. For benchmark images, the proposed BID scheme using BRISQUE converges in close vicinity of the original blurring functions.

Keywords: blind deconvolution, blind image deblurring, genetic algorithm, image restoration, image quality measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
211 A Study of the Tactile Codification on the Philippine Banknote: Redesigning for the Blind

Authors: Ace Mari S. Simbajon, Rhaella J. Ybañez, Mae G. Nadela, Cherry E. Sagun, Nera Mae A. Puyo

Abstract:

This study determined the usability of the Philippine banknotes. An experimental design was used in the study involving twenty (n=20) randomly selected blind participants. The three aspects of usability were measured: effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. It was found out that the effectiveness rate of the current Philippine Banknotes ranges from 20 percent to 35 percent which means it is not effective basing from Cauro’s threshold of average effectiveness rate which is 78 percent. Its efficiency rate is ranging from 18.06 to 26.22 seconds per denomination. The average satisfaction rate is 1.45 which means the blind are very dissatisfied. These results were used as a guide in making the proposed tactile codification using embossed dots or embossed lines. A round of simulation was conducted with the blind to assess the usability of the two proposals. Results were then statistically treated using t-test. Results show statistically significant difference between the usability of the current banknotes versus the proposed designs. Moreover, it was found out that the use of embossed dots is more effective, more efficient, and more satisfying than the embossed lines with an effectiveness rate ranging from 90 percent to 100 percent, efficiency rate ranging from 6.73 seconds to 12.99 seconds, and satisfaction rate of 3.4 which means the blind are very satisfied.

Keywords: blind, Philippine banknotes, tactile codification, usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
210 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind: Applying to the part of the Tokyo Subway Map

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa

Abstract:

This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: color-blind, JPEG, monochrome image, denoise

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
209 Exploiting Fast Independent Component Analysis Based Algorithm for Equalization of Impaired Baseband Received Signal

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Syed Qasim Gilani

Abstract:

A technique using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for blind receiver signal processing is investigated. The problem of the receiver signal processing is viewed as of signal equalization and implementation imperfections compensation. Based on this, a model similar to a general ICA problem is developed for the received signal. Then, the use of ICA technique for blind signal equalization in the time domain is presented. The equalization is regarded as a signal separation problem, since the desired signal is separated from interference terms. This problem is addressed in the paper by over-sampling of the received signal. By using ICA for equalization, besides channel equalization, other transmission imperfections such as Direct current (DC) bias offset, carrier phase and In phase Quadrature phase imbalance will also be corrected. Simulation results for a system using 16-Quadraure Amplitude Modulation(QAM) are presented to show the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: blind equalization, blind signal separation, equalization, independent component analysis, transmission impairments, QAM receiver

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
208 Blind Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on PSF Estimation

Authors: Osama A. Omer, Amal Hamed

Abstract:

Successful blind image Super-Resolution algorithms require the exact estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF). In the absence of any prior information about the imagery system and the true image; this estimation is normally done by trial and error experimentation until an acceptable restored image quality is obtained. Multi-frame blind Super-Resolution algorithms often have disadvantages of slow convergence and sensitiveness to complex noises. This paper presents a Super-Resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on estimation of the PSF that yields the optimum restored image quality. The estimation of PSF is performed by the knife-edge method and it is implemented by measuring spreading of the edges in the reproduced HR image itself during the reconstruction process. The proposed image reconstruction approach is using L1 norm minimization and robust regularization based on a bilateral prior to deal with different data and noise models. A series of experiment results show that the proposed method can outperform other previous work robustly and efficiently.

Keywords: blind, PSF, super-resolution, knife-edge, blurring, bilateral, L1 norm

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
207 Removing Barriers in Assessment and Feedback for Blind Students in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Sindile Ngubane-Mokiwa

Abstract:

This paper addresses two questions: (1) what barriers do the blind students face with assessment and feedback in open distance learning contexts? And (2) How can these barriers be removed? The paper focuses on the distance education through which most students with disabilities elevate their chances of accessing higher education. Lack of genuine inclusion is also evident in the challenges the blind students face during the assessment. These barriers are experienced at both formative and summative stages. The insights in this paper emanate from a case study that was carried out through qualitative approaches. The data was collected through in-depth interview, life stories, and telephonic interviews. The paper provides a review of local, continental and international views on how best assessment barriers can be removed. A group of five blind students, comprising of two honours students, two master's students and one doctoral student participated in this study. The data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that (a) feedback to the assignment is often inaccessible; (b) the software used is incompatible; (c) learning and assessment are designed in exclusionary approaches; (d) assessment facilities are not conducive; and (e) lack of proactive innovative assessment strategies. The article concludes by recommending ways in which barriers to assessment can be removed. These include addressing inclusive assessment and feedback strategies in professional development initiatives.

