Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Katherine S. Reyes

93 Nonuniformity Correction Technique in Infrared Video Using Feedback Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Flavio O. Torres, Maria J. Castilla, Rodrigo A. Augsburger, Pedro I. Cachana, Katherine S. Reyes

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a scene-based nonuniformity correction method using a modified recursive least square algorithm with a feedback system on the updates. The feedback is designed to remove impulsive noise contamination images produced by a recursive least square algorithm by measuring the output of the proposed algorithm. The key advantage of the method is based on its capacity to estimate detectors parameters and then compensate for impulsive noise contamination image in a frame by frame basics. We define the algorithm and present several experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison to several previously published recursive least square-based methods. We show that the proposed method removes impulsive noise contamination image.

Keywords: infrared focal plane arrays, infrared imaging, least mean square, nonuniformity correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
92 Prediction of Structural Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Henry E. Reyes, Edén Bojórquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

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This paper addressed the use of Artificial Intelligence to obtain the structural reliability of reinforced concrete buildings. For this purpose, artificial neuronal networks (ANN) are developed to predict seismic demand hazard curves. In order to have enough input-output data to train the ANN, a set of reinforced concrete buildings (low, mid, and high rise) are designed, then a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is made to obtain the seismic demand hazard curves. The results are then used as input-output data to train the ANN in a feedforward backpropagation model. The predicted values of the seismic demand hazard curves found by the ANN are then compared. Finally, it is concluded that the computer time analysis is significantly lower and the predictions obtained from the ANN were accurate in comparison to the values obtained from the conventional methods.

Keywords: structural reliability, seismic design, machine learning, artificial neural network, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand hazard curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
91 Selective Adsorption of Anionic Textile Dyes with Sustainable Composite Materials Based on Physically Activated Carbon and Basic Polyelectrolytes

Authors: Mari Carmen Reyes Angeles, Dalia Michel Reyes Villeda, Ana María Herrera González

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This work reports the design and synthesis of two composite materials based on physically activated carbon and basic polyelectrolytes useful in the adsorption of textile dyes present in aqueous solutions and wastewater. The synthesis of basic polyelectrolytes poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was made by means of free radical polymerization. The carbon made from prickly pear peel (CarTunaF) was thermally activated in the presence of combustion gases. Composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP were obtained from CarTunaF and polybasic polyelectrolytes P2VP and P4VP with a ratio of 67:33 wt. The structure of each polyelectrolyte, P2VP, and P4VP, was elucidated by means of the FTIR and 1H NMR spectrophotometric techniques. Their thermal stability was evaluated using TGA. The characterization of CarTunaF and composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP was made by means of FTIR, TGA, SEM, and N2 adsorption. The adsorptive capacities of the polyelectrolytes and the composite materials were evaluated by adsorption of direct dyes present in aqueous solutions. The polyelectrolytes removed between 90 and 100% of the dyes, and the composite materials removed between 68 and 93% of the dyes. Using the four adsorbents P2VP, P4VP, CarTuna2VP, and CarTuna4VP, it was observed that the dyes studied, Direct Blue 80, Direct Turquoise 86, and Direct Orange 26, were adsorbed in the range between 46.1 and 188.7mg∙g-1 by means of electrostatic interactions between the anionic groups in the dyes with the cationic groups in the adsorbents. By using adsorbent materials in the treatment of wastewater from the textile industry, an improvement in the quality of the water was observed by decreasing its pH, COD, conductivity, and color considerably

Keywords: adsorption, anionic dyes, composite, polyelectrolytes

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90 Dematerialized Beings in Katherine Dunn's Geek Love: A Corporeal and Ethical Study under Posthumanities

