Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1956

Search results for: lattice equation

1956 Exactly Fractional Solutions of Nonlinear Lattice Equation via Some Fractional Transformations

Authors: A. Zerarka, W. Djoudi

Abstract:

We use some fractional transformations to obtain many types of new exact solutions of nonlinear lattice equation. These solutions include rational solutions, periodic wave solutions, and doubly periodic wave solutions.

Keywords: fractional transformations, nonlinear equation, travelling wave solutions, lattice equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
1955 The Construction of Exact Solutions for the Nonlinear Lattice Equation via Coth and Csch Functions Method

Authors: A. Zerarka, W. Djoudi

Abstract:

The method developed in this work uses a generalised coth and csch funtions method to construct new exact travelling solutions to the nonlinear lattice equation. The technique of the homogeneous balance method is used to handle the appropriated solutions.

Keywords: coth functions, csch functions, nonlinear partial differential equation, travelling wave solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
1954 Models to Calculate Lattice Spacing, Melting Point and Lattice Thermal Expansion of Ga₂Se₃ Nanoparticles

Authors: Mustafa Saeed Omar

Abstract:

The formula which contains the maximum increase of mean bond length, melting entropy and critical particle radius is used to calculate lattice volume in nanoscale size crystals of Ga₂Se₃. This compound belongs to the binary group of III₂VI₃. The critical radius is calculated from the values of the first surface atomic layer height which is equal to 0.336nm. The size-dependent mean bond length is calculated by using an equation-free from fitting parameters. The size-dependent lattice parameter then is accordingly used to calculate the size-dependent lattice volume. The lattice size in the nanoscale region increases to about 77.6 A³, which is up to four times of its bulk state value 19.97 A³. From the values of the nanosize scale dependence of lattice volume, the nanoscale size dependence of melting temperatures is calculated. The melting temperature decreases with the nanoparticles size reduction, it becomes zero when the radius reaches to its critical value. Bulk melting temperature for Ga₂Se₃, for example, has values of 1293 K. From the size-dependent melting temperature and mean bond length, the size-dependent lattice thermal expansion is calculated. Lattice thermal expansion decreases with the decrease of nanoparticles size and reaches to its minimum value as the radius drops down to about 5nm.

Keywords: Ga₂Se₃, lattice volume, lattice thermal expansion, melting point, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1953 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh

Abstract:

Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1952 Coupling of Two Discretization Schemes for the Lattice Boltzmann Equation

Authors: Tobias Horstmann, Thomas Le Garrec, Daniel-Ciprian Mincu, Emmanuel Lévêque

Abstract:

Despite the efficiency and low dissipation of the stream-collide formulation of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm, which is nowadays implemented in many commercial LBM solvers, there are certain situations, e.g. mesh transition, in which a classical finite-volume or finite-difference formulation of the LB algorithm still bear advantages. In this paper, we present an algorithm that combines the node-based streaming of the distribution functions with a second-order finite volume discretization of the advection term of the BGK-LB equation on a uniform D2Q9 lattice. It is shown that such a coupling is possible for a multi-domain approach as long as the overlap, or buffer zone, between two domains, is achieved on at least 2Δx. This also implies that a direct coupling (without buffer zone) of a stream-collide and finite-volume LB algorithm on a single grid is not stable. The critical parameter in the coupling is the CFL number equal to 1 that is imposed by the stream-collide algorithm. Nevertheless, an explicit filtering step on the finite-volume domain can stabilize the solution. In a further investigation, we demonstrate how such a coupling can be used for mesh transition, resulting in an intrinsic conservation of mass over the interface.

Keywords: algorithm coupling, finite volume formulation, grid refinement, Lattice Boltzmann method

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1951 Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice

Authors: Jihad H. Asad

Abstract:

An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.

