Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5398

Search results for: multicultural alternative school

5398 Intercultural Competency for Teachers at the Public Multicultural Alternative School for Immigrants and Multicultural Family Student’s School Maladjustment in Korea

Authors: Kiseob Chung, Hyeonmin Kang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore what is intercultural competency needed for teacher through their experience at the public multicultural alternative school. The public alternative multicultural school is an accredited school for immigrants or students from multicultural families who have experienced school maladjustment at public school. This school has self-regulation in curriculum and function of bridge to public school by helping their adaptation. In particular, this study answers the following questions: What are the most difficulties for teacher at the multicultural alternative school in comparison to public school? What competencies are required for teacher at the multicultural alternative school? Which competencies in cognitive, emotional and practical area should be more required in order for teacher to communicate with student effectively (successfully) in class and other activities in school? What is the background of that we called these competencies especially as ‘intercultural’? This study focuses to clarify teacher’s competency to help immigrants of students from multicultural background to adjust to school life with the term of intercultural competency.

Keywords: intercultural competency for teacher, multicultural alternative school, multicultural students, school maladjustment

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5397 Educational Psychologists in Instructional and Mentoring Contexts: The Significance of Multicultural Competence

Authors: Yassir Semmar

Abstract:

During the past two decades, the topic of multicultural competence has gained much attention in the psychology field, most notably in the clinical and counseling specializations. While higher education institutions have been placing a premium on sensitizing their faculty, staff, and student bodies to various diversity and multicultural issues, little emphasis has been directed towards mandating multicultural training for graduate learners in the educational psychology specialty. Given the increasingly diverse student population, it is imperative for educational psychologists to become multiculturally competent particularly in instructional and mentoring contexts. Strategies and conditions for attaining multicultural competence are discussed.

Keywords: multicultural competence, instruction, pedagogical practices, mentoring

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5396 Lay Approach of Psychological Flexibility: Concept, Prototype, and Its Application in Multicultural Adaptation

Authors: Yuanyuan Shi

Abstract:

Being psychologically flexible is important, especially, under a globalized cultural milieu. Treating psychological flexibility as a form of multicultural competence, we conducted five studies to construct the lay concept of psychological flexibility (Study 1 and 2) and test the association between psychological flexibility and multicultural adaptation (Study 3-5). In Study 1, we first identified the components of psychological flexibility by prototype analysis among lay Chinese (N = 165) and American (N = 165). In Study 2, we examined the convergent validity of the lay concept of psychological flexibility consisted with hypothesized structures via survey among Chinese (N = 172) and American participants (N = 165). Then, we examined the relationship between psychological flexibility and multicultural orientation in American and Chinese contexts (Study 3, N = 6245), and tested the influence of experimentally-manipulated psychological flexibility on foreign cultural accommodation (Study 4 N = 409; Study 5, N = 320). The results showed, higher flexibility was accompanied by higher cognitive flexibility, emotion reappraisal, resilience, and openness to experience, and lower need for cognition closure; besides, people with high psychological flexible turned out to have stronger multicultural orientation and better multicultural adaptations. Our research highlights the importance of psychological flexibility in multicultural situations and extends the understanding of the relationship between multicultural experience and well-being.

Keywords: adaptation, psychological flexibility, multicultural competence, multicultural orientation

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5395 A Sociocultural View of Ethnicity of Parents and Children's Language Learning

Authors: Thapanee Musiget

Abstract:

Ethnic minority children’s language learning is believed that it can be developed through school system. However, many cases prove that these kids are left to challenge with multicultural context at school and sometimes decreased the ability to acquire new learning. Consequently, it is significant for ethnicity parents to consider that prompting their children at home before their actual school age can eliminate negative outcome of children's language acquisition. This paper discusses the approach of instructional use of parents and children language learning in the context of minority language group in Thailand. By conducting this investigation, secondary source of data was gathered with the purpose to point out some primary methods for parents and children in ethnicity. The process of language learning is based on the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, which highlights expressive communication among individuals as the best motivating force in human development and learning. The article also highlights the role of parents as they lead the instruction approach. In the discussion part, the role of ethnic minority parents as a language instructor is offered as mediator.

Keywords: ethnic minority, language learning, multicultural context, sociocultural theory

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5394 Diversity: Understanding Multicultural Concerns in Counseling

Authors: Zuwaira Abdullahi

Abstract:

In this increasing changing world, it is important to be aware of the needs of clients when it comes to race and ethnic diversities. These diversities create difficulties for multicultural counselling: the counsellor’s own culture, attitudes, and theoretical perspective; the client's culture; and the multiplicity of variables comprising an individual's identity. This paper examines the level of realization, sensitization and attitude of counsellors towards individuals that come from different cultural, social and economic background.