Keywords: assessment design, barriers, disabilities, blind students, feedback, universal design for learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
206 Disciplined Care for Disciplined Patients: Results from Daily Experiences of Hospitalized Patients with Blindness

Authors: Mahmood Shamshiri

Abstract:

While visual sensation is the key gate for human-being to understand the world, visual impairment is one of the common cause of disability around the world. There is no doubt about the importance of eye sight in daily life among people, even it is understood the best gift of God to human-beings in many societies. Blind people are admitted to hospital for different health issues. Nurses and other health professionals who provide care for this group of patients need to understand their patients. Understanding the lived experience of blind people helps nurses to expand their knowledge regarding blind patients in order to provide a holistic care and improve the quality of care for blind patients. This phenomenological inquiry aimed to describe the meaning of discipline in daily life of blind people admitted in hospital. An interpretive phenomenology underpinned the philosophical approach of the study. While the interpretive phenomenology played as an umbrella role in the overall point of the study, the six methodical activities which introduced by van Manen helped the researchers to conduct the study. ‘Disciplined care for disciplined patients’ was the main theme emerged from dialogues of blind patients about their daily life in the hospital. Almost all of participants called themselves as disciplined people. The theme ‘disciplined care for disciplined patients’ appeared from four sub-themes including discipline through careful touching and listening, discipline as the ideal way of existence, discipline the preferred way of being independent, desire to take disciplined and detailed care, reactions to the undisciplined caring culture. This phenomenological inquiry to the experiences of patients with blindness in hospital revealed that they commonly are disciplined people and want to be cared in well-organized caring environment. Furthermore, they need to be familiar with the new caring environment. Well-organized and familiar environment help blind patients to increase the level of independency. In addition, blind patients prefer a detail informed and disciplined caring culture. Health professionals have to consider the concept of disciplined care in order to provide a holistic and comprehensive competent care.

Keywords: disciplined people, disciplined care, lived experience, patient with blindness

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
205 User Requirements Analysis for the Development of Assistive Navigation Mobile Apps for Blind and Visually Impaired People

Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones

Abstract:

In the context of the development process of two assistive navigation mobile apps for blind and visually impaired people (BVI) an extensive qualitative analysis of the requirements of potential users has been conducted. The analysis was based on interviews with BVIs and aimed to elicit not only their needs with respect to autonomous navigation but also their preferences on specific features of the apps under development. The elicited requirements were structured into four main categories, namely, requirements concerning the capabilities, functionality and usability of the apps, as well as compatibility requirements with respect to other apps and services. The main categories were then further divided into nine sub-categories. This classification, along with its content, aims to become a useful tool for the researcher or the developer who is involved in the development of digital services for BVI.

Keywords: accessibility, assistive mobile apps, blind and visually impaired people, user requirements analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
204 Muscle: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra

Abstract:

The research objective focuses on creating a prototype media of the tactile texture of muscles for educational institutes to help visually impaired students learn massage extra learning materials further than the ordinary curriculum. This media is designed as an extra learning material. The population in this study was 30 blinded students between 4th - 6th grades who were able to read Braille language. The research was conducted during the second semester in 2012 at The Bangkok School for the Blind. The method in choosing the population in the study was purposive sampling. The methodology of the research includes collecting data related to visually impaired people, the production of the tactile texture media, human anatomy and Thai traditional massage from literature reviews and field studies. This information was used for analyzing and designing 14 tactile texture pictures presented to experts to evaluate and test the media.