Keywords: lattice Green's function, elliptic integral, physics, cubic lattice

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1950 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1949 Implementation of a Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density Ratios

Authors: Norjan Jumaa, David Graham

Abstract:

We present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multiphase flows with high viscosity and density ratios. The motion of the interface between fluids is modelled by solving the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation with LBM. Incompressibility of the velocity fields in each phase is imposed by using a pressure correction scheme. We use a unified LBM approach with separate formulations for the phase field, the pressure less Naiver-Stokes (NS) equations and the pressure Poisson equation required for correction of the velocity field. The implementation has been verified for various test case. Here, we present results for some complex flow problems including two dimensional single and multiple mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability and we obtain good results when comparing with those in the literature. The main focus of our work is related to interactions between aerated or non-aerated waves and structures so we also present results for both high viscosity and low viscosity waves.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, multiphase flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1948 Prediction of Finned Projectile Aerodynamics Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method CFD Solution

Authors: Zaki Abiza, Miguel Chavez, David M. Holman, Ruddy Brionnaud

Abstract:

In this paper, the prediction of the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a Finned Projectile will be validated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, XFlow, based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). XFlow is an innovative CFD software developed by Next Limit Dynamics. It is based on a state-of-the-art Lattice-Boltzmann Method which uses a proprietary particle-based kinetic solver and a LES turbulent model coupled with the generalized law of the wall (WMLES). The Lattice-Boltzmann method discretizes the continuous Boltzmann equation, a transport equation for the particle probability distribution function. From the Boltzmann transport equation, and by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. However to simulate compressible flows, this method has a Mach number limitation because of the lattice discretization. Thanks to this flexible particle-based approach the traditional meshing process is avoided, the discretization stage is strongly accelerated reducing engineering costs, and computations on complex geometries are affordable in a straightforward way. The projectile that will be used in this work is the Army-Navy Basic Finned Missile (ANF) with a caliber of 0.03 m. The analysis will consist in varying the Mach number from M=0.5 comparing the axial force coefficient, normal force slope coefficient and the pitch moment slope coefficient of the Finned Projectile obtained by XFlow with the experimental data. The slope coefficients will be obtained using finite difference techniques in the linear range of the polar curve. The aim of such an analysis is to find out the limiting Mach number value starting from which the effects of high fluid compressibility (related to transonic flow regime) lead the XFlow simulations to differ from the experimental results. This will allow identifying the critical Mach number which limits the validity of the isothermal formulation of XFlow and beyond which a fully compressible solver implementing a coupled momentum-energy equations would be required.

Keywords: CFD, computational fluid dynamics, drag, finned projectile, lattice-boltzmann method, LBM, lift, mach, pitch

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1947 Analysis of Potential Flow around Two-Dimensional Body by Surface Panel Method and Vortex Lattice Method

Authors: M. Abir Hossain, M. Shahjada Tarafder

Abstract:

This paper deals with the analysis of potential flow past two-dimensional body by discretizing the body into panels where the Laplace equation was applied to each panel. The Laplace equation was solved at each panel by applying the boundary conditions. The boundary condition was applied at each panel to mathematically formulate the problem and then convert the problem into a computer-solvable problem. Kutta condition was applied at both the leading and trailing edges to see whether the condition is satisfied or not. Another approach that is applied for the analysis is Vortex Lattice Method (VLM). A vortex ring is considered at each control point. Using the Biot-Savart Law the strength at each control point is calculated and hence the pressure differentials are measured. For the comparison of the analytic result with the experimental result, different NACA section hydrofoil is used. The analytic result of NACA 0012 and NACA 0015 are compared with the experimental result of Abbott and Doenhoff and found significant conformity with the achieved result.

Keywords: Kutta condition, Law of Biot-Savart, pressure differentials, potential flow, vortex lattice method

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
1946 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices

Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa

Abstract:

We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.

