Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5988

Search results for: laser range finder

5988 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: Ali Emre Öztürk, Ergun Ercelebi


Autonomous robotic systems needs an equipment like a human eye for their movement. Robotic camera systems, distance sensors and 3D laser scanners have been used in the literature. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been produced for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper. Furthermore for the laser scanner a motor driver, an embedded system control board has been used and at the same time a user interface card has been used to make the communication between those cards and computer. Due to this laser scanner, the density of the objects, the distance between the objects and the necessary path ways for the robot can be calculated. The data collected by the laser scanner system is converted in to cartesian coordinates to be modeled in AutoCAD program. This study shows also the synchronization between the computer user interface, AutoCAD and the embedded systems. As a result it makes the solution cheaper for such systems. The scanning results are enough for an autonomous robot but the scan cycle time should be developed. This study makes also contribution for further studies between the hardware and software needs since it has a powerful performance and a low cost.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, embedded system, 1D laser range finder, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
5987 Real-Time Recognition of the Terrain Configuration to Improve Driving Stability for Unmanned Robots

Authors: Bongsoo Jeon, Jayoung Kim, Jihong Lee


Methods for measuring or estimating of ground shape by a laser range finder and a vision sensor (exteroceptive sensors) have critical weakness in terms that these methods need prior database built to distinguish acquired data as unique surface condition for driving. Also, ground information by exteroceptive sensors does not reflect the deflection of ground surface caused by the movement of UGVs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of recognizing exact and precise ground shape using Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a proprioceptive sensor. In this paper, firstly this method recognizes attitude of a robot in real-time using IMU and compensates attitude data of a robot with angle errors through analysis of vehicle dynamics. This method is verified by outdoor driving experiments of a real mobile robot.

Keywords: inertial measurement unit, laser range finder, real-time recognition of the ground shape, proprioceptive sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
5986 Laser Irradiated GeSn Photodetector for Improved Infrared Photodetection

Authors: Patrik Scajev, Pavels Onufrijevs, Algirdas Mekys, Tadas Malinauskas, Dominykas Augulis, Liudvikas Subacius, Kuo-Chih Lee, Jevgenijs Kaupuzs, Arturs Medvids, Hung Hsiang Cheng


In this study, we focused on the optoelectronic properties of the photodiodes prepared by using 200 nm thick Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ epitaxial layers on Ge/n-Si substrate with aluminum contacts. Photodiodes were formed on non-irradiated and Nd: YAG laser irradiated Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ layers. The samples were irradiated by pulsed Nd: YAG laser with 136.7-462.6 MW/cm² intensity. The photodiodes were characterized by using short laser pulses with the wavelength in the 2.0-2.6 μm range. The laser-irradiated diode was found more sensitive in the long-wavelength range due to laser-induced Sn atoms redistribution providing formation of graded bandgap structure. Sub-millisecond photocurrent relaxation in the diodes revealed their suitability for image sensors. Our findings open the perspective for improving the photo-sensitivity of GeSn alloys in the mid-infrared by pulsed laser processing.

Keywords: GeSn, laser processing, photodetector, infrared

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
5985 A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror

Authors: Pinghe Wang


In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.

Keywords: fiber laser, dissipative soliton resonance, mode locking, tunable

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
5984 Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance

Authors: V. Kumar, K. Jha


The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.

Keywords: convergent-divergent vortex finder, cyclone separator, discrete phase modeling, Reynolds stress model

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5983 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil


The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
5982 3D Point Cloud Model Color Adjustment by Combining Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Close Range Photogrammetry Datasets

Authors: M. Pepe, S. Ackermann, L. Fregonese, C. Achille


3D models obtained with advanced survey techniques such as close-range photogrammetry and laser scanner are nowadays particularly appreciated in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology fields. In order to produce high quality models representing archaeological evidences and anthropological artifacts, the appearance of the model (i.e. color) beyond the geometric accuracy, is not a negligible aspect. The integration of the close-range photogrammetry survey techniques with the laser scanner is still a topic of study and research. By combining point cloud data sets of the same object generated with both technologies, or with the same technology but registered in different moment and/or natural light condition, could construct a final point cloud with accentuated color dissimilarities. In this paper, a methodology to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details by balancing the point color will be presented.

Keywords: color models, cultural heritage, laser scanner, photogrammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
5981 Application of Adaptive Particle Filter for Localizing a Mobile Robot Using 3D Camera Data

Authors: Maysam Shahsavari, Seyed Jamalaldin Haddadi


There are several methods to localize a mobile robot such as relative, absolute and probabilistic. In this paper, particle filter due to its simple implementation and the fact that it does not need to know to the starting position will be used. This method estimates the position of the mobile robot using a probabilistic distribution, relying on a known map of the environment instead of predicting it. Afterwards, it updates this estimation by reading input sensors and control commands. To receive information from the surrounding world, distance to obstacles, for example, a Kinect is used which is much cheaper than a laser range finder. Finally, after explaining the Adaptive Particle Filter method and its implementation in detail, we will compare this method with the dead reckoning method and show that this method is much more suitable for situations in which we have a map of the environment.