Authors: Anum Javed

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This study identifies the dynamical image of human body that continues its metamorphosis in the virtual field of reality. It calls attention to the ways where humans start co-evolving with other life forms; technology in particular and are striving to establish a realm outside the physical framework of matter. The problem exceeds the area of technological ethics by explicably and explanatorily entering the space of literary texts and criticism. Textual analysis of Geek Love (1989) by Katherine Dunn is adjoined with posthumanist perspectives of Pramod K. Nayar to beget psycho-somatic changes in man’s nature of being. It uncovers the meaning people give to their experiences in this budding social and cultural phenomena of material representation tied up with personal practices and technological innovations. It also observes an ethical, physical and psychological reassessment of man within the context of technological evolutions. The study indicates the elements that have rendered morphological freedom and new materialism in man’s consciousness. Moreover this work is inquisitive of what it means to be a human in this time of accelerating change where surgeries, implants, extensions, cloning and robotics have shaped a new sense of being. It attempts to go beyond individual’s body image and explores how objectifying media and culture have influenced people’s judgement of others on new material grounds. It further argues a decentring of the glorified image of man as an independent entity because of his energetic partnership with intelligent machines and external agents. The history of the future progress of technology is also mentioned. The methodology adopted is posthumanist techno-ethical textual analysis. This work necessitates a negotiating relationship between man and technology in order to achieve harmonic and balanced interconnected existence. The study concludes by recommending a call for an ethical set of codes to be cultivated for the techno-human habituation. Posthumanism ushers a strong need of adopting new ethics within the terminology of neo-materialist humanism.

Keywords: corporeality, dematerialism, human ethos, posthumanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
89 GIS-Based Topographical Network for Minimum “Exertion” Routing

Authors: Katherine Carl Payne, Moshe Dror

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The problem of minimum cost routing has been extensively explored in a variety of contexts. While there is a prevalence of routing applications based on least distance, time, and related attributes, exertion-based routing has remained relatively unexplored. In particular, the network structures traditionally used to construct minimum cost paths are not suited to representing exertion or finding paths of least exertion based on road gradient. In this paper, we introduce a topographical network or “topograph” that enables minimum cost routing based on the exertion metric on each arc in a given road network as it is related to changes in road gradient. We describe an algorithm for topograph construction and present the implementation of the topograph on a road network of the state of California with ~22 million nodes.

Keywords: topograph, RPE, routing, GIS

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88 A Proof of the N. Davydov Theorem for Douglis Algebra Valued Functions

Authors: Jean-Marie Vilaire, Ricardo Abreu-Blaya, Juan Bory-Reyes

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The classical Beltrami system of elliptic equations generalizes the Cauchy Riemann equation in the complex plane and offers the possibility to consider homogeneous system with no terms of zero order. The theory of Douglis-valued functions, called Hyper-analytic functions, is special case of the above situation. In this note, we prove an analogue of the N. Davydov theorem in the framework of the theory of hyperanalytic functions. The used methodology contemplates characteristic methods of the hypercomplex analysis as well as the singular integral operators and elliptic systems of the partial differential equations theories.

Keywords: Beltrami equation, Douglis algebra-valued function, Hypercomplex Cauchy type integral, Sokhotski-Plemelj formulae

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
87 Automatic Threshold Search for Heat Map Based Feature Selection: A Cancer Dataset Analysis

Authors: Carlos Huertas, Reyes Juarez-Ramirez

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Public health is one of the most critical issues today; therefore, there is great interest to improve technologies in the area of diseases detection. With machine learning and feature selection, it has been possible to aid the diagnosis of several diseases such as cancer. In this work, we present an extension to the Heat Map Based Feature Selection algorithm, this modification allows automatic threshold parameter selection that helps to improve the generalization performance of high dimensional data such as mass spectrometry. We have performed a comparison analysis using multiple cancer datasets and compare against the well known Recursive Feature Elimination algorithm and our original proposal, the results show improved classification performance that is very competitive against current techniques.

Keywords: biomarker discovery, cancer, feature selection, mass spectrometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
86 Make Up Flash: Web Application for the Improvement of Physical Appearance in Images Based on Recognition Methods

Authors: Stefania Arguelles Reyes, Octavio José Salcedo Parra, Alberto Acosta López

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This paper presents a web application for the improvement of images through recognition. The web application is based on the analysis of picture-based recognition methods that allow an improvement on the physical appearance of people posting in social networks. The basis relies on the study of tools that can correct or improve some features of the face, with the help of a wide collection of user images taken as reference to build a facial profile. Automatic facial profiling can be achieved with a deeper study of the Object Detection Library. It was possible to improve the initial images with the help of MATLAB and its filtering functions. The user can have a direct interaction with the program and manually adjust his preferences.