Keywords: ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1945 Modeling Thermionic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes with Modified Richardson-Dushman Equation

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip Kumar De

Abstract:

We have modified Richardson-Dushman equation considering thermal expansion of lattice and change of chemical potential with temperature in material. The corresponding modified Richardson-Dushman (MRDE) equation fits quite well the experimental data of thermoelectronic current density (J) vs T from carbon nanotubes. It provides a unique technique for accurate determination of W0 Fermi energy, EF0 at 0 K and linear thermal expansion coefficient of carbon nano-tube in good agreement with experiment. From the value of EF0 we obtain the charge carrier density in excellent agreement with experiment. We describe application of the equations for the evaluation of performance of concentrated solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) with emitter made of carbon nanotube for future applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, fermi energy at 0 K, charge carrier density

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1944 Calculation of the Added Mass of a Submerged Object with Variable Sizes at Different Distances from the Wall via Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

Authors: Nastaran Ahmadpour Samani, Shahram Talebi

Abstract:

Added mass is an important quantity in analysis of the motion of a submerged object ,which can be calculated by solving the equation of potential flow around the object . Here, we consider systems in which a square object is submerged in a channel of fluid and moves parallel to the wall. The corresponding added mass at a given distance from the wall d and for the object size s (which is the side of square object) is calculated via lattice Blotzmann simulation . By changing d and s separately, their effect on the added mass is studied systematically. The simulation results reveal that for the systems in which d > 4s, the distance does not influence the added mass any more. The added mass increases when the object approaches the wall and reaches its maximum value as it moves on the wall (d -- > 0). In this case, the added mass is about 73% larger than which of the case d=4s. In addition, it is observed that the added mass increases by increasing of the object size s and vice versa.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann simulation , added mass, square, variable size

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
1943 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Half-Plane Recursive Doubly Complementary Digital Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou, Yuan-Hau Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design. We present a structure of 2-D recursive DC filters by using 2-D symmetric half-plane (SHP) recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive DC digital lattice filter is that the resulting 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter provides better performance than the existing 2-D SHP recursive DC digital filter. Moreover, the proposed structure possesses a favorable 2-D DC half-band (DC-HB) property that allows about half of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF’s coefficients to be zero. This leads to considerable savings in computational burden for implementation. To ensure the stability of a designed 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter, some necessary constraints on the phase of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF during the design process are presented. Design of a 2-D diamond-shape decimation/interpolation filter is presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, sampling rate conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1942 Geometric Imperfections in Lattice Structures: A Simulation Strategy to Predict Strength Variability

Authors: Xavier Lorang, Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi, Chetra Mang, Sylvain Girard

Abstract:

The additive manufacturing processes (e.g. selective laser melting) allow us to produce lattice structures which have less weight, higher impact absorption capacity, and better thermal exchange property compared to the classical structures. Unfortunately, geometric imperfections (defects) in the lattice structures are by-products results of the manufacturing process. These imperfections decrease the lifetime and the strength of the lattice structures and alternate their mechanical responses. The objective of the paper is to present a simulation strategy which allows us to take into account the effect of the geometric imperfections on the mechanical response of the lattice structure. In the first part, an identification method of geometric imperfection parameters of the lattice structure based on point clouds is presented. These point clouds are based on tomography measurements. The point clouds are fed into the platform LATANA (LATtice ANAlysis) developed by IRT-SystemX to characterize the geometric imperfections. This is done by projecting the point clouds of each microbeam along the beam axis onto a 2D surface. Then, by fitting an ellipse to the 2D projections of the points, the geometric imperfections are characterized by introducing three parameters of an ellipse; semi-major/minor axes and angle of rotation. With regard to the calculated parameters of the microbeam geometric imperfections, a statistical analysis is carried out to determine a probability density law based on a statistical hypothesis. The microbeam samples are randomly drawn from the density law and are used to generate lattice structures. In the second part, a finite element model for the lattice structure with the simplified geometric imperfections (ellipse parameters) is presented. This numerical model is used to simulate the generated lattice structures. The propagation of the uncertainties of geometric imperfections is shown through the distribution of the computed mechanical responses of the lattice structures.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element model, geometric imperfections, lattice structures, propagation of uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1941 Identity-Based Encryption: A Comparison of Leading Classical and Post-Quantum Implementations in an Enterprise Setting