Keywords: particle filter, localization, methods, odometry, kinect

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5980 Electromagnetic Radiation Generation by Two-Color Sinusoidal Laser Pulses Propagating in Plasma

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha


Generation of the electromagnetic radiation oscillating at the frequencies in the terahertz range by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization, and spectroscopic techniques. Due to nonionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals, when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser-plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the study of the enhanced electromagnetic radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through the magnetized plasma. The two lasers pulse orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through the homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, electromagnetic radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
5979 Simulation of Laser Structuring by Three Dimensional Heat Transfer Model

Authors: Bassim Shaheen Bachy, Jörg Franke


In this study, a three dimensional numerical heat transfer model has been used to simulate the laser structuring of polymer substrate material in the Three-Dimensional Molded Interconnect Device (3D MID) which is used in the advanced multi-functional applications. A finite element method (FEM) transient thermal analysis is performed using APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) provided by ANSYS. In this model, the effect of surface heat source was modeled with Gaussian distribution, also the effect of the mixed boundary conditions which consist of convection and radiation heat transfers have been considered in this analysis. The model provides a full description of the temperature distribution, as well as calculates the depth and the width of the groove upon material removal at different set of laser parameters such as laser power and laser speed. This study also includes the experimental procedure to study the effect of laser parameters on the depth and width of the removal groove metal as verification to the modeled results. Good agreement between the experimental and the model results is achieved for a wide range of laser powers. It is found that the quality of the laser structure process is affected by the laser scan speed and laser power. For a high laser structured quality, it is suggested to use laser with high speed and moderate to high laser power.

Keywords: laser structuring, simulation, finite element analysis, thermal modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
5978 The Effect of Simultaneous Application of Laser Beam and Magnet in Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation

Authors: Alireza Moghtaderi, Negin Khakpour


Disc Herniation is a common complication in the society and it is one of the main reasons for referring to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics. Despite of various methods proposed for treatingthis disease, still there is disagreement on success of these methods especially in non-surgical methods, and thus current study aims at determining effect of laser beam and magnet on treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation. During a clinical trial study, 80 patients with Intervertebral Disc Herniation underwent a combined package of treatment including magnet, laser beam, PRP and Prolotherapy during 6 months. Average age of patients was 51.25 ± 10.7 with range of 25 – 71 years. 30 men (37.5%) and 50 women (62.5%) took part in the study. average weight of patients was 64.3 ± 7.2 with range of 49 – 79 kg. highest level of Disc Herniation was L5 – S1 with frequency of 17 cases (21.3%). Disc Herniation was severe in 30 cases before treatment, but it reduced to 3 casesafter treatment. This study indicates effect of combined treatment using non-invasive laser beam and magnet therapy on disco genic diseases and mechanical pains of spine is highly effective.

Keywords: hallux, valgus, botulinum toxin a, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
5977 A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera

Authors: Kazuya Sato, Toru Kasahara, Junji Kuroda


In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previously proposed methods, a motion capture system (i.e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipment, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental result are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.

Keywords: autonomous hovering control, multicopter, Web camera, operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
5976 Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Shengzhu Cao, Hui Zhou, Gan Wu, Lanxi Wanhg, Kaifeng Zhang, Rui Wang, Hu Wang


The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.

Keywords: surface functional, micro and nanostructures, femtosecond laser, ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
5975 Simulation Study of Enhanced Terahertz Radiation Generation by Two-Color Laser Plasma Interaction

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha


Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization and spectroscopic techniques. Due to non ionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser - plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the simulation study of the enhanced THz radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through magnetized plasma. The two laser pulses orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, terahertz radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
5974 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada


Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
5973 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer


Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5972 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 617
5971 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5970 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim


Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: depigmentation, lentigine, quality switched ruby laser, skin color

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
5969 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason


Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
5968 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar


The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
5967 Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based on Extended Database

Authors: Gyumin Hwang, Jihong Lee


This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1 m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Keywords: chirp spread spectrum, indoor localization, pattern-matching, time of arrival, multi-path, mahalanobis distance, reception rate, simultaneous localization and mapping, laser range finder

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
5966 Size-Controlled Synthesis of Bismuth Nanoparticles by Temperature Assisted Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Ranjit A. Patil, Yung Liou, Yuan-Ron Ma


It has been observed that when the size of metals such as, Au, Zn, Ag, Cu, Te, and metal oxides is reduced to several nano-meters, it starts to show further interesting properties. These new properties boost the use of nano-structures to produce attractive functional materials or used as promising building blocks in electronic devices. Present work describes the synthesis of bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles (NP’s) having uniform morphology, high crystallinity, and single phase purity by the temperature assisted pulsed laser deposition (TAPLD). Pulsed Laser deposition (PLD) technique is one of the promising methods to synthesize nano-structures. It can provide the stable nucleation sites in orders of magnitudes higher than for MBE and sputtering deposition. The desired size of purely metallic Bi NP’s of can be easily controlled by adjusting the temperature of the substrate varying from 1000 C to 250 0C. When the temperatures of the substrate raised step wise the average size of Bi NP’s appeared to be increased by maintaining the uniform distribution of NP’s on the Si surfaces. The diameter range of NP’s is ~33-84 nm shows size distribution constrained in the limited range. The EDS results show that the 0D Bi NP’s synthesized at high temperature (250 0C) at a high vacuum still remained in a metallic phase. Moreover, XRD, TEM and SAED results showed that these Bi NP’s are hexagonal in crystalline in a space group R -3 m and no traces of bismuth oxide, confirming that Bi NP’s synthesized at wide range of temperatures persisted of the pure Bi-metallic phase.