Keywords: multicultural, diversities, counselling, needs

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5393 Making Waves: Preparing the Next Generation of Bilingual Medical Doctors

Authors: Edith Esparza-Young, Ángel M. Matos, Yaritza Gonzalez, Kirthana Sugunathevan

Abstract:

Introduction: This research describes the existing medical school program which supports a multicultural setting and bilingualism. The rise of Spanish speakers in the United States has led to the recruitment of bilingual medical students who can serve the evolving demographics. This paper includes anecdotal evidence, narratives and the latest research on the outcomes of supporting a multilingual academic experience in medical school and beyond. People in the United States will continue to need health care from physicians who have experience with multicultural competence. Physicians who are bilingual and possess effective communication skills will be in high demand. Methodologies: This research is descriptive. Through this descriptive research, the researcher will describe the qualities and characteristics of the existing medical school programs, curriculum, and student services. Additionally, the researcher will shed light on the existing curriculum in the medical school and also describe specific programs which help to serve as safety nets to support diverse populations. The method included observations of the existing program and the implementation of the medical school program, specifically the Accelerated Review Program, the Language Education and Professional Communication Program, student organizations and the Global Health Institute. Concluding Statement: This research identified and described characteristics of the medical school’s program. The research explained and described the current and present phenomenon of this medical program, which has focused on increasing the graduation of bilingual and minority physicians. The findings are based on observations of the curriculum, programs and student organizations which evolves and remains innovative to stay current with student enrollment.

Keywords: bilingual, English, medicine, doctor

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5392 A Case Study on Vocational Teachers’ Perceptions on Their Linguistically and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Authors: Kirsi Korkealehto

Abstract:

In Finland the transformation from homogenous culture into multicultural one as a result of heavy immigration has been rapid in the recent decades. As multilingualism and multiculturalism are growing features in our society, teachers in all educational levels need to be competent for encounters with students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Consequently, also the number of multicultural and multilingual vocational school students has increased which has not been taken into consideration in teacher education enough. To bridge this gap between teachers’ competences and the requirements of the contemporary school world, Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education established the DivEd-project. The aim of the project is to prepare all teachers to work in the linguistically and culturally diverse world they live in, to develop and increase culturally sustaining and linguistically responsive pedagogy in Finland, increase awareness among Teacher Educators working with preservice teachers and to increase awareness and provide specific strategies to in-service teachers. The partners in the nationwide project are 6 universities and 2 universities of applied sciences. In this research, the linguistically and culturally sustainable teaching practices developed within the DivEd-project are tested in practice. This research aims to explore vocational teachers’ perceptions of these multilingualism and multilingual educational practices. The participants of this study are vocational teachers in of different fields. The data were collected by individual, face-to-face interviews. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis. The findings indicate that the vocational teachers experience that they lack knowledge on linguistically and culturally responsive pedagogy. Moreover, they regard themselves in some extent incompetent in incorporating multilingually and multiculturally sustainable pedagogy in everyday teaching work. Therefore, they feel they need more training pertaining multicultural and multilingual knowledge, competences and suitable pedagogical methods for teaching students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: multicultural, multilingual, teacher competence, vocational school

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5391 Children with Migration Backgrounds in Russian Elementary Schools: Teachers Attitudes and Practices

Authors: Chulpan Gromova, Rezeda Khairutdinova, Dina Birman

Abstract:

One of the most significant issues that schools all over the world face today is the ways teachers respond to increasing diversity. The study was informed by the tripartite model of multicultural competence, with awareness of personal biases a necessary component, together with knowledge of different cultures, and skills to work with students from diverse backgrounds. The paper presents the results of qualitative descriptive studies that help to understand how school teachers in Russia treat migrant children, how they solve the problems of adaptation of migrant children. The purpose of this study was to determine: a) educational practices used by primary school teachers when working with migrant children; b) relationship between practices and attitudes of teachers. Empirical data were collected through interviews. The participants were informed that a conversation was being recorded. They were also warned that the study was voluntary, absolutely anonymous, no personal data was disclosed. Consent was received from 20 teachers. The findings were analyzed using directive content analysis (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004). The analysis was deductive according to the categories of practices and attitudes identified in the literature review and enriched inductively to identify variation within these categories. Studying practices is an essential part of preparing future teachers for working in a multicultural classroom. For language and academic support, teachers mostly use individual work. In order to create a friendly classroom climate and environment teachers have productive conversations with students, organize multicultural events for the whole school or just for an individual class. The majority of teachers have positive attitudes toward migrant children. In most cases, positive attitudes lead to high expectations for their academic achievements. Conceptual orientation of teacher attitudes toward cultural diversity is mostly pluralistic. Positive attitudes, high academic expectations and conceptual orientation toward pluralism are favorably reflected in teachers’ practice.

