Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18463

Search results for: junior high school teacher

18463 A Study on the Relationships among Teacher Empowerment, Professional Commitment and School Effectiveness

Authors: S. C. Lin, W. F. Hung, W. W. Cheng

Abstract:

Teacher empowerment was regarded as investing teachers with the right to participate in the determination of school goals and policies and to exercise professional judgment about what and how to teach. Professional commitment was considered as a person’s belief in and acceptance of the values of his or her chosen occupation or line of work, and a willingness to maintain membership in that occupation. An effective school has been defined as one in which students’ progress further than might be expected from consideration of its intake. An effective school thus adds extra value to its students' outcomes, in comparison with other schools serving similar intakes. A number of literature from various countries explored that teacher empowerment and professional commitment significantly influenced school effectiveness. However, there lacked more empirical studies to examine the relationships among them. Hence, this study was to explore the relationships among teacher empowerment, professional commitment and school effectiveness in junior high schools in Taiwan. Samples were seven hundred and five junior high school teachers selected from Taichung City, Changhua County and Nantou County. Questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study were as follows: First, the overall performances of teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness were above average. Second, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Third, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher professional commitment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Fourth, the teachers’ perceptions of school effectiveness were significant different in designated duty. Fifth, teacher empowerment was mid-positively correlation by teacher professional commitment. Sixth, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher empowerment and school effectiveness. Seventh, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness. Eighth, Teacher empowerment and professional commitment could significantly predict school effectiveness. Based on the findings of this study, the study proposed some suggestions for educational authorities, schools, teachers, and future studies as well.

Keywords: junior high school teacher, teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment, school effectiveness

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18462 Rural School English Teacher Motivational Practice on Facilitating Student Motivation

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Hsu

Abstract:

It is generally believed that the teacher’s use of motivational strategies can enhance student motivation, especially in a place like Taiwan where teacher usually dominates student EFL learning. However, only little empirical studies support this claim. This study examined the connection between teachers’ use of motivational teaching practice and observed student motivated behavior in rural junior high schools in Taiwan. The use of motivational strategies by 12 teachers in five recognized rural junior high schools was investigated observed using a classroom observation instrument, the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching. Meanwhile, post-lesson teacher evaluations accomplished by both the researcher and the teacher were functioning as part of the measure of teacher motivational practice. The data collected through observation scheme follows the real-time coding principle to examine observable teacher motivational practice and learner motivated behaviors. The results support the previous research findings that teachers’ use of motivational strategies is associated with the student motivated behaviors as well as the students’ level of motivation regarding English learning.

Keywords: English learning, motivational strategies, student motivation, teacher motivational practices

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18461 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong

Abstract:

Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: predictive factors, exercise behaviors, Junior high school, Chonburi Province

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18460 Intercultural Competency for Teachers at the Public Multicultural Alternative School for Immigrants and Multicultural Family Student’s School Maladjustment in Korea

Authors: Kiseob Chung, Hyeonmin Kang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore what is intercultural competency needed for teacher through their experience at the public multicultural alternative school. The public alternative multicultural school is an accredited school for immigrants or students from multicultural families who have experienced school maladjustment at public school. This school has self-regulation in curriculum and function of bridge to public school by helping their adaptation. In particular, this study answers the following questions: What are the most difficulties for teacher at the multicultural alternative school in comparison to public school? What competencies are required for teacher at the multicultural alternative school? Which competencies in cognitive, emotional and practical area should be more required in order for teacher to communicate with student effectively (successfully) in class and other activities in school? What is the background of that we called these competencies especially as ‘intercultural’? This study focuses to clarify teacher’s competency to help immigrants of students from multicultural background to adjust to school life with the term of intercultural competency.

Keywords: intercultural competency for teacher, multicultural alternative school, multicultural students, school maladjustment

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18459 Efficacy of Self-Assessment in Written Production among High School Students

Authors: Yoko Suganuma Oi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study is to find the efficacy of high school student self-assessment of written production. It aimed to explore the following two research questions: 1)How is topic development of their written production improved after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? 2)Does the consistency between student self-assessment and teacher assessment develop after student self-assessment and teacher feedback? The data came from the written production of 82 Japanese high school students aged from 16 to 18 years old, an American English teacher and one Japanese English teacher. Students were asked to write English compositions, about 150 words, for thirty minutes without using dictionaries. It was conducted twice at intervals of two months. Students were supposed to assess their own compositions by themselves. Teachers also assessed students’ compositions using the same assessment sheet. The results showed that both teachers and students assessed the second compositions higher than the first compositions. However, there was not the development of the consistency in coherence.

