Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3902

Search results for: small bar

3902 Small Entrepreneurship Supporting Economic Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses small entrepreneurship development strategy in Georgia and the tools and regulations that will encourage development of small entrepreneurship. The current situation in the small entrepreneurship sector, as well as factors affecting growth and decline in the sector and the priorities of state support, are studied and analyzed. The objective of this research is to assess the current situation of the sector to highlight opportunities and reveal the gaps. State support of small entrepreneurship should become a key priority in the country’s economic policy, as development of the sector will ensure social, economic and political stability. Based on the research, a small entrepreneurship development strategy is presented; corresponding conclusions are made and recommendations are developed.

Keywords: economic policy for small entrepreneurship development, small entrepreneurship, regulations, small entrepreneurship development strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3901 Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks

Authors: Abdullah A. Al Orainy

Abstract:

Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.

Keywords: backhaul, small cells, wireless, 5G

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3900 Design of H-Shape X-band Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan H. Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a new small electrically antenna rectangular X- band micro-strip patch antenna loaded with material Rogers RT/duroid 5870 (tm). The present discussion focuses on small Electrically antenna which are electrically small compared to wave length the performance of electrically small antenna are closely related to their electrical size, the gain can be increased to maintain the efficiency of the radiator. Basically micro-strip Patch antennas have been used in satellite communications and for their good characteristics such as lightness, low cost, and so on. Here in the design H- shape folded dipole, which increase the band width of the antenna.

Keywords: electrically small antennas, X-band application, antenna, micro-strip patch, frequency antenna, feed, gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3899 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid

Abstract:

Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
3898 Small Traditional Retailers in Emerging Markets

Authors: Y. Boulaksil, J. C. Fransoo, E.E. Blanco, S. Koubida

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the small traditional retailers that are located in the neighborhoods of big cities in emerging markets. Although modern retailing has grown in the last two decades in these markets, the number of small retailers is still increasing and serving a substantial part of the daily demand for many basic products, such as bread, milk, and cooking oil. We conduct an empirical study to understand the business environment of these small traditional retailers in emerging markets by collecting data from 333 small retailers, spread over 8 large cities in Morocco. We analyze the data and describe their business environment with a focus on the informal credits they offer to their customers. We find that smaller small retailers that are funded from personal savings and managed by the owner himself offer relatively the most credits. Our study also provides interesting insights about these small retailers that will help FMCG manufacturers that are (planning to be) active in Morocco and other emerging markets. We also discuss a number opportunities to improve the efficiency of the supply chains that serve them.

Keywords: small retailers, big cities, emerging markets, empirical study, supply chain management, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
3897 Dynamic Stability Assessment of Different Wheel Sized Bicycles Based on Current Frame Design Practice with ISO Requirement for Bicycle Safety

Authors: Milan Paudel, Fook Fah Yap, Anil K. Bastola

Abstract:

The difficulties in riding small wheel bicycles and their lesser stability have been perceived for a long time. Although small wheel bicycles are designed using the similar approach and guidelines that have worked well for big wheel bicycles, the performance of the big wheelers and the smaller wheelers are markedly different. Since both the big wheelers and small wheelers have same fundamental geometry, most blame the small wheel for this discrepancy in the performance. This paper reviews existing guidelines for bicycle design, especially the front steering geometry for the bicycle, and provides a systematic and quantitative analysis of different wheel sized bicycles. A validated mathematical model has been used as a tool to assess the dynamic performance of the bicycles in term of their self-stability. The results obtained were found to corroborate the subjective perception of cyclists for small wheel bicycles. The current approach for small wheel bicycle design requires higher speed to be self-stable. However, it was found that increasing the headtube angle and selecting a proper trail could improve the dynamic performance of small wheel bicycles. A range of parameters for front steering geometry has been identified for small wheel bicycles that have comparable stability as big wheel bicycles. Interestingly, most of the identified geometries are found to be beyond the ISO recommended range and seem to counter the current approach of small wheel bicycle design. Therefore, it was successfully shown that the guidelines for big wheelers do not translate directly to small wheelers, but careful selection of the front geometry could make small wheel bicycles as stable as big wheel bicycles.