Keywords: intercultural education, migrant children schooling, teachers attitudes, teaching practices

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5390 Empowering Business Students with Intercultural Communicative Competence through Multicultural Literature

Authors: Dorsaf Ben Malek

Abstract:

The function of culture in language teaching changed because of globalization and the latest technologies. English became a lingua franca which resulted in altering the teaching objectives. The re-evaluation of cultural awareness is one of them. Business English teaching has also been subject to all these changes. It is therefore a wrong idea if we try to consider it as a diffusion of unlimited listing of lexis, diagrams, charts, and statistics. In fact, business students’ future career will require business terminology together with intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to handle different multicultural encounters and contribute to the international community. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the necessity of empowering business students with intercultural communicative competence and the second turns around the potential of multicultural literature in implementing ICC in business English teaching. This was proved through a qualitative action research done on a group of Tunisian MA business students. It was an opportunity to discover the potential of multicultural literature together with inquiry-based learning in enhancing business students’ intercultural communicative competence. Data were collected through classroom observations, journals and semi-structured interviews. Results were in favour of using multicultural literature to enhance business students’ ICC. In addition, the short story may be a motivating tool to read literature, and inquiry-based learning can be an effective approach to teaching literature.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, multicultural literature, short stories, inquiry-based learning

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5389 Reflections on the Role of Cultural Identity in a Bilingual Education Program

Authors: Lina Tenjo, Ilba Rodríguez

Abstract:

The role of cultural identity in bilingual programs has been barely discussed in regards to SLA. This research focuses on providing relevant information that helps in having more knowledge about the experiences that an elementary student has during the second language learning process in a bilingual program within a multicultural context. This study explores the experience of 18 students in a dual language program, in a public elementary school in Northern Virginia, USA. It examines their dual language experience and the different ways this experience contributes to the formation of their cultural identity. The findings were studied with the purpose of determining the relationship between participants and certain aspects of cultural identity in a multicultural context. The reflections that originate from the voices of children are the key source that helps us to better understand the particular needs that young learners have during their participation in a DLP.

Keywords: acculturation, bilingual education, culture, dual language program, identity, second language acquisition

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5388 Implementation of Language Policy in a Swedish Multicultural Early Childhood School: A Development Project

Authors: Carina Hermansson

Abstract:

This presentation focuses a development project aiming at developing and documenting the steps taken at a multilingual, multicultural K-5 school, with the aim to improve the achievement levels of the pupils by focusing language and literacy development across the schedule in a digital classroom, and in all units of the school. This pre-formulated aim, thus, may be said to adhere to neoliberal educational and accountability policies in terms of its focus on digital learning, learning results, and national curriculum standards. In particular the project aimed at improving the collaboration between the teachers, the leisure time unit, the librarians, the mother tongue teachers and bilingual study counselors. This is a school environment characterized by cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and professional pluralization. The overarching aims of the research project were to scrutinize and analyze the factors enabling and obstructing the implementation of the Language Policy in a digital classroom. Theoretical framework: We apply multi-level perspectives in the analyses inspired by Uljens’ ideas about interactive and interpersonal first order (teacher/students) and second order(principal/teachers and other staff) educational leadership as described within the framework of discursive institutionalism, when we try to relate the Language Policy, educational policy, and curriculum with the administrative processes. Methodology/research design: The development project is based on recurring research circles where teachers, leisure time assistants, mother tongue teachers and study counselors speaking the mother tongue of the pupils together with two researchers discuss their digital literacy practices in the classroom. The researchers have in collaboration with the principal developed guidelines for the work, expressed in a Language Policy document. In our understanding the document is, however, only a part of the concept, the actions of the personnel and their reflections on the practice constitute the major part of the development project. One and a half years out of three years have now passed and the project has met with a row of difficulties which shed light on factors of importance for the progress of the development project. Field notes and recordings from the research circles, a survey with the personnel, and recorded group interviews provide data on the progress of the project. Expected conclusions: The problems experienced deal with leadership, curriculum, interplay between aims, technology, contents and methods, the parents as customers taking their children to other schools, conflicting values, and interactional difficulties, that is, phenomena on different levels, ranging from school to a societal level, as for example teachers being substituted as a result of the marketization of schools. Also underlying assumptions from actors at different levels create obstacles. We find this study and the problems we are facing utterly important to share and discuss in an era with a steady flow of refugees arriving in the Nordic countries.