Keywords: feedback, self-assessment, topic development, high school students

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18458 What Factors Contributed to the Adaptation Gap during School Transition in Japan?

Authors: Tadaaki Tomiie, Hiroki Shinkawa

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to examine the structure of children’s adaptation during school transition and to identify a commonality and dissimilarity at the elementary and junior high school. 1,983 students in the 6th grade and 2,051 students in the 7th grade were extracted by stratified two-stage random sampling and completed the ASSESS that evaluated the school adaptation from the view point of ‘general satisfaction’, ‘teachers’ support’, ‘friends’ support’, ‘anti-bullying relationship’, ‘prosocial skills’, and ‘academic adaptation’. The 7th graders tend to be worse adaptation than the 6th graders. A structural equation modeling showed the goodness of fit for each grades. Both models were very similar but the 7th graders’ model showed a lower coefficient at the pass from ‘teachers’ support’ to ‘friends’ support’. The role of ‘teachers’ support’ was decreased to keep a good relation in junior high school. We also discussed how we provide a continuous assistance for prevention of the 7th graders’ gap.

Keywords: school transition, social support, psychological adaptation, K-12

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18457 Teacher Professional Development –Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

Abstract:

This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provides directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development

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18456 Transformational Leadership and Its Effect on Teacher Job Satisfaction

Authors: Shujie Liu

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors and their job satisfaction in China after controlling for teacher self-efficacy. Hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) technique was employed to examine factors’ contributions to teacher job satisfaction with a sample of Chinese high school teachers. The finding of this study provided evidence that teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors accounted for a large percentage (44.9%) of the variance in Chinese teachers’ job satisfaction. Uniquely, school principals’ sense of power was a negative significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction, meaning that the more teachers perceived their principals’ sense of power, the lower of their job satisfaction. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that teacher self-efficacy significantly contributes to teacher job satisfaction. Specifically, teachers’ self-efficacy on student engagement was found to be a significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction. The conclusions were discussed in terms of Chinese cultures. The authors pointed out that how to make teachers involved in school policy making is a challenge for China and that more shared leadership is needed in Chinese schools.

Keywords: Chinese teachers, teacher job satisfaction, teacher self-efficacy, transformational leadership

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18455 The Active Role of Teacher's in Managing Effective Classroom Environment for High School Students from the Viewpoint of the Teachers

Authors: Majda Ibrahim Aljaroudi, Jwaher Alburake

Abstract:

The study aimed to identify the active role of the teacher in the management of the effective classroom environment for high school students from the viewpoint of the teachers, and to identify whether there were statistically significant differences between the averages of the respondents regarding the active role of the high school teachers in managing effective classroom environment in Riyadh, and also the total score depending on the variables of the study (qualifications, years of experience, training and development programs). This study used the descriptive survey approach where a questionnaire has been built and consisted of (35) items about five areas as a tool to measure the teacher's role in the management of effective classroom environment for high school students. The study population consisted of (1313) high school teachers in the government schools in south of Riyadh. It consisted of (70) teachers who were selected randomly. It used the appropriate statistical methods to analyze data by using statistical packages (SPSS). The study found the following results: • Most of the study sample members agreed on their role in the effective classroom environment management for high school students in government schools in Riyadh with an average (3.91 out of 5), which falls in the fifth category of Quintet scale (from 3.41 to 4.20) that refers to the option "often". • There are statistically significant differences between the mean responses of the study sample about the active role of the teacher in the effective classroom environment management for high school students regarding the concept of order in the classroom depending on the variable of years of experience for the benefit of teachers who have over 10 years of experience. There are statistically significant differences between the mean responses of the study sample about the teacher's active role in the effective classroom environment management for high school students regarding the educational process for maintaining the order in the classroom depending on the variable of training and development programs for the benefit of the teachers who have more than (5) courses. Due to the results of the study the researcher recommended a number of recommendations to improve the teacher's role in the effective classroom environment management for high school students.