Keywords: blind, tactile texture, muscle, visual arts and design

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
203 Understanding the Polygon with the Eyes of Blinds

Authors: Tuğba Horzum, Ahmet Arikan

Abstract:

This paper was part of a broader study that investigated what blind students (BSs) understood and how they used concept definitions (CDs) and concept images (CIs) for some mathematical concepts. This paper focused on the polygon concept. For this purpose, four open-ended questions were asked to five blind middle school students. During the interviews, BSs were presented with raised-line materials and were given opportunities to construct geometric shapes with magnetic sticks and micro-balls. Qualitative research techniques applied in grounded theory were used for analyzing documents pictures which were taken from magnetic geometric shapes that BSs constructed, raised-line materials and researcher’s observation notes and interviews. At the end of the analysis, it was observed that BSs used mostly their CIs and never took into account the CDs. Besides, BSs encountered with the difficulties associated with the combination of polygon edges’ endpoints consecutively. Additionally, they focused on the interior of the polygon and the angles which have smaller a size. Lastly, BSs were often conflicted about triangle, rectangle, square and circle whether or not a polygon.

Keywords: blind students, concept definition, concept image, polygon

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
202 Direct Blind Separation Methods for Convolutive Images Mixtures

Authors: Ahmed Hammed, Wady Naanaa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a general approach to deal with the problem of a convolutive mixture of images. We use a direct blind source separation method by adding only one non-statistical justified constraint describing the relationships between different mixing matrix at the aim to make its resolution easy. This method can be applied, provided that this constraint is known, to degraded document affected by the overlapping of text-patterns and images. This is due to chemical and physical reactions of the materials (paper, inks,...) occurring during the documents aging, and other unpredictable causes such as humidity, microorganism infestation, human handling, etc. We will demonstrate that this problem corresponds to a convolutive mixture of images. Subsequently, we will show how the validation of our method through numerical examples. We can so obtain clear images from unreadable ones which can be caused by pages superposition, a phenomenon similar to that we find every often in archival documents.

Keywords: blind source separation, convoluted mixture, degraded documents, text-patterns overlapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
201 The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students

Authors: Mohamed M. Elsherbiny

Abstract:

Social Avoidance is one of the most important problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others. Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12 students) who went through the intervention program, with a control group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention. We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling, cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, self-monitoring, assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the experimental group and the control group after the intervention and also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance. Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.

Keywords: social avoidance, cognitive behavioral intervention, blind disability, disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
200 Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person

Authors: Rodrigo C. Belleza, Jr., Roselyn A. Maaño, Karl Patrick E. Camota, Darwin Kim Q. Bulawan

Abstract:

Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may result from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.

Keywords: algorithms, blind, computer vision, embedded systems, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
199 Flashsonar or Echolocation Education: Expanding the Function of Hearing and Changing the Meaning of Blindness

Authors: Thomas, Daniel Tajo, Kish

Abstract:

Sight is primarily associated with the function of gathering and processing near and extended spatial information which is largely used to support self-determined interaction with the environment through self-directed movement and navigation. By contrast, hearing is primarily associated with the function of gathering and processing sequential information which may typically be used to support self-determined communication through the self-directed use of music and language. Blindness or the lack of vision is traditionally characterized by a lack of capacity to access spatial information which, in turn, is presumed to result in a lack of capacity for self-determined interaction with the environment due to limitations in self-directed movement and navigation. However, through a specific protocol of FlashSonar education developed by World Access for the Blind, the function of hearing can be expanded in blind people to carry out some of the functions normally associated with sight, that is to access and process near and extended spatial information to construct three-dimensional acoustic images of the environment. This perceptual education protocol results in a significant restoration in blind people of self-determined environmental interaction, movement, and navigational capacities normally attributed to vision - a new way to see. Thus, by expanding the function of hearing to process spatial information to restore self-determined movement, we are not only changing the meaning of blindness, and what it means to be blind, but we are also recasting the meaning of vision and what it is to see.