Keywords: early childhood education, language policy, multicultural school, school development project

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5387 Ata-Manobo Tribe as Stakeholders in the Making of School Improvement Plan: Basis for Policy Recommendation

Authors: Diobein C. Flores

Abstract:

The populace in Municipality of Talaingod is composed of Ata-Manobo. The said lumads enrich their culture, orientation and self because the place is a hive of their tribe. In lieu, the study would analyze the participation of the Ata-Manobo in the making of school improvement plan (SIP). Thus, it recommends alternative policy options that would help strengthen their involvement. The school stakeholders-Ata Manobo representatives from students, parent-teacher association, alumni, basic sector, municipal/barangay government unit, civic/social organizations and other government various agencies are the key participants in this study. The research used descriptive design. The responses of the representatives were analyzed through the criteria involved in employing Rational Model. The technical dimension, administrative, political acceptability and economic are the criteria in revealing decision. The policy alternative option 3- recommends to formulate policy for the purpose of capacitating stakeholders or governing council members in the making of SIP was pointed out as the most preferred option. This could strengthen the participation among Ata-Manobo as stakeholders in planning. Hence, the formulation alternative policy- capacitating stakeholders in the crafting of school improvement plan is recommended. The suggested initiative would assist the Department of Education in forging consensus across neighborhoods during the making of SIP. The appropriation of the definite budget to be used during the conduct of capability building activities is also suggested. Training-workshops are identified as possible intervention to ensure that the stakeholders are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills needed in the making of SIP. Indeed, the equal opportunities for all stakeholders regardless of their life circumstances must be noted. With the belief, people must be empowered to take advantage and spearhead progress in the making of SIP.

Keywords: Ata-Manobo Tribe, stakeholders, school improvement plan, Municipality of Talaingod, Philippines

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5386 Teaching Students Empathy: Justifying Diverse and Inclusive Texts

Authors: Jennifer Wallbrown

Abstract:

It’s not uncommon in the US to see news article headlines about public school teachers being scrutinized for what they are teaching or see the general public weighing in on whether or not they think certain controversial subjects should be addressed in the classroom- such as LGBTQ+ or multicultural literature. Even though this is a subject that has been written about and discussed for years, it continues to be a relevant topic in education as it continues to be a struggle to implement more diverse texts. Although it is valid for teachers to fear controversy when they attempt to create a more diverse or inclusive curriculum, it is a fight worth fighting because of the benefits students can gain from being exposed to a wide range of texts. This paper is different from others of its kind because it addresses many of the counterarguments often made to implementing LGBTQ+ or multicultural literature in secondary classrooms. It not only encourages educators to try to include more diverse texts, but it gives them the tools to address common concerns and be sound in their reasoning for choosing these texts. This can be of interest to those educators who are not English teachers because a truly diverse and inclusive curriculum would include other subjects as well- including history, art, and more. By the end of my proposed paper, readers will feel encouraged to choose more diverse and inclusive texts for their classrooms. They can also be confident that if met with opposition or controversy, as is sometimes common when implementing new texts, that they have sound arguments and reasoning for why they chose to include these texts. This reasoning is that, based on the research, studies have found there are benefits to students studying texts about those different from themselves, because it teaches them empathy and helps fight prejudice.

Keywords: education, diverse, inclusive, multicultural, lgbtq+, pedagogy

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5385 School Counseling in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the past Recommending a Way Forward

Authors: Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana

Abstract:

Despite a rapid increase in the number of school counselors in the recent past; procuring the service of school counselors is a luxury that many Sri Lankan schools cannot afford. In addition, school counseling in Sri Lanka also faces new challenges in implementation due to the fact that a generally agreed consensus on training, ethical standards, role identity, counseling model, and structures for school counselors has not been reached. Therefore, this paper has several objectives. First, it reviews a brief history of school counseling in Sri Lanka and describes its current status. Second, it describes current trends/ problems specific to Sri Lankan school counseling milieu which have limited the progress of school counseling as a practice. Third, it discusses societal and cultural issues that are important to consider when implementing school counseling as a practices in Sri Lanka and provides recommendations to improve it.