Keywords: Matlab, make up, recognition methods, web application

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85 Defending Indigenous Working Urban Spaces Trough Visual Activism in Quito

Authors: Katherine Anson

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This paper takes a closer look at the use of day-to-day informal working practices in Latin American spatial, cultural activism against gentrification. Through a discursive analysis of the Ecuadorian communally made film documentary San Roque: A House for All (2015), and the study of the political conflict around the gentrification of the place, the essay illustrates how the purposeful showcase of indigenous uses of space claims ownership over the city’s downtown area. This argument concludes that by making visible everyday indigenous ways of production in relation to space, the video contests the neoliberalist aim to proletarianize the urban poor, and therefore, to transform them into a landless group. This approach demonstrates that through representations of their own cultural working practices grassroots organizations consciously deconstruct/contest the capitalist urbanization of space.

Keywords: cultural activism, gentrification, indigenous working traditions, neoliberalism, urban displacement, everyday forms of resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
84 Comparison of the Seismic Response of Planar Regular and Irregular Steel Frames

Authors: Robespierre Chavez, Eden Bojorquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

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This study compares the seismic response of regular and vertically irregular steel frames determined by nonlinear time history analysis and by using several sets of earthquake records, which are divided in two categories: The first category having 20 stiff-soil ground motion records obtained from the NGA database, and the second category having 30 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City and exhibiting a dominant period (Ts) of two seconds. The steel frames in both format regular and irregular were designed according to the Mexico City Seismic Design Provisions (MCSDP). The effects of irregularity throught the height on the maximum interstory drifts are estimated.

Keywords: irregular steel frames, maximum interstory drifts, seismic response, seismic records

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83 Study on Corporate Social Responsibility in Ateneo

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri

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Around the world, there are many corporations and other business organizations who promote the welfare of the society. They are found inside the communities where they naturally perform work. Their aim is to maximize their respective returns on investment while measuring the impact of their activities on the environment. The Senate in the Philippines formed a bill that seeks to foster sustainable economic and environment development and environment protection, among other things, by institutionalizing the corporate responsibility of corporations, whether domestic and foreign, partnership and other establishment performing business in the country. Under the Senate Bill 1239 or an act institutionalizing corporate social responsibility, providing incentives therefor, and for other purposes, all business organizations are mandated to consider the interest of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders communities and environment. In return, businesses shall comply with the mandate of this proposed measure shall be entitled to full deductions of the expenses incurred in connection thereto.

Keywords: ateneo, corporate social responsibility (CSR), industrial relations, marketing, up

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82 High Frequency of Chlamydophila Pneumoniae in Children with Asthma Exacerbations

Authors: Katherine Madero Valencia, Carlos Jaramillo, Elida Dueñas, Carlos Torres, María Del Pilar Delgado

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Asthma, described as a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways, courses accompanied by episodes known as exacerbations, characterized by a worsening of symptoms. Among the triggers, some allergen-irritative and infectious agents are found, including Chlamydophila pneumoniae which seems to play an increasingly important role. In this paper a PCR was used to detect C. pneumoniae in order to estimate the frequency of infections caused by this agent in pediatric patients with asthma exacerbations. C. pneumoniae distribution throughout the study period was also evaluated. 175 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with asthma exacerbations were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A global prevalence of C. pneumoniae of 53.71% was obtained. This study highlights a high circulation of C. pneumoniae during the study period, in children of all ages and especially in children under 5 years old. Molecular tests applied permit a rapid detection and improved our knowledge about these infections in children with asthma.

Keywords: Chlamydophila pneumoniae, detection, molecular techniques, pediatric asthma

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81 Alzheimer’s Disease Measured in Work Organizations

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri

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The effects of sick workers have an impact in administration of labor. This study aims to provide knowledge on the disease that is Alzheimer’s while presenting an answer to the research question of when and how is the disease considered as a disaster inside the workplace. The study has the following as its research objectives: 1. Define Alzheimer’s disease, 2. Evaluate the effects and consequences of an employee suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, 3. Determine the concept of organizational effectiveness in the area of Human Resources, and 4. Identify common figures associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researcher gathered important data from books, video presentations, and interviews of workers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and from the internet. After using all the relevant data collection instruments mentioned, the following data emerged: 1. Alzheimer’s disease has certain consequences inside the workplace, 2. The occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease in an employee’s life greatly affects the company where the worker is employed, and 3. The concept of workplace efficiency suggests that an employer must prepare for such disasters that Alzheimer’s disease may bring to the company where one is employed. Alzheimer’s disease can present disaster in any workplace.