Keywords: effective management, active learning, educational sciences, pedagogical sciences

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18454 A Pilot Study of Bangkok High School Students’ Satisfaction Towards Online Learning Platform During Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Aung Aung Kyi, Khin Khin Aye

Abstract:

The mode of teaching and learning has been changed dramatically due to the Covid-19 pandemic that made schools close and students may have been away from the campus. However, many schools all over the countries are helping students to facilitate e-learning through online teaching and learning platform. Regarding this, Sarasas bilingual school in Bangkok conducted the high school students’ satisfaction survey since it is important for every school to improve its quality of education that must meet the students' need. For the good of the school's reputation, the purpose of the study is to examine the level of satisfaction that enhances the best services in the future. This study applied random sampling techniques and the data were collected using a self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis and independent sample t-tests were used to measure the importance of satisfaction components. The results showed G-11 (A) students were extremely satisfied with “Accessibility of course resources and materials through online platform” and “Ontime homework submission” while G-11 (B) students were extremely satisfied with “Teacher assisted with guiding my learning activities” and “Course teacher for this online course interacted with me in a timely fashion”. Additionally, they were also satisfied with a clear understanding of the teacher’s introduction during online learning. A significant difference in the satisfaction was observed between G-11 (A) and G-11 (B) students in terms of “A clear understanding on introduction was given by the teacher at the beginning of this online course”(P=0.03), “Teacher assisted with guiding my learning activities” (P=0.003), and “Comfortable surrounding during online learning” (P=0.02). With regard to gender, it has been seen that female high school students were extremely satisfied with the amount of course interaction with their teacher and her guidance with learning activities during online learning. By understanding the survey assessment, schools can improve their quality of education through the best digital educational platform that helps satisfy their students in the future.

Keywords: Bangkok high school students., covid-19 pandemic, online learning platform, satisfaction

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18453 Rationalizing the Utilization of Interactive Engagement Strategies in Teaching Specialized Science Courses of STEM and GA Strands in the Academic Track of Philippine Senior High School Curriculum

Authors: Raul G. Angeles

Abstract:

The Philippine government instituted major reforms in its educational system. The Department of Education pushes the K to 12 program that makes kindergarten mandatory and adds two years of senior high school to the country's basic education. In essence, the students’ stay in basic education particularly those who are supposedly going to college is extended. The majority of the students expressed that they will be taking the Academic Track of the Senior High School curriculum specifically the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and General Academic (GA) strands. Almost certainly, instruction should match the students' styles and thus through this descriptive study a city survey was conducted to explore the teaching strategies preferences of junior high school students and teachers who will be promoted to senior high school during the Academic Year 2016-2017. This study was conducted in selected public and private secondary schools in Metro Manila. Questionnaires were distributed to students and teachers; and series of follow-up interviews were also carried out to generate additional information. Preferences of students are centered on employing innovations such as technology, cooperative and problem-based learning. While the students will still be covered by basic education their interests in science are sparking to a point where the usual teaching styles may no longer work to them and for that cause, altering the teaching methods is recommended to create a teacher-student style matching. Other effective strategies must likewise be implemented.

Keywords: curriculum development, effective teaching strategies, problem-based learning, senior high school, science education, technology

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18452 Principal Creative Leadership for Teacher Learning and School Culture

Authors: Yashi Ye

Abstract:

Principles play vital roles in shaping the school culture and promote teacher professional learning by exerting their leadership. In the changing time of the 21st century, the creative leadership of school leaders is increasingly important in cultivating the professional learning communities of teachers for eventually improving student performance on every continent. This study examines under what conditions and how principal creative leadership contributes to teachers’ professional learning and school culture. Data collected from 632 teachers in 30 primary and middle schools in the cities of Chengdu and Chongqing in mainland China are analyzed using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping tests. A moderated mediation model of principle creative leadership effects is used to analyze professional teacher learning, and school culture in which the mediator will be school culture and the moderator will be power distance orientation. The results indicate that principal creative leadership has significant direct and indirect effects on teacher professional learning. A positive correlation between principal creative leadership, teacher professional learning, and school culture is observed. Further model testing found that teacher power distance orientation moderated the significant effect of principal creative leadership on school culture. When teachers perceived higher power distance in teacher-principal relations, the effects of principal creative leadership were stronger than for those who perceived low power distance. The results indicate the “culture change” in the young generation of teachers in China, and further implications to understand the cultural context in the field of educational leadership are discussed.