Keywords: school counseling, Sri Lanka, current situation, recommendations

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5384 Predictors of School Safety Awareness among Malaysian Primary School Teachers

Authors: Ssekamanya, Mastura Badzis, Khamsiah Ismail, Dayang Shuzaidah Bt Abduludin

Abstract:

With rising incidents of school violence worldwide, educators and researchers are trying to understand and find ways to enhance the safety of children at school. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the demographic variables of gender, age, length of service, position, academic qualification, and school location predicted teachers’ awareness about school safety practices in Malaysian primary schools. A stratified random sample of 380 teachers was selected in the central Malaysian states of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that none of the factors was a good predictor of awareness about school safety training, delivery methods of school safety information, and available school safety programs. Awareness about school safety activities was significantly predicted by school location (whether the school was located in a rural or urban area). While these results may reflect a general lack of awareness about school safety among primary school teachers in the selected locations, a national study needs to be conducted for the whole country.

Keywords: school safety awareness, predictors of school safety, multiple regression analysis, malaysian primary schools

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5383 An Analysis of Curricular and Other Curricular Activities of Ramakrishna Mission School

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav

Abstract:

India is a democratic country requires creative dynamic citizen for its development. And it will be possible only when school produce creative prosperous students. In this aspect, researcher find out that curricular and other curricular activities of Ramkrishna Mission School is unique up to some extent because it gives emphasis on value education and holistic development of students. It giving the emphasis on self-realization, standing on their own feet and community work. Most of the teacher of this school are competent to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students so, outcome of this school is very effective and impressive to other school.

Keywords: Ramakrishna Mission School, analysis of curricular, other curricular activities of R. M. School, teachers

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5382 The Relationship between School Belonging, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Tabriz High School Students

Authors: F. Pari, E. Fathiazar, T. Hashemi, M. Pari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy and school belonging in the academic achievement of Tabriz high school students in grade 11. Therefore, using a random cluster method, 377 subjects were selected from the whole students of Tabriz high schools. They filled in the School Belonging Questionnaire (SBQ) and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using correlational as well as multiple regression methods. Findings demonstrate self-efficacy and school belonging have significant roles in the prediction of academic achievement. On the other hand, the results suggest that considering the gender variable there is no significant difference between self-efficacy and school belonging. On the whole, cognitive approaches could be effective in the explanation of academic achievement.

Keywords: school belonging, self-efficacy, academic achievement, high school

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5381 Indigenous Conceptualization of School Readiness: Mother's Perspective in Pakistan

Authors: Ayesha Inam, R. Moazzam, Z. Akhtar

Abstract:

School readiness plays a significant role in helping a child deal with various school demands and expectations as well as in determining academic success outcomes. There is a scarcity of data concerning the condition of school readiness in Pakistan. This qualitative research seeks to examine the perspective of mothers about school readiness along with its four domains (self-care, socio-emotional, physical and cognitive) as well as about the appropriate age of entry into formal preschool. Fifteen interviews were conducted with mothers of pre-school children in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. It was found that mothers shared the common perception that children should be socially, emotionally, physically and cognitively prepared to be ready for pre-school. The results concluded that the mothers unanimously agreed in their perceptions that three to four years was the appropriate age range for children to begin pre-school and that early or late entry into pre-school had negative implications for children’s ability to learn and understand, and hence, their school readiness. Mental age was perceived as a more important criterion for deciding when to send children to pre-school. Mothers were found to send their children to school earlier, and children were found to be increasingly exposed to technology, both of which were found to influence children’s readiness for school. Both schools and mothers were found to play an instrumental role in preparing children for school and in school adjustment by nurturing their skills and abilities.

Keywords: perception of mothers, Pakistan, school readiness, entry to preschool

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5380 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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5379 The Kindergarten as a Multicultural Workplace

Authors: Monika Haanpää

Abstract:

Well-functioning workplaces are often characterized by good co-operation, adequate flow of information, open interaction between workers and a supportive work environment. The workplace is a mosaic of human personalities and the influx of people, who speak different languages and who are from different cultural backgrounds, may bring about new challenges and enrich this environment. However, this influx of people could also pose a problem as the adaptation of immigrant people to new terms of work may depend heavily on the level of language skills, the stage of culture shock, professional identity, and personality. Migration is not a rare phenomenon in Finland anymore; nobody is surprised to see people from different countries and different backgrounds in the schools, on the streets or in shops. However, this does not mean that immigration is an easy process for people coming from other countries. The experience of workers, with diverse language and backgrounds, has rarely been researched, particularly from the superior's point of view. In addition, the vast majority of researchers have paid more attention to multicultural kindergartens in terms of immigrant children and their families. Hence, there is a need to show the problem which exists in the recruitment of the increasing number of workers who come from different countries. Opinions about kindergartens, as multicultural workplaces, have been gathered through interviews with immigrant workers responsible for education. In addition, a questionnaire for native Finnish workers and superiors in kindergartens was carried out. The collected material has been analyzed qualitatively, focusing on topics such as: the kindergarten as a multicultural workplace, factors influencing career success of workers with diverse language and cultural backgrounds, the social relations in the multicultural workplaces and teachers’ changing professional identity. The results of the research provided a novel aspect of the multicultural workplace and emphasized a dependency of immigrant workers’ on language skills in Finnish; affecting professional success. In addition, they showed the good relations between other native Finnish co-workers and superiors. The results also illustrate why writing skills in Finnish are so important in kindergartens. Part of the investigation also questions some results of the research i.e. which is more important in the kindergarten as a multicultural workplace: personality, good professional skills or good language skills.