Authors: Emily Stamm, Neil Smyth, Elizabeth O'Sullivan

Abstract:

In Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), an identity, such as a username, email address, or domain name, acts as the public key. IBE consolidates the PKI by eliminating the repetitive process of requesting public keys for each message encryption. Two of the most popular schemes are Sakai-Kasahara (SAKKE), which is based on elliptic curve pairings, and the Ducas, Lyubashevsky, and Prest lattice scheme (DLP- Lattice), which is based on quantum-secure lattice cryptography. In or- der to embed the schemes in a standard enterprise setting, both schemes are implemented as shared system libraries and integrated into a REST service that functions at the enterprise level. The performance of both schemes as libraries and services is compared, and the practicalities of implementation and application are discussed. Our performance results indicate that although SAKKE has the smaller key and ciphertext sizes, DLP-Lattice is significantly faster overall and we recommend it for most enterprise use cases.

Keywords: identity-based encryption, post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, IBE

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1940 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar

Abstract:

Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: grain size, polycrystalline, solar cells, lattice parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
1939 Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high-temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and at 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into the body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1938 Thermal Effects of Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and in 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, neodymium, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1937 Generalization of Clustering Coefficient on Lattice Networks Applied to Criminal Networks

Authors: Christian H. Sanabria-Montaña, Rodrigo Huerta-Quintanilla

Abstract:

A lattice network is a special type of network in which all nodes have the same number of links, and its boundary conditions are periodic. The most basic lattice network is the ring, a one-dimensional network with periodic border conditions. In contrast, the Cartesian product of d rings forms a d-dimensional lattice network. An analytical expression currently exists for the clustering coefficient in this type of network, but the theoretical value is valid only up to certain connectivity value; in other words, the analytical expression is incomplete. Here we obtain analytically the clustering coefficient expression in d-dimensional lattice networks for any link density. Our analytical results show that the clustering coefficient for a lattice network with density of links that tend to 1, leads to the value of the clustering coefficient of a fully connected network. We developed a model on criminology in which the generalized clustering coefficient expression is applied. The model states that delinquents learn the know-how of crime business by sharing knowledge, directly or indirectly, with their friends of the gang. This generalization shed light on the network properties, which is important to develop new models in different fields where network structure plays an important role in the system dynamic, such as criminology, evolutionary game theory, econophysics, among others.

Keywords: clustering coefficient, criminology, generalized, regular network d-dimensional

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1936 Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
1935 Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
1934 Calculation of Lattice Constants and Band Gaps for Generalized Quasicrystals of InGaN Alloy: A First Principle Study

Authors: Rohin Sharma, Sumantu Chaulagain

Abstract:

This paper presents calculations of total energy of InGaN alloy carried out in a disordered quasirandom structure for a triclinic super cell. This structure replicates the disorder and composition effect in the alloy. First principle calculations within the density functional theory with the local density approximation approach is employed to accurately determine total energy of the system. Lattice constants and band gaps associated with the ground states are then estimated for different concentration ratios of the alloy. We provide precise results of quasirandom structures of the alloy and their lattice constants with the total energy and band gap energy of the system for the range of seven different composition ratios and their respective lattice parameters.