Keywords: echolocation, changing, sensory, function

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
198 Evaluating Daylight Performance in an Office Environment in Malaysia, Using Venetian Blind Systems

Authors: Fatemeh Deldarabdolmaleki, Mohamad Fakri Zaky Bin Ja'afar

Abstract:

This paper presents fenestration analysis to study the balance between utilizing daylight and eliminating the disturbing parameters in a private office room with interior venetian blinds taking into account different slat angles. Mean luminance of the scene and window, luminance ratio of the workplane and window, work plane illumination and daylight glare probability(DGP) were calculated as a function of venetian blind design properties. Recently developed software, analyzing High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI captured by CCD camera), such as radiance based evalglare and hdrscope help to investigate luminance-based metrics. A total of Eight-day measurement experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of different venetian blind angles in an office environment under daylight condition in Serdang, Malaysia. Detailed result for the selected case study showed that artificial lighting is necessary during the morning session for Malaysian buildings with southwest windows regardless of the venetian blind’s slat angle. However, in some conditions of afternoon session the workplane illuminance level exceeds the maximum illuminance of 2000 lx such as 10° and 40° slat angles. Generally, a rising trend is discovered toward mean window luminance level during the day. All the conditions have less than 10% of the pixels exceeding 2000 cd/m² before 1:00 P.M. However, 40% of the selected hours have more than 10% of the scene pixels higher than 2000 cd/m² after 1:00 P.M. Surprisingly in no blind condition, there is no extreme case of window/task ratio, However, the extreme cases happen for 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° slat angles. As expected mean window luminance level is higher than 2000 cd/m² after 2:00 P.M for most cases except 60° slat angle condition. Studying the daylight glare probability, there is not any DGP value higher than 0.35 in this experiment, due to the window’s direction, location of the building and studied workplane. Specifically, this paper reviews different blind angle’s response to the suggested metrics by the previous standards, and finally conclusions and knowledge gaps are summarized and suggested next steps for research are provided. Addressing these gaps is critical for the continued progress of the energy efficiency movement.

Keywords: daylighting, office environment, energy simulation, venetian blind

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
197 From Lack of Humanity to Self-Consciousness and Vision in Lord of the Flies and Blindness

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi

Abstract:

Civilization and industrialization are two important factors that make people believe they are just depriving of savagery and brutality. But practical studies show exactly something different. How groups of people behave, when they are put in extreme situations is the very unpleasant truth about the human being in general. Both novels deal with the fragility of human society, no matter the people who are playing a role are children or grown-ups, who by definition should know better. Both novels have got beautiful plots in which no one enforces rules and laws on the characters, so they begin to show their true nature. The present study is undertaken to investigate the process of a journey from lack of humanity to a sort of self-consciousness which happens at the end of both Blindness by Saramago and Lord of the Flies by Golding. In order to get the best result the two novels have been studied precisely and lots of different articles and critical essays have been analyzed, which shows people drift into cruelty and savagery easily but can also drift out of it. In blindness losing sight, and being apart from society in a deserted tropical island in Lord of the Flies causes limitation. Limitation in any form makes people rebel. Although in the process of both novels, any kind of savagery, brutality, filth, and social collapse can be observable and both writers believe that human being has the potential of being animal images, but they both also want to show that the very nature of human being is divine. Children’s weeping at the end Lord of the Flies and Doctor’s remark at the end of Blindness “I don’t think we did go blind, I think we are blind, blind but seeing, blind people who can see but do not see”, show exactly the matter of insight at the end of the novels. The fact that divinity exists in the very nature of human being is the indubitable aim that makes this research truly valuable.

Keywords: brutality, lack of humanity, savagery, Blindness

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
196 Blind Watermarking Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Algorithm with Patchwork

Authors: Toni Maristela C. Estabillo, Michaela V. Matienzo, Mikaela L. Sabangan, Rosette M. Tienzo, Justine L. Bahinting

Abstract:

This study is about blind watermarking on images with different categories and properties using two algorithms namely, Discrete Wavelet Transform and Patchwork Algorithm. A program is created to perform watermark embedding, extraction and evaluation. The evaluation is based on three watermarking criteria namely: image quality degradation, perceptual transparency and security. Image quality is measured by comparing the original properties with the processed one. Perceptual transparency is measured by a visual inspection on a survey. Security is measured by implementing geometrical and non-geometrical attacks through a pass or fail testing. Values used to measure the following criteria are mostly based on Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The results are based on statistical methods used to interpret and collect data such as averaging, z Test and survey. The study concluded that the combined DWT and Patchwork algorithms were less efficient and less capable of watermarking than DWT algorithm only.

Keywords: blind watermarking, discrete wavelet transform algorithm, patchwork algorithm, digital watermark

Procedia PDF Downloads 183