Keywords: kindergarten, multicultural workplace, social relations at work, work satisfaction

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5378 Collaborative Managerial Practices of Heads of Educational Institutions: Principals and Students Perspective

Authors: Nasir Ahmed

Abstract:

The study was designed to explore the managerial practices of secondary school principals in collaboration with different school stakeholder’s i.e. Teachers, students and school councils. The population of the study comprised 41 principals of government secondary schools, 249 Secondary school teachers (SSTs), 3360 students of 10th class and 300 members of the school councils of government secondary schools (both boys and girls) in Wazirabad, Pakistan. 50 percentage principals, 40 percentage SSTs, 3 percentage students and 15% members of the school councils were taken as a sample of the study. Data was collected through different four-questionnaire design on a five point rating scale. The questionnaires for teachers, students, and school councils were developed to see their involvement in school management. The questionnaire for the secondary school principals was designed to find out to see their perceptions about the involvement of these stakeholders in school’s management. The results of the students indicated that, the remaining stakeholders were not cooperating with the school management. It was recommended that all the stakeholders be provided equal opportunities to take an active part in the school management. This may be based on a formal mechanism for the collaborative efforts of all the stakeholders.

Keywords: collaboration, management, school stakeholders, school councils, managerial practices

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5377 Intercultural Communication in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

Abstract:

This paper discusses how the teaching of English as a foreign language in Malawi can enhance intercultural communication competence in a multicultural society. It argues that incorporation of intercultural communication in the teaching of English as a foreign language would improve cultural awareness in communication in the multicultural Malawi. The teaching of English in Malawi is geared towards producing students who would communicate in the global world. This entails the use of proper pedagogical approaches and instructional materials that prepare the students toward intercultural awareness. In view of this, the language teachers were interviewed in order to determine their instructional approaches to intercultural communication. Instructional materials were further evaluated to assess how interculturality is incorporated. The study found out that teachers face perceptual and technical challenges that hinder them from exercising creativity to incorporate interculturality in their lessons. This is also compounded by lack of clear direction in the teaching materials on cultural elements. The paper, therefore, suggests a holistic approach to the teaching of English language in Malawian school in which the diversity of culture in classrooms must be considered an opportunity for addressing students’ cultural needs that may be lacking in the instructional materials.

Keywords: cultural awareness, grammar, foreign language, intercultural communication, language teaching

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5376 Developing a Discourse Community of Doctoral Students in a Multicultural Context

Authors: Jinghui Wang, Minjie Xing

Abstract:

The increasing number of international students for doctoral education has brought vitality and diversity to the educational environment in China, and at the same time constituted a new challenge to the English teaching in the higher education as the majority of international students come from developing countries where English is not their first language. To make their contribution to knowledge development and technical innovation, these international doctoral students need to present their research work in English, locally and globally. This study reports an exploratory study with an emphasis on the cognition and construction of academic discourse in the multicultural context. The present study aims to explore ways to better prepare them for international academic exchange in English. Voluntarily, all international doctoral students (n = 81) from 35 countries enrolled in the English Course: Speaking and Writing as a New Scientist, participated in the study. Two research questions were raised: 1) What did these doctoral students say about their cognition and construction of English academic discourses? 2) How did they manage to develop their productive skills in a multicultural context? To answer the research questions, data were collected from self-reports, in-depth interviews, and video-recorded class observations. The major findings of the study suggest that the participants to varying degrees benefitted from the cognition and construction of English academic discourse in the multicultural context. Specifically, 1) The cognition and construction of meta-discourse allowed them to construct their own academic discourses in English; 2) In the light of Swales’ CARS Model, they became sensitive to the “moves” involved in the published papers closely related to their study, and learned to use them in their English academic discourses; 3) Multimodality-driven presentation (multimedia modes) enabled these doctoral student to have their voice heard for technical innovation purposes; 4) Speaking as a new scientist, every doctoral student felt happy and able to serve as an intercultural mediator in the multicultural context, bridging the gap between their home culture and the global culture; and most importantly, 5) most of the participants reported developing an English discourse community among international doctoral students, becoming resourceful and productive in the multicultural context. It is concluded that the cognition and construction of academic discourse in the multicultural context proves to be conducive to the productivity and intercultural citizenship education of international doctoral students.