Keywords: DFT, ground state, LDA, quasicrystal, triclinic super cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1933 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1932 A Numerical Hybrid Finite Element Model for Lattice Structures Using 3D/Beam Elements

Authors: Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi, Chetra Mang, Xavier Lorang

Abstract:

Thanks to the additive manufacturing process, lattice structures are replacing the traditional structures in aeronautical and automobile industries. In order to evaluate the mechanical response of the lattice structures, one has to resort to numerical techniques. Ansys is a globally well-known and trusted commercial software that allows us to model the lattice structures and analyze their mechanical responses using either solid or beam elements. In this software, a script may be used to systematically generate the lattice structures for any size. On the one hand, solid elements allow us to correctly model the contact between the substrates (the supports of the lattice structure) and the lattice structure, the local plasticity, and the junctions of the microbeams. However, their computational cost increases rapidly with the size of the lattice structure. On the other hand, although beam elements reduce the computational cost drastically, it doesn’t correctly model the contact between the lattice structures and the substrates nor the junctions of the microbeams. Also, the notion of local plasticity is not valid anymore. Moreover, the deformed shape of the lattice structure doesn’t correspond to the deformed shape of the lattice structure using 3D solid elements. In this work, motivated by the pros and cons of the 3D and beam models, a numerically hybrid model is presented for the lattice structures to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while avoiding the aforementioned drawbacks of the beam elements. This approach consists of the utilization of solid elements for the junctions and beam elements for the microbeams connecting the corresponding junctions to each other. When the global response of the structure is linear, the results from the hybrid models are in good agreement with the ones from the 3D models for body-centered cubic with z-struts (BCCZ) and body-centered cubic without z-struts (BCC) lattice structures. However, the hybrid models have difficulty to converge when the effect of large deformation and local plasticity are considerable in the BCCZ structures. Furthermore, the effect of the junction’s size of the hybrid models on the results is investigated. For BCCZ lattice structures, the results are not affected by the junction’s size. This is also valid for BCC lattice structures as long as the ratio of the junction’s size to the diameter of the microbeams is greater than 2. The hybrid model can take into account the geometric defects. As a demonstration, the point clouds of two lattice structures are parametrized in a platform called LATANA (LATtice ANAlysis) developed by IRT-SystemX. In this process, for each microbeam of the lattice structures, an ellipse is fitted to capture the effect of shape variation and roughness. Each ellipse is represented by three parameters; semi-major axis, semi-minor axis, and angle of rotation. Having the parameters of the ellipses, the lattice structures are constructed in Spaceclaim (ANSYS) using the geometrical hybrid approach. The results show a negligible discrepancy between the hybrid and 3D models, while the computational cost of the hybrid model is lower than the computational cost of the 3D model.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Ansys, geometric defects, hybrid finite element model, lattice structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1931 Generalized Vortex Lattice Method for Predicting Characteristics of Wings with Flap and Aileron Deflection

Authors: Mondher Yahyaoui

Abstract:

A generalized vortex lattice method for complex lifting surfaces with flap and aileron deflection is formulated. The method is not restricted by the linearized theory assumption and accounts for all standard geometric lifting surface parameters: camber, taper, sweep, washout, dihedral, in addition to flap and aileron deflection. Thickness is not accounted for since the physical lifting body is replaced by a lattice of panels located on the mean camber surface. This panel lattice setup and the treatment of different wake geometries is what distinguish the present work form the overwhelming majority of previous solutions based on the vortex lattice method. A MATLAB code implementing the proposed formulation is developed and validated by comparing our results to existing experimental and numerical ones and good agreement is demonstrated. It is then used to study the accuracy of the widely used classical vortex-lattice method. It is shown that the classical approach gives good agreement in the clean configuration but is off by as much as 30% when a flap or aileron deflection of 30° is imposed. This discrepancy is mainly due the linearized theory assumption associated with the conventional method. A comparison of the effect of four different wake geometries on the values of aerodynamic coefficients was also carried out and it is found that the choice of the wake shape had very little effect on the results.