Keywords: big wheel bicycle, design approach, ISO requirements, small wheel bicycle, stability and performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
3896 The Impact of Sport Tourism on Small Scale Business Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Vimuckthi Charika Wickramaratne, Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Sport tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism in a fast growing sector of the Sri Lankan travelling industry since Cricket are more popular sport game in the country. This study intends to analyze the impact of these popular sport events for creating and developing small scale business in the country. Primary data gathered from 100 small entrepreneurs around Keththarama Cricket Ground in Sri Lanka. Collected data analyzed using descriptive research methods. The study revealed that local and international visitors for cricket games had impacted on small scale business activities such as retail, handicraft, transport, vehicle parking, small restaurant, hotels, foods and beverage industry. In addition, it was identified that these type of small business are sessional income generating activities for the short period.

Keywords: sport tourism, small scale business, cricket, entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
3895 Gender Inequality on Marine Tourism Development in Small Island

Authors: Khodijah Ismail, Elfindri

Abstract:

Tourism development have many environmental, economically and sociocultural benefits. Small islands have a lot of potential for marine tourism development. But, stereotype gender issues still dominate the social and cultural life of rural communities that have an impact on the gap in benefits of local development. The purpose of this study is to found development strategy concept of marine tourism in small islands gender-based. This study found in the marine tourism development of small islands not involved women, from planning to monitor marine tourism development in small islands. It's affects to the low of socio-economic of women in the coastal village and small islands. This condition is not advantage for sustainable development of marine tourism in small islands. Therefore, strengthening of livelihood assets by gender based through the marine tourism development in small islands is very important to attention, that women can contributed to household welfare, bargaining positioned in social culture was better and increase broad access to local government development policies. To realize it requires the full support of the government and relevant stakeholders through gender empowerment and strengthening of accessibility, connectivity, regulation, and design institution.

Keywords: gender inequality, marine tourism, development, tourism management

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
3894 Effects of Employees’ Training Program on the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Oyo State

Authors: Itiola Kehinde Adeniran

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of employees’ training on the performance of small scale enterprises in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 respondents through purposive sampling method. Linear regression was used with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 to analyze the data collected in order to examine the effect of independent variable, employees’ training on dependent variable, performance (profit) of small scale enterprises. The result revealed that employees’ training has a significant effect on the performance of small scale enterprises. It was concluded that predictor variable namely (training) is 55.5% variance of enterprises performance (profitability). Therefore, the paper recommended that all small scale enterprises in Nigeria should embrace manpower training and development in order to improve employees’ performance leading to organizational profitability.

Keywords: training, employee performance, small scale enterprise, organizational profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3893 The Marketing Mix in Small Sized Hotels: A Case of Pattaya, Thailand

Authors: Anyapak Prapannetivuth

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to investigate the marketing mix that is perceived to be important for the small sized hotels in Pattaya. Unlike previous studies, this research provides insights through a review of the marketing activities performed by the small sized hotels. Nine owners and marketing manager of small sized hotels and resorts, all local Chonburi people, were selected for an in-depth interview. A snowball sampling process was employed. The research suggests that seven marketing mixes (e.g. Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Physical Evidence and Process) were commonly used by these hotels, however, three types – People, price and physical evidence were considered most important by the owners.

Keywords: marketing mix, marketing tools, small sized hotels, pattaya

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3892 Conditions of Human Resource Development in Small Enterprises: The Results of Comparative Studies Conducted in Poland and Finland

Authors: Ewa Rak

Abstract:

This paper utilises literature studies and author’s research conducted in small enterprises using survey. The purpose of the study is to identify conditions of employee development in small enterprises. More specifically, it will be barriers to employee development, needs for development expressed by interested employees themselves and the attitude of the company to employee development. Moreover, the enterprises participation in funding and initiating development activities will be presented. Paper presents the results of comparative studies conducted with employees of small enterprises in Poland and Finland in 2015-2016.

Keywords: employee development, Finland, human resources development, Poland, small enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3891 The Effect of Information Technologies on Business Performance: An Application on Small Hotels

Authors: Abdullah Karaman, Kursad Sayin

Abstract:

In this research, which information technologies are used in small hotel businesses, and the information technologies-performance perception of the managers are pointed out. During the research, the questionnaire was prepared and the small scale hotel managers were interviewed face to face and they filled out the questionnaire and the answers acquired were evaluated. As the result of the research, it was obtained that the managers do not care much about the information technologies usage in practice even though they accepted that the information technologies are important in terms of performance.

Keywords: information technologies, managers, performance, small hotels

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
3890 A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process

Authors: Theresa Robinson Harris

Abstract:

Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.