Keywords: administration, Alzheimer's disease, conflict, disaster, employment

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80 Board of Directors of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to Go Public: Characteristics and Moderating Factors

Authors: María-José Palacin-Sanchez, Filippo Di Pietro, Reyes Samaniego-Medina

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This article examines, in an institutional context such as Spanish one, the corporate board structure characteristics and determinants in entrepreneurial firms to go public. Specifically, it explores these issues through all the initial public offerings in the Spanish Alternative Equity Market (MAB), which is a market segment for smaller growing companies. The results show that: a) firm size, age of the company, and the reputation of the auditor and the nominated advisor and Corporate Governance Code favour a larger and more independent board structure that enhances its monitoring functions; and b) leverage, opportunities of growth, sector risk and ownership by executive directors all lead towards a smaller broad of directors where the role of entrepreneurship provided by executive directors remains crucial. This reflects the delicate balance of power between small-business entrepreneurs and financial equity market forces, which demand more transparency and monitoring in the companies.

Keywords: board composition, board size, corporate governance, IPO, SMEs

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79 Street Art Lenses: A Glimpse into the Street Artists’ Identity and Socio-Political Perspective in Brussels

Authors: José Francisco Urrutia Reyes, Judith Espinosa Real

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This paper is meant to re-examine the role of street art in the contemporary world. By studying this form of art in Brussels, it can be explained how murals show the socio-political reality of a given community and influence on its interaction. Through the definitions of street art, murals and street artists, and analysing their role in Brussels, it is possible to understand how this counter culture movement serves as an engine of social development, as it interacts with its surroundings sending a clear message to a wider audience. Street art impacts on its environment because it interacts with the people who occupies the day-to-day public space. This has proven to be effective in the arouse of social consciousness, up to the point of being adopted by the government of Brussels to promote social movements such as the AIDS-HIV campaign along with the Plate-Forme Prévention Sida. It can be concluded that street art has evolved since its vandalic beginnings, to become a form of art that has not lost it counter official status, but now has a critical vision that can promote social awakening. Street art is now a global trend that uses visual inputs to create a positive impact.

Keywords: street art, Brussels, social impact, political perspective

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78 Prediction of Maximum Inter-Story Drifts of Steel Frames Using Intensity Measures

Authors: Edén Bojórquez, Victor Baca, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Jorge González

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In this paper, simplified equations to predict maximum inter-story drift demands of steel framed buildings are proposed in terms of two ground motion intensity measures based on the acceleration spectral shape. For this aim, the maximum inter-story drifts of steel frames with 4, 6, 8 and 10 stories subjected to narrow-band ground motion records are estimated and compared with the spectral acceleration at first mode of vibration Sa(T1) which is commonly used in earthquake engineering and seismology, and with a new parameter related with the structural response known as INp. It is observed that INp is the parameter best related with the structural response of steel frames under narrow-band motions. Finally, equations to compute maximum inter-story drift demands of steel frames as a function of spectral acceleration and INp are proposed.

Keywords: intensity measures, spectral shape, steel frames, peak demands

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77 Case Study Analysis for Driver's Company in the Transport Sector with the Help of Data Mining

Authors: Diana Katherine Gonzalez Galindo, David Rolando Suarez Mora

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With this study, we used data mining as a new alternative of the solution to evaluate the comments of the customers in order to find a pattern that helps us to determine some behaviors to reduce the deactivation of the partners of the LEVEL app. In one of the greatest business created in the last times, the partners are being affected due to an internal process that compensates the customer for a bad experience, but these comments could be false towards the driver, that’s why we made an investigation to collect information to restructure this process, many partners have been disassociated due to this internal process and many of them refuse the comments given by the customer. The main methodology used in this case study is the observation, we recollect information in real time what gave us the opportunity to see the most common issues to get the most accurate solution. With this new process helped by data mining, we could get a prediction based on the behaviors of the customer and some basic data recollected such as the age, the gender, and others; this could help us in future to improve another process. This investigation gives more opportunities to the partner to keep his account active even if the customer writes a message through the app. The term is trying to avoid a recession of drivers in the future offering improving in the processes, at the same time we are in search of stablishing a strategy which benefits both the app’s managers and the associated driver.