Keywords: aileron deflection, camber-surface-bound vortices, classical VLM, generalized VLM, flap deflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
1930 Modification of the Athena Vortex Lattice Code for the Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
1929 Application of Lattice Boltzmann Method to Different Boundary Conditions in a Two Dimensional Enclosure

Authors: Jean Yves Trepanier, Sami Ammar, Sagnik Banik

Abstract:

Lattice Boltzmann Method has been advantageous in simulating complex boundary conditions and solving for fluid flow parameters by streaming and collision processes. This paper includes the study of three different test cases in a confined domain using the method of the Lattice Boltzmann model. 1. An SRT (Single Relaxation Time) approach in the Lattice Boltzmann model is used to simulate Lid Driven Cavity flow for different Reynolds Number (100, 400 and 1000) with a domain aspect ratio of 1, i.e., square cavity. A moment-based boundary condition is used for more accurate results. 2. A Thermal Lattice BGK (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) Model is developed for the Rayleigh Benard convection for both test cases - Horizontal and Vertical Temperature difference, considered separately for a Boussinesq incompressible fluid. The Rayleigh number is varied for both the test cases (10^3 ≤ Ra ≤ 10^6) keeping the Prandtl number at 0.71. A stability criteria with a precise forcing scheme is used for a greater level of accuracy. 3. The phase change problem governed by the heat-conduction equation is studied using the enthalpy based Lattice Boltzmann Model with a single iteration for each time step, thus reducing the computational time. A double distribution function approach with D2Q9 (density) model and D2Q5 (temperature) model are used for two different test cases-the conduction dominated melting and the convection dominated melting. The solidification process is also simulated using the enthalpy based method with a single distribution function using the D2Q5 model to provide a better understanding of the heat transport phenomenon. The domain for the test cases has an aspect ratio of 2 with some exceptions for a square cavity. An approximate velocity scale is chosen to ensure that the simulations are within the incompressible regime. Different parameters like velocities, temperature, Nusselt number, etc. are calculated for a comparative study with the existing works of literature. The simulated results demonstrate excellent agreement with the existing benchmark solution within an error limit of ± 0.05 implicates the viability of this method for complex fluid flow problems.

Keywords: BGK, Nusselt, Prandtl, Rayleigh, SRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1928 Simulation and Experimental Verification of Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures

Authors: P. Karlsson, M. Åsberg, R. Eriksson, P. Krakhmalev, N. Strömberg

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing of lattice structures is promising for lightweight design, but the mechanical response of the lattices structures is not fully understood. This investigation presents the results of simulation and experimental investigations of the grid and shell-based gyroid lattices. Specimens containing selected lattices were designed with an in-house software and manufactured from 316L steel with Renishaw AM400 equipment. Results of simulation and experimental investigations correlated well.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, computed tomography, material characterization, lattice structures, robust lightweight design

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1927 AI Peer Review Challenge: Standard Model of Physics vs 4D GEM EOS

Authors: David A. Harness

Abstract:

Natural evolution of ATP cognitive systems is to meet AI peer review standards. ATP process of axiom selection from Mizar to prove a conjecture would be further refined, as in all human and machine learning, by solving the real world problem of the proposed AI peer review challenge: Determine which conjecture forms the higher confidence level constructive proof between Standard Model of Physics SU(n) lattice gauge group operation vs. present non-standard 4D GEM EOS SU(n) lattice gauge group spatially extended operation in which the photon and electron are the first two trace angular momentum invariants of a gravitoelectromagnetic (GEM) energy momentum density tensor wavetrain integration spin-stress pressure-volume equation of state (EOS), initiated via 32 lines of Mathematica code. Resulting gravitoelectromagnetic spectrum ranges from compressive through rarefactive of the central cosmological constant vacuum energy density in units of pascals. Said self-adjoint group operation exclusively operates on the stress energy momentum tensor of the Einstein field equations, introducing quantization directly on the 4D spacetime level, essentially reformulating the Yang-Mills virtual superpositioned particle compounded lattice gauge groups quantization of the vacuum—into a single hyper-complex multi-valued GEM U(1) × SU(1,3) lattice gauge group Planck spacetime mesh quantization of the vacuum. Thus the Mizar corpus already contains all of the axioms required for relevant DeepMath premise selection and unambiguous formal natural language parsing in context deep learning.

Keywords: automated theorem proving, constructive quantum field theory, information theory, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 109