Keywords: power distance orientation, principal creative leadership, school culture, teacher professional learning

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18451 The Analysis of Education Sector and Poverty Alleviation with Benefit Incidence Analysis Approach Budget Allocation Policy in East Java

Authors: Wildan Syafitri

Abstract:

The main purpose of the development is to embody public welfare. Its indication is shown by the increasing of the public prosperity in which it will be related to the consumption level as a consequence of the increasing of public income. One of the government’s efforts to increase public welfare is to create development equity in order to alleviate poor people. Poverty’s problem is not merely about the number and percentage of the poor people, but also it includes the gap and severity of poverty.the analysis method used is Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) that is an analysis method used to disclose the impact of government policy or individual access based on the income distribution in society. Further, the finding of the study revealed is that the highest number of the poor people in the village is those who are unemployed and have family members who are still in the Junior High School. The income distribution calculation shows a fairly good budget allocation applied with good mass ratio that is 0.31. In addition, the finding of this study also discloses that Indonesian Government policy to subsidize education cost for Elementary and Junior High School students has reached the right target. It is indicated by more benefits received by Elementary and Junior High School students who are poor and very poor than other income group.

Keywords: benefit incidence analysis, budget allocation, poverty, education

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18450 Quality of Working Life and Occupational Stress in High School Teachers

Authors: S. Silva

Abstract:

Some professions had an increased risk for occupational stress and less quality of working life. Among several professions this risk is particularly preoccupant in teachers, namely high school teachers. This study aims to characterize the work stress in teachers and understand how the work stress influences their quality of working life. One hundred teachers, 60 women and 40 men with mean age of 43,2 years (SD=7,8), from North Portugal teaching in several high schools filled in the following questionnaires: Social-Demographic Questionnaire, Teacher Stress Questionnaire and the Survey of Professional Life, during January to March 2015. The results of our study show that high school teachers have several occupational stressors (M=5) and poor perceived quality of working life. They are unsatisfied with their current job and they refer to a considerable job frustration. 33% referred to no expectations about a better future in these profession and 40% have no career development. There is a strong negative correlation between stress and teacher quality of working life (r=-.775). Moderate levels of stress are related to more favorable quality of working life (r=.632). Stress, frequent in teachers, is a significant predictor of poor quality of working life. There are several stressors affecting the teachers’ performance. Career development is not considered among this professional class and it seems related to current job frustration. Considering the role of high school teacher in the development and learning of students, these results should be taken in consideration when planning the graduation and interventions with teachers.

Keywords: career, quality of working life, stress, teachers

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18449 Surveying the Effects of Online Learning On High School Student’s Motivation: A Case Study of Pinewood School

Authors: Robert Cui

Abstract:

COVID-19 has drastically changed the way students interact and engage with their environments. Students, in particular, have been forced to change from in-person to online learning. How can we ensure that students continue to remain motivated even as their mode of education transitions to online learning? In this study conducted on high school students from a small private school (n = 50), we investigate the factors that predict student motivation during online learning. Using the framework of self-determination theory, we examine the three facets of student motivation during online learning: engagement, autonomy, and competence. We find that students' perception of their peers' engagement with the curriculum, feelings of parental academic expectations, perceptions of favoritism by the teacher, and perceived clarity of instruction given by the teacher all predict student engagement in online learning. Student autonomy is predicted by the amount of parental control a student feels, the clarity of instruction given by the teacher, and also the amount to which a student is perceiving their peers to be paying attention. Finally, competence is predicted by favoritism a student perceives from a teacher and also the amount of which a student is perceiving their peers to be paying attention. Based on these findings, we provide insights on how three important stakeholders –parents, teachers, and peers can enhance students' motivation during online learning.