Keywords: agent, driver, deactivation, rider

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76 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Juan Bojorquez

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A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: asymmetric yielding, seismic performance, structural reliability, tilted structures

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75 Randomness in Cybertext: A Study on Computer-Generated Poetry from the Perspective of Semiotics

Authors: Hongliang Zhang

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The use of chance procedures and randomizers in poetry-writing can be traced back to surrealist works, which, by appealing to Sigmund Freud's theories, were still logocentrism. In the 1960s, random permutation and combination were extensively used by the Oulipo, John Cage and Jackson Mac Low, which further deconstructed the metaphysical presence of writing. Today, the randomly-generated digital poetry has emerged as a genre of cybertext which should be co-authored by readers. At the same time, the classical theories have now been updated by cybernetics and media theories. N· Katherine Hayles put forward the concept of ‘the floating signifiers’ by Jacques Lacan to be the ‘the flickering signifiers’ , arguing that the technology per se has become a part of the textual production. This paper makes a historical review of the computer-generated poetry in the perspective of semiotics, emphasizing that the randomly-generated digital poetry which hands over the dual tasks of both interpretation and writing to the readers demonstrates the intervention of media technology in literature. With the participation of computerized algorithm and programming languages, poems randomly generated by computers have not only blurred the boundary between encoder and decoder, but also raises the issue of human-machine. It is also a significant feature of the cybertext that the productive process of the text is full of randomness.

Keywords: cybertext, digital poetry, poetry generator, semiotics

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74 Aerogel Fabrication Via Modified Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) Process - Needle Valve Pressure Release

Authors: Haibo Zhao, Thomas Andre, Katherine Avery, Alper Kiziltas, Deborah Mielewski

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Silica aerogels were fabricated through a modified rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) process. The silica aerogels were made using a tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor and then placed in a hot press and brought to the supercritical point of the solvent, ethanol. In order to control the pressure release without a pressure controller, a needle valve was used. The resulting aerogels were then characterized for their physical and chemical properties and compared to silica aerogels created using similar methods. The aerogels fabricated using this modified RSCE method were found to have similar properties to those in other papers using the unmodified RSCE method. Silica aerogel infused glass blanket composite, graphene reinforced silica aerogel composite were also successfully fabricated by this new method. The modified RSCE process and system is a prototype for better gas outflow control with a lower cost of equipment setup. Potentially, this process could be evolved to a continuous low-cost high-volume production process to meet automotive requirements.

Keywords: aerogel, automotive, rapid supercritical extraction process, low cost production

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73 Seismic Behavior of Three-Dimensional Steel Buildings with Post-Tensioned Connections

Authors: Manuel E. Soto-López, Israel Gaxiola-Avendaño, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Eden Bojórquez, Sonia E. Ruiz

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The seismic responses of steel buildings with semi-rigid post-tensioned connections (PC) are estimated and compared with those of steel buildings with typical rigid (welded) connections (RC). The comparison is made in terms of global and local response parameters. The results indicate that the seismic responses in terms of interstory shears, roof displacements, axial load and bending moments are smaller for the buildings with PC connection. The difference is larger for global than for local parameters, which in turn varies from one column location to another. The reason for this improved behavior is that the buildings with PC dissipate more hysteretic energy than those with RC. In addition, unlike the case of buildings with WC, for the PC structures the hysteretic energy is mostly dissipated at the connections, which implies that structural damage in beams and columns is not significant. According to this results, steel buildings with PC are a viable option in highseismicity areas because of their smaller response and self-centering connection capacity as well as the fact that brittle failure is avoided.

Keywords: inter-story drift, nonlinear time-history analysis, post-tensioned connections, steel buildings

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72 Education for Sustainability Using PBL on an Engineering Course at the National University of Colombia

Authors: Hernán G. Cortés-Mora, José I. Péna-Reyes, Alfonso Herrera-Jiménez

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This article describes the implementation experience of Project-Based Learning (PBL) in an engineering course of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, with the aim of strengthening student skills necessary for the exercise of their profession under a sustainability framework. Firstly, we present a literature review on the education for sustainability field, emphasizing the skills and knowledge areas required for its development, as well as the commitment of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and other engineering faculties of the country, regarding education for sustainability. This article covers the general aspects of the course, describes how students team were formed, and how their experience was during the first semester of 2017. During this period two groups of students decided to develop their course project aiming to solve a problem regarding a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that works with head-of-household mothers in a low-income neighborhood in Bogota (Colombia). Subsequently, we show how sustainability is involved in the course, how tools are provided to students, and how activities are developed as to strengthen their abilities, which allows them to incorporate sustainability in their projects while also working on the methodology used to develop said projects. Finally, we introduce the results obtained by the students who sent the prototypes of their projects to the community they were working on and the conclusions reached by them regarding the course experience.

