Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Olushola S. Ayanda

11 Arsenic(III) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Fly Ash

Authors: Olushola Ayanda, Simphiwe Nelana, Eliazer Naidoo


In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of As(III) ions from aqueous solution onto fly ash (FA) was investigated in batch adsorption system. Prior to the adsorption studies, the FA was characterized by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination. The effect of contact time, initial As(III) concentration, FA dosage, stirring speed, solution pH and temperature was examined on the adsorption rate. Experimental results showed a very good compliance with the pseudo-second-order equation, while the equilibrium study showed that the sorption of As(III) ions onto FA fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous, moreover, the maximum percentage removal of As(III) achieved with approx. 2.5 g FA mixed with 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was 65.4 % at pH 10, 60 min contact time, temperature of 353 K and a stirring speed of 120 rpm.

Keywords: arsenic, fly ash, kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics

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10 Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Triphenyltin onto NanoSiO₂/Fly Ash/Activated Carbon Composite

Authors: Olushola S. Ayanda, Olalekan S. Fatoki, Folahan A. Adekola, Bhekumusa J. Ximba, Cecilia O. Akintayo


In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of triphenyltin (TPT) from TPT-contaminated water onto nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite was investigated in batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich and fractional power models were applied to test the kinetic data and in order to understand the mechanism of adsorption, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔSo and ΔH° were also calculated. The results showed a very good compliance with pseudo second-order equation while the Freundlich and D-R models fit the experiment data. Approximately 99.999 % TPT was removed from the initial concentration of 100 mg/L TPT at 80oC, contact time of 60 min, pH 8 and a stirring speed of 200 rpm. Thus, nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite could be used as effective adsorbent for the removal of TPT from contaminated water and wastewater.

Keywords: isotherm, kinetics, nanoSiO₂/fly ash/activated carbon composite, tributyltin

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9 Theorizing Digital Transformation, Digitization and Digitalization in Africa Emerging Research in Digital Business: A Critical Review of the Current Scholarship

Authors: Ayanda Magida


The paper aims to provide a critical review of the current state-of-the-art literature on emerging digital business theories. They are specifically focusing on the emergent theories on digital transformation, digitization, and digitalization and their importance in the global south. Digital business is an emergent field that cuts across the different existing disciplines. The paper is threefold- to provide the conceptual and theoretical definition of the DT, digitization and digitization. There is a growing need to provide some of the differences between digitalization, digitization and digital transformation from a theoretical and conceptual basis. These tend to be confused and often use interchangeably the second aim is to focus on the emerging theories on digital transformation and digital business. Finally, the paper provides some critical review of the importance of scholarship in the field from the global south. The systematic review of the literature was conducted through the different research databases to provide some of the major theories in the field of digital business and critically argue for the global south stance. Much of the research on the development and adoption of digital technologies, specifically digital transformation, has been done in the west and developed countries. There is thus a dearth of research conducted in developing countries and the global south.

Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, digital business, digitalization

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8 Growth Performance, Body Linear Measurements and Body Condition Score of Savanna Brown Goats Fed Enzyme Treated Sawdust Diets as Replacement for Maize Offal and Managed Semi-intensively

Authors: Alabi Olushola John, Ogbiko Anthonia, Tsado Daniel Nma, Mbajiorgu Ejike Felix, Adama Theophilus Zubairu