Keywords: academic performance, motivation, online learning, parental influence, teacher, peers

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18448 The Effects of Smoking Prevention Intervention on Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficiency among Adolescent Students

Authors: Yi-Ying Lin, Su-Guo, Chia-Hao, Ming-Szu Hong

Abstract:

Objectives: Smoking is a common addictive behavior in teenagers. Long-term smoking is hazardous to health, causes family and social expenditure, and is an important topic that should not be overlooked by academia or the government. The aims of this study are to examine the effectiveness of these courses in terms of teenagers’ knowledge and attitudes towards the hazards of smoking and the effectiveness of their self-efficacy in rejecting smoking. Methods: This study adopted a pre-test post-test design and selected 7th, 8th, 10th, and 11th graders from two junior high schools. Total of 1073 valid questionnaires were collected. The self-completed questionnaire included background information, smoking status of relatives staying with the subject, attitudes of parents towards child smoking, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, and anti-smoking self-efficacy. Results and clinical applications: Subjects in the experimental group underwent course interventions, which are 'smoking prevention courses,' in the semester. After course intervention, it was found that the intervention showed significant efficacy in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in rejecting smoking in senior high school students but no efficacy in junior high school. We recommend that this course can be used in normal senior high schools. With regards to junior high schools, smoking prevention courses should be designed to be gamified, or combined with activities with both anti-smoking messages and entertainment at the same time, so that knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy can be subconsciously cultivated.

Keywords: adolescent students, smoking knowledge, attitudes, anti-smoking self-efficiency, smoking prevention intervention

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18447 Teachers’ and Students’ Reactions to a Guided Reading Program Designed by a Teachers’ Professional Learning Community

Authors: Yea-Mei Leou, Shiu-Hsung Huang, T. C. Shen, Chin-Ya Fang

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to explore how to establish a professional learning community for English teachers at a junior high school, and to explore how teachers and students think about the guided reading program. The participants were three experienced English teachers and their ESL seventh-grade students from three classes in a junior high school. Leveled picture books and worksheets were used in the program. Questionnaires and interviews were used for gathering information. The findings were as follows: First, most students enjoyed this guided reading program. Second, the teachers thought the guided reading program was helpful to students’ learning and the discussions in the professional learning community refreshed their ideas, but the preparation for the teaching was time-consuming. Suggestions based on the findings were provided.

Keywords: ESL students, guided reading, leveled books, professional learning community

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18446 Implementing Teacher Students’ Coaching in Practical Periods of University Teacher Education: The Significance of Training Cultures

Authors: Rahm Sibylle

Abstract:

The core element in most European teacher training concepts consists in practical periods where teacher students may review the chosen profession before going on to their theoretical studies. In Germany, teacher students learn in practical studies about everyday teaching and learning in schools. Teacher students appreciate opportunities to explore school practice and to feel responsible for students’ learning. In practical studies, teacher students often idealize their teacher mentors (and consequently tend to imitate their teaching style) or contrarily feel disappointed about school practice. Concepts of empowerment through practical experience in school-based academic teacher training have to be developed. Our Swiss-German research project COPRA (Coaching in practical periods; funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) and the German Research Foundation (DFG), aims at gaining resilient results about the effectiveness of (peer) coaching in practical school periods. To explore innovative ways of accompanying novice teachers in practical periods we consider different cultures of teacher training institutions. School cultures, including teachers’ beliefs and teaching traditions involve different training cultures as starting positions for our intervention study. In our qualitative study, we describe typologies of teacher training institutions by analyzing group discussions with teacher students, mentor teachers and university lecturers concerning participation, cooperation, and relationships. In our paper, we present the design of our intervention study, our coaching concept as well as typologies of teacher training cultures. We discuss opportunities for teacher students to learn through domain-specific (peer) coaching on the background of these typologies.