Keywords: sustainability, project-based learning, engineering education, higher education for sustainability

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71 Comparative Evaluation of Equity Indicators in the Matikiw Community-Based Forest Management Project in Pakil, Laguna and the Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan Community-Based Forest Management Project in Famy, Laguna

Authors: Katherine Arquio

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Community-based Forest Management (CBFM) is one of the integrative programs that slowly turned the course of forest management from traditional corporate to community-based practice resulting to people empowerment. As such, one of its goals is to promote socio-economic welfare among the people in the community in which social equity is included. This study aims to look at the equity aspect of the program, particularly if there are equity differences between two CBFM sites- Matikiw in Pakil, Laguna and Minayutan and Bacong Sigsigan in Famy, Laguna. Equity indicators were identified first, since these will be the basis of the questions that will be asked on the survey, after this, the survey proper was conducted, and finally, the analysis. Two tailed t-test was used as statistical tool since the difference between the two sites is the focus of the study. Statistical analysis was done through the use of STATA program, a statistical software. There were 32 indicators identified and results showed that, out of these indicators, only 13 were found significantly different between the two. The 13 indicators were significantly observed only in Matikiw; the other 19 indicators were commonly observed in both areas and are conducive as equity indicators for the CBFM program.

Keywords: social equity, CBFM, social forestry, equity indicators

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70 The Analysis of Female Characters in Shakespeare’s Work; Contrast between the Submissive and the Wicked

Authors: Jeong Hwa Ryong

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Numerous characters appear in the works of England’s most prominent play writer, William Shakespeare. Most of the time, his male protagonists possess various and complex characteristics throughout the storyline of his work, making it interesting for the readers to analyze their actions in many different aspects. However, some critics argue that unlike male characters, Shakespeare’s female characters are rather more flat and one-sided, pointing out that they are either the extreme version of good or evil. Especially, it is a significant topic to discuss in the modern days, considering the fact that gender stereotype is now a sensitive issue. Starting from such argument, it is important to address their purpose of being in the play and suggest their meaning to the modern readers of today. In this context, this paper analyzes several female characters of Shakespeare’s work by closely examining their actions and lines. The characters analyzed are Ophelia from Hamlet, Cordelia from King Lear, Katherine from The Taming of the Shrew, Goneril from King Lear and Lady Macbeth from Macbeth. Nevertheless, some female protagonists of Shakespeare’s work do not fall in to this category and exceed the limitations of others. Therefore this paper proposes alternative characters such as Juliet from Romeo and Juliet and Portia from The Merchant of Venice that are rather more complex and difficult to include in just one category. By doing so, this paper critically analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of many female characters in Shakespeare’s play.

Keywords: female characters, gender stereotype, William Shakespeare

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69 Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-Positive Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Roland Benedict Reyes, Marc Edsel Ayes, Regina Berba, Cybele Lara Abad

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Background: Three AIDS-defining malignancies have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical carcinoma. However, new cases of non-AIDS defining malignancies also have been increasingly associated with HIV. One of these is a rare intracranial malignancy, meningeal hemangiopericyotma. Case Description: A 32-year old HIV-positive male, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy, was admitted to our hospital due to generalized weakness and sudden onset hearing loss. Cranial MRI was done, which revealed a temporal nodule with the following considerations: granuloma, meningioma or metastases. A craniotomy was performed and the mass excised. Results from the biopsy showed meningeal hemangiopericytoma. The patient was then started on antiretroviral therapy (Lamivudine, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz) and was discharged for radiation therapy and metastatic work-up as an outpatient. On follow-up seven months later, metastatic work up revealed multiple hepatic foci not previously documented suggestive of metastasis short of biopsy sampling. Conclusions: This case of an intracranial hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-positive patient is the second case thus far presented, based on our systematic and extensive search of the literature.