Keywords: metal nano particles, bismuth, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), nano particles, temperature assisted growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
5965 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid


Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
5964 Optimum Er: YAG Laser Parameters for Orthodontic Composite Debonding: An in vitro Study

Authors: Mohammad Zamzam, Wesam Bachir, Imad Asaad


Several studies have produced estimates of Er:YAG laser parameters and specifications but there is still insufficient data for reliable selection of laser parameters. As a consequence, there is a heightened need for ideal specifications of Er:YAG laser to reduce the amount of enamel ablation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of Er:YAG laser parameters, energy level and pulse duration, on orthodontic composite removal after bracket debonding. The sample consisted of 45 cuboids of orthodontic composite made by plastic moulds. The samples were divided into three groups, each was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at different energy levels and three values for pulse durations (50 µs, 100 µs, and 300 µs). Geometrical parameters (depth and area) of cavities formed by laser irradiation were determined. ANCOVA test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.0.5) between the groups indicating a potential effect of laser pulse duration on the geometrical parameters after controlling laser energy level. A post-hoc Bonferroni test ranked the 50µ Er:YAG laser pulse as the most influential factor for all geometrical parameters in removing remnant composite from enamel surface. Also, 300 mJ laser pulses caused the largest removal of the composite. The results of the present study demonstrated the efficacy of 50 µs and 300 mJ Er:YAG laser pulse for removal of remnant orthodontic composite.

Keywords: enamel, Er:YAG, geometrical parameters, orthodontic composite, remnant composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
5963 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo


This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
5962 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta


The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
5961 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek


Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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5960 Cooling-Rate Induced Fiber Birefringence Variation in Regenerated High Birefringent Fiber

Authors: Man-Hong Lai, Dinusha S. Gunawardena, Kok-Sing Lim, Harith Ahmad


In this paper, we have reported birefringence manipulation in regenerated high-birefringent fiber Bragg grating (RPMG) by using CO2 laser annealing method. The results indicate that the birefringence of RPMG remains unchanged after CO2 laser annealing followed by a slow cooling process, but reduced after the fast cooling process (~5.6×10-5). After a series of annealing procedures with different cooling rates, the obtained results show that slower the cooling rate, higher the birefringence of RPMG. The volume, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and glass transition temperature (Tg) change of stress applying part in RPMG during the cooling process are responsible for the birefringence change. Therefore, these findings are important to the RPMG sensor in high and dynamic temperature environment. The measuring accuracy, range and sensitivity of RPMG sensor are greatly affected by its birefringence value. This work also opens up a new application of CO2 laser for fiber annealing and birefringence modification.

Keywords: birefringence, CO2 laser annealing, regenerated gratings, thermal stress

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5959 A Compact Extended Laser Diode Cavity Centered at 780 nm for Use in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: J. Alvarez, J. Pimienta, R. Sarmiento


Diode lasers working in free mode present different shifting and broadening determined by external factors such as temperature, current or mechanical vibrations, and they are not more useful in applications such as spectroscopy, metrology, and cooling of atoms, among others. Different configurations can reduce the spectral width of a laser; one of the most effective is to extend the optical resonator of the laser diode and use optical feedback either with the help of a partially reflective mirror or with a diffraction grating; this latter configuration is not only allowed to reduce the spectral width of the laser line but also to coarsely adjust its working wavelength, within a wide range typically ~ 10nm by slightly varying the angle of the diffraction grating. Two settings are commonly used for this purpose, the Littrow configuration and the Littmann Metcalf. In this paper, we present the design, construction, and characterization of a compact extended laser cavity in Littrow configuration. The designed cavity is compact and was machined on an aluminum block using computer numerical control (CNC); it has a mass of only 380 g. The design was tested on laser diodes with different wavelengths, 650nm, 780nm, and 795 nm, but can be equally efficient at other wavelengths. This report details the results obtained from the extended cavity working at a wavelength of 780 nm, with an output power of around 35mW and a line width of less than 1Mhz. The cavity was used to observe the spectrum of the corresponding Rubidium D2 line. By modulating the current and with the help of phase detection techniques, a dispersion signal with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio was generated that allowed the stabilization of the laser to a transition of the hyperfine structure of Rubidium with an integral proportional controller (PI) circuit made with precision operational amplifiers.

Keywords: Littrow, Littman-Metcalf, line width, laser stabilization, hyperfine structure

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