Keywords: teacher training (practical periods), teacher students' coaching, training cultures (typologies), COPRA (coaching in practical periods)

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18445 Impact of Teacher’s Behavior in Class Room on Socialization and Mental Health of School Children: A Student’s Perspective

Authors: Umaiza Bashir, Ushna Farukh

Abstract:

The present study examined the perspective of school students regarding teacher’s behavioral pattern during a teaching in classroom and its influence on the students’ socialization particularly forming peer relationships with the development of emotional, behavioral problems in school children. To study these dimension of teacher-student classroom relationship, 210 school children (105 girls and 105 boys) within the age range of 14 to 18 years were taken from the government, private schools. The cross-sectional research design was used in which stratified random sampling was done. Teacher-student interaction scale was used to assess the teacher-student relationship in the classroom, which had two factors such as positive and negative interaction. Peer relationship scale was administered to investigate the socialization of students, and School Children Problem Scale was also given to the participants to explore their emotional, behavioral issues. The analysis of Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant positive relationship between negative teacher-student interaction and student’s emotional-behavioral as well as social problems. Another analysis of t-test revealed that boys perceived more positive interaction with teachers than girls (p < 0.01). Girls showed more emotional behavioral problems than boys (p < 0.001) Linear regression explained that age, gender, negative teacher’s interaction with students and victimization in social gathering predicts mental health problems in school children. This study suggests and highlights the need for the school counselors for the better mental health of students and teachers.

Keywords: teacher-student interaction, school psychology, student’s emotional behavioral problems

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18444 Reflections of Young Language Learners’ and Teacher Candidates’ for ‘Easy English’ Project

Authors: F. Özlem Saka

Abstract:

There should be connections between universities and state schools in order to improve the quality of instruction. ELT department of Akdeniz University carries out a project named ‘Easy English’ with a state primary school in Antalya for 2 years. According to the Project requirements, junior students at university teach English to 3rd grade primary school students during the term. They are supposed to teach the topics planned before, preparing different activities for the students. This study reflects the ideas of both students at university and at state school related to the language programme carried out. Their ideas have been collected with a questionnaire consisting of similar structured questions. The result shows that both groups like the programme and evaluate it from their own perspectives. It is believed the efficient results of this project will lead to planning similar programmes for different levels. From this study, curriculum planners and teachers can get ideas to improve language teaching at primary level as both university students, being the teachers in the project and students at state primary school have positive feelings and thoughts about it.

Keywords: foreign language teacher training, games in English teaching, songs in English teaching, teaching English to young learners

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18443 In Search of Sustainable Science Education at the Basic Level of Education in Ghana: The Unintended Consequences of Enacting Science Curriculum Reforms in Junior High Schools

Authors: Charles Deodat Otami

Abstract:

This paper documents an ongoing investigation which seeks to explore the consequences of repeated science curriculum reforms at basic level of education in Ghana. Drawing upon data collected through document analysis, semi-structured interviews and classroom observations linked with a study of teaching practices in Junior High Schools of educational districts that are well served with teachers and yet, produce poor students’ achievements in science in the national Basic Education Certificate Examinations. The results emanating from the investigation highlight that the repeated science curriculum reforms at the basic level of education have led to the displacement of scientific knowledge in junior high schools in Ghana, a very critical level of education where the foundation for further science education to the highest level is laid. Furthermore, the results indicate that the enactment of centralised curriculum reforms in Ghana has produced some unpleasant repercussions. For instance, how the teachers interpret and implement the curriculum is directly related to their own values and practices as well as students feedback. This is contrary to the perception that external impetus received from donor agencies holds the key to strengthening reforms made. Thus, it is argued that without the right of localised management, curriculum reforms themselves are inadequate to ensure the realisation of the desired effects. This paper, therefore, draws the attention of stakeholders to the fact that the enactment of School Science Curriculum reform goes beyond just simple implementation to more complex dynamics which may change the original reform intents.