Keywords: academic discourse, international doctoral students, meta-discourse, multicultural context

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5375 Is School Misbehavior a Decision: Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior

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5374 Identity Formation of Mixed-Race Children in Japan

Authors: Shuko Takeshita

Abstract:

This study investigates the identity formation of mixed-race children in Japan. From the latter half of the 1980s to the mid-2000s, Japan experienced an 'intermarriage boom,' which was soon followed by a fairly significant number of children born to these unions. These children are now coming of age. Among mixed-race children, some embraced both cultural traditions, while others chose a monocultural path despite exposure to two cultural traditions as they grew up. What factors are involved in shaping the identity of mixed-race children? How does identity formation actually occur in these children? This study addresses these questions through an interview survey of 139 cross-cultural families since 1999, including 23 Pakistani-Japanese families, 20 Turkish-Japanese families, 26 families comprising other international Muslim husbands and Japanese wives, 33 Filipino-Japanese families, and 37 Brazilian-Japanese families. The results of this two-decade-long study reveal that in cases where one cannot tell at first glance that children are mixed race, there is a tendency for them to hide their mixed background due to fear of bullying at school, as well as for their parents to encourage them to do this. To pass as a Japanese is one strategy for avoiding discrimination and prejudice, and it can provide a measure of ethnic security or a way of coping with social intolerance. Certainly, among my informants, there are some children who were bullied or teased at school, and as a result, they stopped attending or transferred to other schools. But the mixed-race experience is not always a negative thing in Japan. There is clearly a double standard involved in that mixed-race children of a Caucasian parent are more readily accepted by society than those of a non-Caucasian parent. The perceived social status of mixed-race individuals is usually understood in relation to the hierarchical positionings of monoracial groups. Mixed-race children could be guaranteed the right to enjoy the benefit of maintaining and developing an identity as a Japanese, in addition to one more identity. We need to encourage a new awareness of the children as agents for a transition from a monocultural system to a multicultural system in Japanese society.

Keywords: identity formation, intermarriage, mixed race, multicultural children

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5373 Drama Education: Towards Building Multicultural Adolescent Peer Relationships

Authors: Tahnee West

Abstract:

Drama education is increasingly understood as a useful tool in promoting positive social change and cultural awareness. The effects of both positive and negative peer relationships are also a researched facet of education systems. Despite this, very little research has been conducted in the intersection of these two areas, even given current, significant public interest surrounding multicultural relationships. This research addresses a problem faced by educators and students: facilitating meaningful multicultural relationships. The research explores the following question in an Australian context: in what ways does Drama education affect peer relationships between culturally diverse students? In doing so, the study explores the various challenges and experiences of a multicultural group of adolescents, in terms of forming and maintaining effective intercultural friendships, while participating in a series of drama workshops. The project presents a starting point for providing educators with strategies for inclusivity and relationship development amongst diverse student populations. Findings show that Drama education can positively affect culturally diverse young people’s peer relationships; interactions between participants and data collected in focus groups throughout the eight-week Drama program show a steady improvement in sense of trust, support, tolerance, empathy, familiarity with other participants, and enjoyment. Data also points to a positive correlation between the Drama activities and improved conflict resolution and communication skills, as well as an improved understanding of the other participants’ cultures. Diversities and commonalities within the group were explored, with similarities encouraging social cohesion, and decreasing cultural ‘cliques’.

Keywords: cultural diversity, drama education, friendship, multicultural, peer relationships

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5372 Students with Severe Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Classes: A Study of Comprehensions amongst School Staff and Parents Built on Observations and Interviews in a Phenomenological Framework

Authors: Inger Eriksson, Lisbeth Ohlsson, Jeremias Rosenqvist

Abstract:

Ingress: Focus in the study is directed towards phenomena and concepts of segregation, integration, and inclusion of students attending a special school form in Sweden, namely compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (in Swedish 'särskola') as an alternative to mainstream compulsory school. Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the school situation for students attending särskola from a historical perspective focussing the 1980s, 1990s and the 21st century, from an integration perspective, and from a perspective of power. Procedure: Five sub-studies are reported, where integration and inclusion are looked into by observation studies and interviews with school leaders, teachers, special and remedial teachers, psychologists, coordinators, and parents in the special schools/särskola. In brief, the study about special school students attending mainstream classes from 1998 takes its point of departure in the idea that all knowledge development takes place in a social context. A special interest is taken in the school’s role for integration generally, and the role of special education particularly and on whose conditions the integration is taking place – the special school students' or the other students,' or may be equally, in the class. Pedagogical and social conditions for so called individually integrated special school students in elementary school classes were studied in eleven classes. Results: The findings are interpreted in a power perspective supported by Foucault and relationally by Vygotsky. The main part of the data consists of extensive descriptions of the eleven cases, here called integration situations. Conclusions: In summary, this study suggests that the possibilities for a special school student to get into the class community and fellowship and thereby be integrated with the class are to a high degree dependant on to what extent the student can take part in the pedagogical processes. The pedagogical situation for the special school student is affected not only by the class teacher and the support and measures undertaken but also by the other students in the class as they, in turn, are affected by how the special school student is acting. This mutual impact, which constitutes the integration process in itself, might result in a true integration if the special school student attains the status of being accepted on his/her own terms not only being cared for or cherished by some classmates. A special school student who is not accepted even on the terms of the class will often experience severe problems in the contacts with classmates and the school situation might thus be a mere placement.

Keywords: integration/inclusion, mainstream school, power, special school students

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5371 Machine Learning for Targeting of Conditional Cash Transfers: Improving the Effectiveness of Proxy Means Tests to Identify Future School Dropouts and the Poor

Authors: Cristian Crespo

Abstract:

Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) have been targeted towards the poor. Thus, their targeting assessments check whether these schemes have been allocated to low-income households or individuals. However, CCTs have more than one goal and target group. An additional goal of CCTs is to increase school enrolment. Hence, students at risk of dropping out of school also are a target group. This paper analyses whether one of the most common targeting mechanisms of CCTs, a proxy means test (PMT), is suitable to identify the poor and future school dropouts. The PMT is compared with alternative approaches that use the outputs of a predictive model of school dropout. This model was built using machine learning algorithms and rich administrative datasets from Chile. The paper shows that using machine learning outputs in conjunction with the PMT increases targeting effectiveness by identifying more students who are either poor or future dropouts. This joint targeting approach increases effectiveness in different scenarios except when the social valuation of the two target groups largely differs. In these cases, the most likely optimal approach is to solely adopt the targeting mechanism designed to find the highly valued group.

Keywords: conditional cash transfers, machine learning, poverty, proxy means tests, school dropout prediction, targeting

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5370 What Constitutes Pre-School Mathematics and How It Look Like in the Classroom?

Authors: Chako G. Chako

Abstract:

This study reports on an ongoing research that explores pre-school mathematics. Participants in the study includes three pre-school teachers and their pre-school learners from one school in Gaborone. The school was purposefully selected based on its performance in Botswana’s 2019 national examinations. Specifically, the study is interested on teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in pre-school mathematics tasks. The interest on explanations was informed by the view that suggests that, the mathematics learners get to learn, resides in teachers’ explanations. Recently, Botswana’s basic education has integrated pre-school education into the mainstream public primary school education. This move is part of the government’s drive to elevate Botswana to a knowledge-based-economy. It is believed that provision of pre-school education to all Batswana children will contribute immensely towards a knowledge-based-economy. Since pre-school is now a new phenomenon in our education, there is limited research at this level of education in Botswana. In particular, there is limited knowledge about what and how the teaching is conducted in Pre-Schools in Botswana. Hence, the study seeks to gain insight into what constitutes mathematics in tasks that learners are given, and how concepts are made accessible to Pre-school learners. The research question of interest for this study is stated as: What is the nature Pre-school teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in tasks given to learners. Casting some light into what and how pre-school mathematics tasks are enacted is critical for policy and Pre-school teacher professional development. The sociocultural perspective framed the research. Adler and Rhonda’s (2014) notion of exemplification and explanatory communication are used to analyze tasks given to learners and teachers’ explanations respectively.

Keywords: classroom, explanation, mathematics, pre-school, tasks

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5369 Analysis of School Burnout and Academic Motivation through Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Ismail Seçer

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between school burnout and academic motivation in high school students. The working group of the study consists of 455 students from the high schools in Erzurum city center, selected with appropriate sampling method. School Burnout Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used in the study to collect data. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used in the analysis of the data collected through the study. As a result of the study, it was determined that there are significant and negative relations between school burnout and academic motivation, and the school burnout has direct and indirect significant effects on the getting over himself, using knowledge and exploration dimension through the latent variable of academic motivation. Lastly, it was determined that school burnout is a significant predictor of academic motivation.

Keywords: school burnout, motivation, structural equation modeling, university

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