Keywords: Hemangiopericytoma, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Meningeal hemangiopericytoma, Neoplasm

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68 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes

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Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: oxidative stress, lactic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant activity

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67 Esterification Reaction of Stearic Acid with Methanol Over Surface Functionalised PAN Fibrous Solid Acid Catalyst

Authors: Rawaz A. Ahmed, Katherine Huddersman

Abstract:

High-lipid Fats, Oils and Grease (FOGs) from wastewater are underutilized despite their potential for conversion into valuable fuels; this work describes a surface-functionalized fibrous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mesh as a novel heterogeneous acid catalyst for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs), via a catalytic esterification process into biodiesel. The esterification of stearic acid (SA) with methanol was studied over an acidified PAN solid acid catalyst. Disappearance of the carboxylic acid (C=O) peak of the stearic acid at 1696 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum with the associated appearance of the ester (C=O) peak at 1739 cm-1 confirmed the production of the methyl stearate. This was further supported by 1H NMR spectra with the appearance of the ester (-CH₂OCOR) at 3.60-3.70 ppm. Quantitate analysis by GC-FID showed the catalyst has excellent activity with >95 % yield of methyl stearate (MS) at 90 ◦C after 3 h and a molar ratio of methanol to SA of 35:1. To date, to our best knowledge, there is no research in the literature on the esterification reaction for biodiesel production using a modified PAN mesh as a catalyst. It is noteworthy that this acidified PAN mesh catalyst showed comparable activity to conventional Brönsted acids, namely H₂SO₄ and p-TSA, as well as exhibiting higher activity than various other heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, ion-exchange resins and acid clay.

Keywords: fats oil and greases (FOGs), free fatty acid, esterification reaction, methyl ester, PAN

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66 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert

Abstract:

The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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65 Mindfulness, Reinvestment, and Rowing under Pressure: Evidence for Moderated Moderation of the Anxiety-Performance Relationship

Authors: Katherine Sparks, Christopher Ring

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate whether dispositional sport-specific mindfulness moderated the moderation effect of conscious processing on the relationship between anxiety and rowing race performance. Using a sport-specific (Rowing-Specific) Reinvestment Scale (RSRS) to measure state conscious processing, we examined the effects of trait sport-related mindfulness on the conscious processes of rowers under competitive racing pressure at a number of UK regattas. 276 rowers completed a survey post competitive race. The survey included the RSRS, mindfulness, a perceived performance rating scale, demographic and race information to identify and record the rower’s actual race performance. Results from the research demonstrated that high levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with a superior performance under pressure. In relation to the moderating moderation effect, conscious processing amplifies the detrimental effects of anxiety on performance. However, mindfulness, mindful awareness, and mindful non-judgement all proved to attenuate this amplification effect by moderating the conscious processing moderation on the anxiety-performance relationship. Therefore, this study provides initial support for the speculation that dispositional mindfulness can help prevent the deleterious effects of rowing-specific reinvestment under pressure.

Keywords: mindful, reinvestment, under pressure, performance, rowing

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64 Maternal Request: A Minor but Important Contributor to the Rising Rates of Caesarean Section: A Retrospective Observational Study

Authors: Katherine Russell

Abstract:

Background: Over recent decades the number of caesarean sections performed in the UK has continued to rise. The cause of the rising caesarean rate (CSR) is not well understood. However, one of the most heavily cited reasons is an increase in maternal request for caesarean section. Maternal request for caesarean section (CDMR) refers to a caesarean section performed on maternal request with no medical indication. The true rate of caesarean delivery on maternal request in the UK and its contribution to the caesarean section rate is not known. Methods: To elucidate current understanding of the cause of the rising caesarean section rate and the role of CDMR we conducted a systematic review of the literature. To determine the role of CDMR in the CSR at the PRH we conducted a retrospective observational study of the caesarean section rates and CDMR from 2009-2015. Results: We demonstrated a negative correlation between rates of elective sections and CDMR over the study period (-0.123). On average, there were more elective sections performed after 2011 (15.10% of all deliveries) than before 2011 (12.41% of all deliveries); this difference was statistically significant (p = < 0.001). There were more cases of CDMR after 2011 (1.39% of all deliveries) than before 2011 (0.85% of all deliveries). The difference in average rates of CDMR before and after 2011 was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: CDMR is only a minor contributor to the CSR at the PRH. However, it remains an important factor because it represents a target for the reduction of the CSR that is more manageable than other, more complex and ubiquitous causes of the rising CSR.

Keywords: cesarean section, maternal request for cesarean section, obstetrics, pre-natal health

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