Keywords: basic education, basic education certificate examinations, curriculum reforms, junior high school, educational districts, teaching practices

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18442 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: blended learning, learning app, google classroom, schools

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18441 The Age Difference in Social Skills Constructs for School Adaptation: A Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Students at Elementary, Junior, and Senior High School

Authors: Hiroki Shinkawa, Tadaaki Tomiie

Abstract:

Many interventions for social skills acquisition aim to decrease the gap between social skills deficits in the individual and normative social skills; nevertheless little is known of typical social skills according to age difference in students. In this study, we developed new quintet of Hokkaido Social Skills Inventory (HSSI) in order to identify age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation. First, we selected 13 categories of social skills for school adaptation from previous studies, and created questionnaire items through discussion by 25 teachers in all three levels from elementary schools to senior high schools. Second, the factor structures of five versions of the social skills scale were investigated on 2nd grade (n = 1,864), 4th grade (n = 1,936), 6th grade (n = 2,085), 7th grade (n = 2,007), and 10th grade (n = 912) students, respectively. The exploratory factor analysis showed that a number of constructing factors of social skills increased as one’s grade in school advanced. The results in the present study can be useful to characterize the age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation.

Keywords: social skills, age difference, children, adolescents

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18440 Relational Effect of Parent Interest, Basic School Attended, Gender, and Scare of Basic School Mathematics Teacher on Student Interest in Mathematics

Authors: Yarhands Dissou Arthur, Samuel Asiedu Addo, Jonathan Annan

Abstract:

Interest in subject specific is very essential in the quest to ensure effective teaching and learning. In building interest in subject specific areas requires certain factors and strategies well-spelled out.The factors such as the gender of the student, the type of basic school attended, the parent interest as well as the scare of the basic school mathematics teacher is very important to consider. The relational effect and the contribution these above mentioned variables on student have not been fully investigated and this paper address the effect of these factors on the student interest. In the attainment of this goal, the current paper addresses the effect of parent interest, the type of basic school attended, the scare by basic school mathematics teacher and its effect on student’s interest in mathematics. A cross sectional data collected from two hundred and sixty post-secondary school student were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods by aid of SPSS version 16. The study found that parent interest and value for mathematics significantly influenced students interest and joy in solving mathematical problems. Moreover, we also observed that the fear imposed by basic school mathematics teachers was found to significantly influence students’ interest. The study further found that the type of basic school attended and gender are factors that do not influence students’ interest in mathematics. In addition to concluding that a student’s interest is influenced by both parent interest and the fear of basic school mathematics teacher, the study also showed that the type of basic school attended and gender does not affect the students’ interest in mathematics.

Keywords: gender, mathematics interest, teacher interest, teacher interest, student interest

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18439 The Need for Educational Psychology in Teacher Education for Sustainable Transformation and Security in Nigeria

Authors: Kaltume Kabir Sharrif

Abstract:

Teacher education is the bedrock of educational growth and development of any nation. With development in education all human problems can be overcome. Educational Psychology, on the other hand, is in a strategic position for any programme in teacher education to be successful hence other aspects of societal issues. In other words, no teacher education can be of any help in ensuring transformation and security without adequate study in Educational Psychology. Without adequate knowledge and skills in Educational Psychology the teacher may not function effectively in the course of discharging his duty. It is in view of this, that the paper discusses some aspects of Educational Psychology that are of paramount importance in teacher education for sustainable transformation and security of Nigeria. Some recommendations were offered on the role educational psychology play in resolving security challenges facing the country. These include enriching educational psychology with topics from forensic psychology that will provide the teacher the skills of fighting crime in the school, Behavioural Science Unit should be established in each school to monitor the behavior of students, among others.

Keywords: transformation, security challenges, teacher education, educational psychology

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18438 Learning-Oriented School Education: Indicator Construction and Taiwan's Implementation Performance

Authors: Meiju Chen, Chaoyu Guo, Chia Wei Tang

Abstract:

The present study's purpose is twofold: first, to construct indicators for learning-oriented school education and, second, to conduct a survey to examine how learning-oriented education has been implemented in junior high schools after the launch of the 12-year compulsory curriculum. For indicator system construction, we compiled relevant literature to develop a preliminary indicator list model and then conducted two rounds of a questionnaire survey to gain comprehensive feedback from experts to finalize our indicator model. In the survey's first round, 12 experts were invited to evaluate the indicators' appropriateness. Based on the experts' consensus, we determined our final indicator list and used it to develop the Fuzzy Delphi questionnaire to finalize the indicator system and each indicator's relative value. For the fact-finding survey, we collected 454 valid samples to examine how the concept of learning-oriented education is adopted and implemented in the junior high school context. We also used this data in our importance-performance analysis to explore the strengths and weaknesses of school education in Taiwan. The results suggest that the indicator system for learning-oriented school education must consist of seven dimensions and 34 indicators. Among the seven dimensions, 'student learning' and 'curriculum planning and implementation' are the most important yet underperforming dimensions that need immediate improvement. We anticipate that the indicator system will be a useful tool for other countries' evaluation of schools' performance in learning-oriented education.