Keywords: leadership, small business, entrepreneurship, success, failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3889 Waste Egg Albumin Derived Small Peptides Stimulate Photosynthetic Electron Transport

Authors: Seungwon Han, Sung young Yoo, Tae Wan Kim

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to measure the changes in the photochemical response in the leaves of red pepper (Capsium annuum L.) after foliar fertilization of amino acid and small peptides derived from the waste egg. As a nitrogen fertilizer, waste eggs were incubated over one 1week and then degraded as amino acids and small peptides. The smaller peptides less than 20 kDa were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). MALDI-TOF-MS as a rapid analysis method was to show the molecular mass of degraded egg protein. The sequences of peptides were identified as follows; γ-Glu- Cys-γ-Glu-Cys-γ-Glu-Cys)-Ser and γ-Glu-Cys-γ-Glu-Cys-γ-Glu- Cys)-Gly. It was clearly illuminated that the parameters related to quantum yields for PSI electron transport (ΦRE1O, ΨRE1O, δRE1O) and RC/ABS have increased tendency by small peptide application. On the other hand, phenomenological energy fluxes (ABSO/CSM, TRO/CSM, ET2O/CSM, RE1O/CSM, DIO/CSM) have considerably fluctuated with foliar fertilization of small peptides. In conclusion, the small peptides can enhance the photochemical activities from photosystem II to photosystem I. This study was financially supported by RDA Agenda Project PJ 016196012022.

Keywords: electron transport, foliar fertilization, small peptide, waste egg

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3888 Managing of Work Risk in Small and Medium-Size Companies

Authors: Janusz K. Grabara, Bartłomiej Okwiet, Sebastian Kot

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is presentation and analysis of the aspect of job security in small and medium-size enterprises in Poland with reference to other EU countries. We show the theoretical aspects of the risk with reference to managing small and medium enterprises, next risk management in small and medium enterprises in Poland, which were subjected to a detailed analysis. We show in detail the risk associated with the operation of the mentioned above companies, as well as analyses its levels on various stages and for different kinds of conducted activity.

Keywords: job safety, SME, work risk, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
3887 Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Kwara state, Nigeria

Authors: Salman Abdulrasaq

Abstract:

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has been considered as indices for economic development in a country economy. The development of entrepreneurship skills is therefore necessary. This study, seeks to examine the impact of Entrepreneurship on the Growth of Small Businesses Kwara State, Nigeria. The data used were primarily obtained from the questionnaire administered to the randomly selected areas in the state. Regression statistical tool was employed with aid of SPSS to test the validity of the hypothesis formulated in the study. The study therefore concludes that; the qualities of entrepreneur have impact the growth of Small Businesses s in the selected areas of the state. In view of this, the study recommends that; entrepreneurship development would serve as a tool for the growth of small business enterprises.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, growth, development, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
3886 Small Entrepreneurs as Creators of Chaos: Increasing Returns Requires Scaling

Authors: M. B. Neace, Xin GAo

Abstract:

Small entrepreneurs are ubiquitous. Regardless of location their success depends on several behavioral characteristics and several market conditions. In this concept paper, we extend this paradigm to include elements from the science of chaos. Our observations, research findings, literature search and intuition lead us to the proposition that all entrepreneurs seek increasing returns, as did the many small entrepreneurs we have interviewed over the years. There will be a few whose initial perturbations may create tsunami-like waves of increasing returns over time resulting in very large market consequences–the butterfly impact. When small entrepreneurs perturb the market-place and their initial efforts take root a series of phase-space transitions begin to occur. They sustain the stream of increasing returns by scaling up. Chaos theory contributes to our understanding of this phenomenon. Sustaining and nourishing increasing returns of small entrepreneurs as complex adaptive systems requires scaling. In this paper we focus on the most critical element of the small entrepreneur scaling process–the mindset of the owner-operator.

Keywords: entrepreneur, increasing returns, scaling, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
3885 A Discussion on Electrically Small Antenna Property

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desia, Trushit Upadhayay

Abstract:

The demand of compact antenna is ever increasing since the inception of wireless communication devices. In the age of wireless communication, requirement of miniaturized antennas is quite high. It is quite often that antenna dimensions are decided based on application based requirement compared to practical antenna constraints. The tradeoff in efficiency and other antenna parameters against to antenna size is always a debatable issue. The article presents detailed review of fundamentals of electrically small antennas and its potential applications. In addition, constraints and challenges of electrically small antennas are also presented in the article.