A total of thirty (30) goats weighting between 5.8 and 7.3 kg were used to determine the growth performance, body linear measurements and body condition score of Semi intensively manged Savanna Brown goats fed enzyme treated sawdust diets (ETSD). They divided into five dietary treatments (T) groups with three replications using a completely randomized design. Treatment one (1) comprises of animals fed diet on 0 % enzyme treated sawdust while Treatment 2 (T2), Treatment 3 (T3), Treatment 4 (T4) and Treatment 5 (T5) comprises of animals fed diets containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 % enzyme treated sawdust diets, respectively. The study lasted 16 weeks. Data on growth performance parameters, body linear measurement (height at wither, body length, chest girth, hind leg length, foreleg length, facial length) and body condition score were collected and analyzed using one way analysis of variance. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the all growth performance parameters and linear body measurements. However, significant difference was observed in body length and daily body length gains with highest value observed in animals fed the control diets (7.38 and 0.08 cm respectively) and animals on 30 % ETSD (7.25 and 0.07 cm respectively) and lowest values (4.75 and 0.05 cm respectively) were observed in animals fed 10 % ETSD among the treatment groups. It was, therefore, concluded that enzyme treated sawdust can be used in the diets of Savanna Brown goats up to 40 % replacement for maize offal since this treatment improved the body length and daily body length gains.

Keywords: performance, sawdust, enzyme treated, semi-intensively, replacement

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7 Assessment of Pastoralist-Crop Farmers Conflict and Food Security of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Salau, I. F. Ayanda, I. Afe, M. O. Adesina, N. B. Nofiu


Food insecurity is still a critical challenge among rural and urban households in Nigeria. The country’s food insecurity situation became more pronounced due to frequent conflict between pastoralist and crop farmers. Thus, this study assesses pastoralist-crop farmers’ conflict and food security of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to measure the food security status of the respondents, quantify pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict, determine the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers conflict on food security and describe the effective coping strategies adopted by the respondents to reduce the effect of food insecurity. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques will be used to select 250 farming households for the study. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, logistic regression, and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the percentage of households that were food secure and insecure will be known. Pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict will be measured empirically by quantifying loses due to the conflict. The logistic regression will indicate if pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict is a critical determinant of food security among farming households in the study area. The coping strategies employed by the respondents in cushioning the effects of food insecurity will also be revealed. Empirical studies on the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict on food security are rare in the literature. This study will quantify conflict and reveal the direction as well as the extent of the relationship between conflict and food security. It could contribute to the identification and formulation of strategies for the minimization of conflict among pastoralist and crop farmers in an attempt to reduce food insecurity. Moreover, this study could serve as valuable reference material for future researches and open up new areas for further researches.

Keywords: agriculture, conflict, coping strategies, food security, logistic regression

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6 Phenotypic Characterisation of Bapedi Sheep Breed

Authors: Fhulufhelo Ramukhithi, Kgothatso Masethe, Tlou Chokoe, Ayanda Maqhashu, Julius Sebei, Tshililo Raphulu, Joseph Mugwabana


Phenotypic characterisation ensures that the physical appearance of an animal is well documented. The information provided by this phenotypic characterisation study is important for planning management and the use of animal genetic resources. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic characteristics of Bapedi sheep. Bapedi sheep are at risk of extinction like most of the indigenous breeds. As a result, a total of 196 Bapedi ewes and 35 rams were used. Phenotypic-qualitative characteristics were evaluated through visual appraisal. Phenotypic-quantitative characteristics such as body parts measurements were obtained using a flexible tape (cm), while body weight were obtained by using a weighing scale (kg). Bapedi rams (97 %) had higher satisfactory body condition when compared to ewes (75 %). A higher proportion of Bapedi sheep that did not have ticks observed (ewes = 87 % and rams = 91 %). Brown and white colour combination (head x body) was dominating in Bapedi sheep (80 % ewes and 91 % rams). Bapedi ewes did not have any horns; however, 3 % of rams had them. Bapedi sheep had a higher proportion of brown eyes, moderate neck, stiff sideways ears and normal front legs. Bapedi rams had a higher proportion of well-balanced and good attached testicles. Bapedi ewes had average (45 %), small (40 %) and big udders (15 %). Bapedi rams had a significantly higher body weight, height, depth, hearth girth circumference, rump width, hind leg width and length compared to ewes. However, both Bapedi rams and ewes had similar age, body condition score, tail length, length below hock and knee. In conclusion, Bapedi sheep had a higher satisfactory body condition and brown and white colour combination. Some of Bapedi rams’ quantitative characteristics were higher compared to ewes.