Keywords: learning-oriented education, school education, fuzzy Delphi method, importance-performance analysis

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18437 Motivations, Perceptions, and Aspirations concerning Teaching as a Career for High School Students from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds

Authors: Mi Ok Kang

Abstract:

This study explores the factors that motivate urban high school students from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to choose teaching as a future career. It draws on in-depth interviews with high school students of color living in an urban downtown located in an intermountain area in the U.S. Using the factors influencing teaching choice (FIT-Choice) model, this study examines the motivations, mobility experiences, and aspirations of participating high school students who self-identified as Latino/a, Tongan, and Chinese. The study identifies influential factors -both challenges and strengthening effects- that high school students of color experience in their career decision making. The study concludes that self-perceptions of teaching abilities, parental support, social connections, job security, and prior work with children during the internship in K-12 classroom motivated them to be a teacher. Limitations such as financial struggles of parents, the low social status of teaching career, and the low salary and benefit packages in the U.S. are among the factors that cause students to waver in or doubt their career choice.

Keywords: career development, diversifying teaching force, FIT-Choice, high school students of color

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18436 Maintaining the Formal Type of West Java's Heritage Language with Sundanese Language Lesson in Senior High School

Authors: Dinda N. Lestari

Abstract:

Sundanese language is one of heritage language in Indonesia that must be maintained especially the formal type of it because teenagers nowadays do not speak Sundanese language formally in their daily lives. To maintain it, Cultural and Education Ministry of Indonesia has input Sundanese language lesson at senior high school in West Java area. The aim of this study was to observe whether the existence of Sundanese language lesson in senior high school in the big town of Karawang, West Java - Indonesia give the contribution to the formal type of Sundanese language maintenance or not. For gathering the data, the researcher interviewed the senior high school students who have learned Sundanese language to observe their acquisition of it. As a result of the interview, the data was presented in qualitative research by using the interviewing method. Then, the finding indicated that the existence of Sundanese language in Senior High School also the educational program which is related to it, for instance, Kemis Nyunda seemed to do not effective enough in maintaining the formal type of Sundanese language. Therefore, West Java government must revise the learning strategy of it, including the role of the Sundanese language teacher.

Keywords: heritage language, language maintenance and shift, senior high school, Sundanese language, Sundanese language lesson

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18435 Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils

Authors: Elizabeth Oyenike Abegunrin

Abstract:

This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.

Keywords: gender, academic achievement, social studies, primary school

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18434 Drop-Out Rate in Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School for SY 2013-2014: Its Causes and Interventions

Authors: Raquel Balon Quintana

Abstract:

This study aims to help the Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out to finish their studies in their grade/year level category for this school year by finding out students’ behavior in and out the school, community involvement in the learning process and the causes or reasons behind drop-out rate that affect the performance level of the school. This study also looked for the intervention measures to reduce the drop-out rate of the school. The Normative Survey Method of research was used to achieve its purpose and objective of conducting interview with students and their parents, subject teachers, classmates and friends; undertaking observation and monitoring to find out the whereabouts of SARDO’s on and off classes hours; using questionnaires; and conducting home visitation to be able to link the community involvement into dropping-out of student. Results of the study revealed that out of 32 Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out, 50% were over age for high school (16 years old to 21 years old) while the other 50% came from the regular high school students. These 16 students came from the 41 students who dropped-out from their classes last school year. All Students-At-Risk of Dropping-Out are single and seventy-eight percent of them are male. Top five (5) among the factors that affect their school performance were peer pressure, self-drive, malnutrition, family problem/support and truancy. The five (5) least factors that affect their schooling were problems within their community, school-administration factor, harassment, teacher factor and distance from the school.

Keywords: students-at-risk of dropping-out, drop-out rate, Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School, Philippines

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