Keywords: bandwidth, communication, electrically small antenna, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
3884 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer

Abstract:

Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.

Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomach

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3883 Curved Rectangular Patch Array Antenna Using Flexible Copper Sheet for Small Missile Application

Authors: Jessada Monthasuwan, Charinsak Saetiaw, Chanchai Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents the development and design of the curved rectangular patch arrays antenna for small missile application. This design uses a 0.1mm flexible copper sheet on the front layer and back layer, and a 1.8mm PVC substrate on a middle layer. The study used a small missile model with 122mm diameter size with speed 1.1 Mach and frequency range on ISM 2.4 GHz. The design of curved antenna can be installation on a cylindrical object like a missile. So, our proposed antenna design will have a small size, lightweight, low cost, and simple structure. The antenna was design and analysis by a simulation result from CST microwave studio and confirmed with a measurement result from a prototype antenna. The proposed antenna has a bandwidth covering the frequency range 2.35-2.48 GHz, the return loss below -10 dB and antenna gain 6.5 dB. The proposed antenna can be applied with a small guided missile effectively.

Keywords: rectangular patch arrays, small missile antenna, antenna design and simulation, cylinder PVC tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
3882 Extension Services' Needs of Small Farmers in Biliran Province, Philippines

Authors: Mario C. Nierras

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the extension services’ needs of small farmers in Biliran province, Philippines. It also sought to find out other issues/concerns of the small farmers. Extension services’ needs of small farmers were gathered through personal interviewing and observational analysis of randomly-selected small farmers in Biliran, Philippines. Biliran small farmers extension services’ needs include: raising fruits, raising legumes, raising vegetables, raising swine, raising cattle, and raising chicken (as priority broad skills). For the specific skills, diagnosing symptoms on fertilizer deficiencies, controlling plant pests and diseases, diagnosing signs on specific pest and disease damage, controlling animal pests and diseases, and doing artificial insemination were the priority skills. They considered an on-farm trial of new technology as most needed to be coupled with industry and quality-orientedness, as positive behaviors needed in farming success. The farmers still adhere to the so-called wait-and-see attitude, thus they are more convinced to follow a particular technology if they see a concrete result of the introduced changes. Technical needs prioritization of Biliran small farmers showed that they have a real need for crop and animal production skills to include the other issues/concerns. Extension service program planning for small farmers should be patterned after their technical needs giving due attention to some issues/concerns so that extension work could deliver the right skills for the right needs of the farmers.

Keywords: extension, extension service, extension service needs, extension service program, farmers, small farmers, marginal farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3881 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: distributed generation, renewable energy sources, energy policy, curriculum

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3880 A Study on Establishing Criteria for Installation of Small Road Signs

Authors: Sang-KeunBaik, Kyu-Soo Chong, Joon-Yeop Na

Abstract:

This study attempts to reduce the wind load of road signs, improve roadside landscaping, and enhance the safety of road users by establishing criteria for the installation of small road signs. First, we derive the minimum font size that can be used on road signs according to the road’s design speed by considering the visibility and legibility of such road signs. We classify road junctions into eight types based on junction type (intersection, interchange, and expressway) and on the number of road lanes. Furthermore, we propose small sign alternatives, to which the minimum font size is applied, to be placed by each road junction. To verify the effects of the small signs, we implemented a 3D simulation road environment, to which the small road signs were applied, and performed experiments using the driving simulator targeting 50 drivers. The experiments compared and analyzed the effects, whether the driver proceeds to the desired exit and the average driving time, between the existing large road signs and the improved small road signs under the same road conditions and intersection type. We conducted a survey with the participants of the simulation experiment on the preference between graphical signs (large road signs) and exit-centric signs (small road signs). The results show that the participants prefer the exit-centric signs (60%) to the graphical signs (40%). We propose installation criteria for small road signs for intersections, interchanges, and expressways based on the results of the experiment and the survey.

Keywords: 3D simulation, driving simulator, legibility distance, minimum font size, small road signs

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
3879 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii

Abstract:

In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3878 The Use of Computer-Aided Design in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea

Authors: Myunghoun Jang

Abstract:

A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's computer-aided design (CAD) competence. Most of small-size contractors use CAD software to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.