Keywords: extinction, indigenous, phenotypic, smallstock

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5 Modelling the Physicochemical Properties of Papaya Based-Cookies Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Mayowa Saheed Sanusi A, Musiliu Olushola Sunmonua, Abdulquadri Alakab Owolabi Raheema, Adeyemi Ikimot Adejokea


The development of healthy cookies for health-conscious consumers cannot be overemphasized in the present global health crisis. This study was aimed to evaluate and model the influence of ripeness levels of papaya puree (unripe, ripe and overripe), oven temperature (130°C, 150°C and 170°C) and oven rack speed (stationary, 10 and 20 rpm) on physicochemical properties of papaya-based cookies using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The physicochemical properties (baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, proximate composition, Calcium, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content) were determined using standard procedures. The data obtained were statistically analysed at p≤0.05 using ANOVA. The polynomial regression model of response surface methodology was used to model the physicochemical properties. The adequacy of the models was determined using the coefficient of determination (R²) and the response optimizer of RSM was used to determine the optimum physicochemical properties for the papaya-based cookies. Cookies produced from overripe papaya puree were observed to have the shortest baking time; ripe papaya puree favors cookies spread ratio, while the unripe papaya puree gives cookies with the highest mass and thickness. The highest crude protein content, fiber content, calcium content, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were observed in papaya based-cookies produced from overripe puree. The models for baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, moisture content, crude protein and TPC were significant, with R2 ranging from 0.73 – 0.95. The optimum condition for producing papaya based-cookies with desirable physicochemical properties was obtained at 149°C oven temperature, 17 rpm oven rack speed and with the use of overripe papaya puree. The Information on the use of puree from unripe, ripe and overripe papaya can help to increase the use of underutilized unripe or overripe papaya and also serve as a strategic means of obtaining a fat substitute to produce new products with lower production cost and health benefit.

Keywords: papaya based-cookies, modeling, response surface methodology, physicochemical properties

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4 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda


African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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3 The Effect of the Contributory Pension Scheme on Employees’ Performance

Authors: Oladipo Jimoh Ayanda, Fashagba Mathew Olasehinde


Pension is a post retirement benefit paid to employees after retirement to cushion the effects of severance from monthly emoluments. It serves the dual purpose of providing financial succour to retired employees as well as motivating employees currently in service to greater performance on duty. However, the scheme, as operated in Nigeria, is prone to some pitfalls such as delayed and irregular payments, inadequate budgetary provisions, employee sufferings and deaths arising from the rigors of verification exercises, among others. This necessitated the replacement of the old scheme with the contributory pension scheme through an enabling law in 2004. The implementation of the new scheme has its own challenges especially in connection with administration. These challenges pose a fundamental problem of establishing a nexus between pension benefits and work performance which represent the focus of the study. The study objectives were to: determine the effect of contributory pension scheme on employees’ performance. The study population consisted of National Universities Commission recognized public and private universities in the South West Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method involving stratified sampling and systematic sampling was used in selecting 359 respondents while data were collected through questionnaire administration. The procedure for analyzing the data included descriptive statistic, normal distribution test and cross-tabulation (gamma coefficient). The findings of the study showed that the existence of the scheme positively enhances employees’ performance as indicated by normal distribution test with Z-score (10.169) which is greater than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the scope for enhancing employee current job performance can be quite elastic if future retirement benefits are guaranteed through proper and efficient administration and management of the contributory pension scheme. The study recommended that certain factors such as employers’ commitment which account for different levels of confidence between public and private universities should be looked into in order to improve confidence across board while the provisions of the scheme as they affect the PFAs should be properly monitored to ensure compliance.