Keywords: CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
3877 The Effect of Microfinance on Labor Productivity of SME - The Case of Iran

Authors: Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalaee Esfand Abadi, Sepideh Samimi

Abstract:

Since one of the major difficulties to develop small manufacturing enterpriser in developing countries is the limitations of financing activities, this paper want to answer the question: “what is the role and status of micro finance in improving the labor productivity of small industries in Iran?” The results of panel data estimation show that micro finance in Iran has not yet been able to work efficiently and provide the required credit and investment. Also, reducing economy’s dependence on oil revenues reduced and increasing its reliance on domestic production and exports of industrial production can increase the productivity of workforce in Iranian small industries.

Keywords: microfinance, small manufacturing enterprises (SME), workforce productivity, Iran, panel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
3876 Cooperative Diversity Scheme Based on MIMO-OFDM in Small Cell Network

Authors: Dong-Hyun Ha, Young-Min Ko, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In Heterogeneous network (HetNet) can provide high quality of a service in a wireless communication system by composition of small cell networks. The composition of small cell networks improves cell coverage and capacity to the mobile users.Recently, various techniques using small cell networks have been researched in the wireless communication system. In this paper, the cooperative scheme obtaining high reliability is proposed in the small cell networks. The proposed scheme suggests a cooperative small cell system and the new signal transmission technique in the proposed system model. The new signal transmission technique applies a cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme based on the multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system to obtain improved performance. The improved performance of the proposed scheme is confirmed by the simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
3875 An Attempt at the Multi-Criterion Classification of Small Towns

Authors: Jerzy Banski

Abstract:

The basic aim of this study is to discuss and assess different classifications and research approaches to small towns that take their social and economic functions into account, as well as relations with surrounding areas. The subject literature typically includes three types of approaches to the classification of small towns: 1) the structural, 2) the location-related, and 3) the mixed. The structural approach allows for the grouping of towns from the point of view of the social, cultural and economic functions they discharge. The location-related approach draws on the idea of there being a continuum between the center and the periphery. A mixed classification making simultaneous use of the different approaches to research brings the most information to bear in regard to categories of the urban locality. Bearing in mind the approaches to classification, it is possible to propose a synthetic method for classifying small towns that takes account of economic structure, location and the relationship between the towns and their surroundings. In the case of economic structure, the small centers may be divided into two basic groups – those featuring a multi-branch structure and those that are specialized economically. A second element of the classification reflects the locations of urban centers. Two basic types can be identified – the small town within the range of impact of a large agglomeration, or else the town outside such areas, which is to say located peripherally. The third component of the classification arises out of small towns’ relations with their surroundings. In consequence, it is possible to indicate 8 types of small-town: from local centers enjoying good accessibility and a multi-branch economic structure to peripheral supra-local centers characterised by a specialized economic structure.

Keywords: small towns, classification, functional structure, localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
3874 The Specificity of Employee Development in Polish Small Enterprises

Authors: E. Rak

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify some of the specific characteristics of employee development, as observed in the practice of small enterprises in Poland. Results suggest that a sizeable percentage of employers are not interested in improving the development of their employee base. This aspect is often perceived as insignificant. In addition, many employers have no theoretical or practical knowledge of employee development methods. Lack of sufficient financial support is reported as third on the list of the most important barriers to employee development. Employees, on the other hand, typically offload the responsibility of initiating this type of activities onto the employer. Employee development plans are typically flexible and accommodating. The original value offered by this research comes in the form of a detailed characteristics of employee development in small enterprises, accompanied by identification of specificity of human resource development in Polish companies.

Keywords: employee development, human resources development, small enterprises, trainings

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3873 Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanostars for ROS Production

Authors: H. D. Duong, J. I. Rhee

Abstract:

In this work, gold nanoparticles in star shape (called gold nanostars, GNS) were synthesized and coated by N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (PA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for functionalizing their surface by amine and carboxyl groups and then investigated for ROS production. The GNS with big size and multi-tips seem to be superior in singlet oxygen production as compared with that of small GNS and less tips. However, the functioned GNS in small size could also enhance efficiency of singlet oxygen production about double as compared with that of the intact GNS. In combination with methylene blue (MB+), the functioned GNS could enhance the singlet oxygen production of MB+ after 1h of LED750 irradiation and no difference between small size and big size in this reaction was observed. In combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), only GNS coated PA could enhance the singlet oxygen production of ALA and the small size of GNS coated PA was a little higher effect than that of the bigger size. However, GNS coated MPA with small size had strong effect on hydroxyl radical production of ALA.

Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, gold nanostars, methylene blue, ROS production

Procedia PDF Downloads 270