Keywords: pension, retirement, performance, employees, benefit

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2 Economic Evaluation of an Advanced Bioethanol Manufacturing Technology Using Maize as a Feedstock in South Africa

Authors: Ayanda Ndokwana, Stanley Fore


Industrial prosperity and rapid expansion of human population in South Africa over the past two decades, have increased the use of conventional fossil fuels such as crude oil, coal and natural gas to meet the country’s energy demands. However, the inevitable depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global volatile oil price and large carbon footprint are some of the crucial reasons the South African Government needs to make a considerable investment in the development of the biofuel industry. In South Africa, this industry is still at the introductory stage with no large scale manufacturing plant that has been commissioned yet. Bioethanol is a potential replacement of gasoline which is a fossil fuel that is used in motor vehicles. Using bioethanol for the transport sector as a source of fuel will help Government to save heavy foreign exchange incurred during importation of oil and create many job opportunities in rural farming. In 2007, the South African Government developed the National Biofuels Industrial Strategy in an effort to make provision for support and attract investment in bioethanol production. However, capital investment in the production of bioethanol on a large scale, depends on the sound economic assessment of the available manufacturing technologies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the profitability of an advanced bioethanol manufacturing technology which uses maize as a feedstock in South Africa. The impact of fiber or bran fractionation in this technology causes it to possess a number of merits such as energy efficiency, low capital expenditure, and profitability compared to a conventional dry-mill bioethanol technology. Quantitative techniques will be used to collect and analyze numerical data from suitable organisations in South Africa. The dependence of three profitability indicators such as the Discounted Payback Period (DPP), Net Present Value (NPV) and Return On Investment (ROI) on plant capacity will be evaluated. Profitability analysis will be done on the following plant capacities: 100 000 ton/year, 150 000 ton/year and 200 000 ton/year. The plant capacity with the shortest Discounted Payback Period, positive Net Present Value and highest Return On Investment implies that a further consideration in terms of capital investment is warranted.

Keywords: bioethanol, economic evaluation, maize, profitability indicators

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1 The Third Level Digital Divide: Millennials and Post-Millennials Online Activities in South Africa

Authors: Ayanda Magida, Brian Armstrong


The study aimed to assess the third level of the digital divide among the millennials and post-millennials in South Africa. The millennials are people born from 1981-to 1996, that is, people between the ages of 25-40 years old and post-millennials are people born from 1997 to date. For the study, only post-millennials born between 1997-2003 were included as they were old enough to consent to participation in the study. Data was collected as part of the Ph.D. project that focuses on the relationship between income inequality, the digital divide, and social cohesion in South Africa. The digital divide has three main levels, namely the first, second and third. The first and second focus on access and usage, respectively. The third-level digital divide can be defined as the differences in the benefits associated with being online. The current paper focuses on the third level: the benefits derived by being online using four domains: economic, educational, social, and personal benefits. The economic benefits include income, employment and finance-related activities; the social benefits include socializing belonging, identity, and informal networks. The personal benefits include personal wellbeing and self-actualization. A total of 763 participants completed the survey, and 61.3% were post-millennials between the ages of 18-24 and s 38.6 % were millennials between 25 and 40. The majority of the respondents were female (62%), male (34%) and nonbinary (1%), respectively. Most of the respondents were black, followed by whites, Indians and colored, respectively. Thus, they represented the status of the demographics of the country. Most of the respondents had access to the internet and smartphone. Most expressed that they use laptops (68%) or mobile (71%) to access the internet and 54 % access the internet using wireless/Wi-Fi. There were no differences between the millennial and post-millennial economic and educational benefits of being online. However, the post-millennials were more inclined to use the internet for social and personal benefits than the millennials. This could be attributed to many factors, such as age. The post-millennials are still discovering themselves and therefore would derive social and personal benefits associated with being online. The findings confirm studies that argue that younger generations derive more benefits from being online than the older generation. Based on the findings, it is evident that the post-millennials are not using the internet or online activities for social networks and socializing but can derive economic benefits such as job looking and education benefits from being online. It can be inferred that there are no significant differences between the two groups, and it seems like the third-level digital divide is not evident among the two groups as they both have been able to derive meaningful benefits from being online. Further studies should focus on the third-level divide between the baby boomers and Generation X.

Keywords: third-level digital divide, millennials, post-millennials, online activities

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