Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4277

Search results for: nanoSiO₂/fly ash/activated carbon composite

4277 Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Triphenyltin onto NanoSiO₂/Fly Ash/Activated Carbon Composite

Authors: Olushola S. Ayanda, Olalekan S. Fatoki, Folahan A. Adekola, Bhekumusa J. Ximba, Cecilia O. Akintayo

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of triphenyltin (TPT) from TPT-contaminated water onto nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite was investigated in batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich and fractional power models were applied to test the kinetic data and in order to understand the mechanism of adsorption, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔSo and ΔH° were also calculated. The results showed a very good compliance with pseudo second-order equation while the Freundlich and D-R models fit the experiment data. Approximately 99.999 % TPT was removed from the initial concentration of 100 mg/L TPT at 80oC, contact time of 60 min, pH 8 and a stirring speed of 200 rpm. Thus, nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite could be used as effective adsorbent for the removal of TPT from contaminated water and wastewater.

Keywords: isotherm, kinetics, nanoSiO₂/fly ash/activated carbon composite, tributyltin

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4276 Viable Use of Natural Extract Solutions from Tuberous and Cereals to Enhance the Synthesis of Activated Carbon-Graphene Composite

Authors: Pamphile Ndagijimana, Xuejiao Liu, Zhiwei Li, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Enhancing the properties of activated carbon is very imperative for various applications. Indeed, the activated carbon has promising physicochemical properties desired for a considerable number of applications. In this regard, we are proposing an enhanced and green technology for increasing the efficiency and performance of the activated carbon to various applications. The technique poses on the use of natural extracts from tuberous and cereals based-solutions. These solutions showed high potentiality to be used in the synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite with only 3 mL. The extracted liquid from tuberous sourcing was enough to induce precipitation within a fraction of a minute in contrast to that from cereal sourced. Using these extracts, a synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite was successful. Different characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, BET, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to investigate the composite materials. The results confirmed a conjugation between activated carbon and graphene material.

Keywords: activated carbon, cereals, extract solution, graphene, tuberous

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4275 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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4274 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya

Abstract:

Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

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4273 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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4272 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller

Abstract:

A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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4271 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel

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4270 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

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4269 Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon /Chitosan Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Onur Karaman, Ceren Karaman

Abstract:

In this study, the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB), a cationic dye, onto Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon (OPAC) and chitosan(OPAC/Chitosan composite) composite (a low-cost absorbent) was carried out using a batch system. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. The effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose rate and initial dye concentration on the initial adsorption rate, capacity and dye removal efficiency were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to define the adsorption equilibrium of dye-adsorbent system mathematically and it was decided that the Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the adsorption equilibrium for the system. In addition, first order, second order and saturation type kinetic models were applied to kinetic data of adsorption and kinetic constants were calculated. It was concluded that the second order and the saturation type kinetic models defined the adsorption data more accurately. Finally, the evaluated thermodynamic parameters of adsorption show a spontaneous and exothermic behavior. Overall, this study indicates OPAC/Chitosan composite as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chitosan, methylene blue, orange peel

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4268 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

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4267 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao

Abstract:

Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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4266 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko

Abstract:

A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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4265 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi

Abstract:

The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: activated carbon, date stones, pyrolysis, phosphate pollutants

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4264 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

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4263 Preparation of Activated Carbon from Lignocellulosic Precursor for Dyes Adsorption

Authors: H. Mokaddem, D. Miroud, N. Azouaou, F. Si-Ahmed, Z. Sadaoui

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from local lignocellulosic precursor (Algerian alfa) was carried out for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of the production variables such as impregnation chemical agents, impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time were investigated. Carbon obtained using the optimum conditions (CaCl2/ 1:1/ 500°C/2H) was characterized by various analytical techniques scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) and zero-point-of-charge (pHpzc). Adsorption tests of methylene blue on the optimal activated carbon were conducted. The effects of contact time, amount of adsorbent, initial dye concentration and pH were studied. The adsorption equilibrium examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models reveals that the Langmuir model is most appropriate to describe the adsorption process. The kinetics of MB sorption onto activated carbon follows the pseudo-second order rate expression. The examination of the thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous (ΔG ° < 0) and endothermic (ΔH ° > 0), the positive value of the standard entropy shows the affinity between the activated carbon and the dye. The present study showed that the produced optimal activated carbon prepared from Algerian alfa is an effective low-cost adsorbent and can be employed as alternative to commercial activated carbon for removal of MB dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, cationic dyes, Algerian alfa

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4262 Magnetic Activated Carbon: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for Vanadium Removal

Authors: Hakimeh Sharififard, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

In this work, the magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite (Fe-CAC) has been synthesized by anchorage iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles onto commercial activated carbon (CAC) surface and characterized using BET, XRF, SEM techniques. The influence of various removal parameters such as pH, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium on vanadium removal was evaluated using CAC and Fe-CAC in batch method. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. These equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich model. Results showed that CAC had the vanadium adsorption capacity of 37.87 mg/g, while the Fe-AC was able to adsorb 119.01 mg/g of vanadium. Kinetic data was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both adsorbents.

Keywords: magnetic activated carbon, remove, vanadium, nanocomposite, freundlich

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4261 Decoloriation of Rhodamine-B Dye by Pseudomonas putida on Activated Carbon

Authors: U. K. Ghosh, A. Ullhyan

Abstract:

Activated carbon prepared from mustard stalk was applied to decolorize Rhodamine-B dye bearing synthetic wastewater by simple adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Results showed that percentage of Rhodamine-B dye removal was 82% for adsorption and 99.3% for SAB at pH 6.5, adsorbent dose 10 g/L and temperature 32ºC.

Keywords: activated carbon, mustard stalk, Rhodamine-B, adsorption, SAB, Pseudomonas putida

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4260 Selective Adsorption of Anionic Textile Dyes with Sustainable Composite Materials Based on Physically Activated Carbon and Basic Polyelectrolytes

Authors: Mari Carmen Reyes Angeles, Dalia Michel Reyes Villeda, Ana María Herrera González

Abstract:

This work reports the design and synthesis of two composite materials based on physically activated carbon and basic polyelectrolytes useful in the adsorption of textile dyes present in aqueous solutions and wastewater. The synthesis of basic polyelectrolytes poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was made by means of free radical polymerization. The carbon made from prickly pear peel (CarTunaF) was thermally activated in the presence of combustion gases. Composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP were obtained from CarTunaF and polybasic polyelectrolytes P2VP and P4VP with a ratio of 67:33 wt. The structure of each polyelectrolyte, P2VP, and P4VP, was elucidated by means of the FTIR and 1H NMR spectrophotometric techniques. Their thermal stability was evaluated using TGA. The characterization of CarTunaF and composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP was made by means of FTIR, TGA, SEM, and N2 adsorption. The adsorptive capacities of the polyelectrolytes and the composite materials were evaluated by adsorption of direct dyes present in aqueous solutions. The polyelectrolytes removed between 90 and 100% of the dyes, and the composite materials removed between 68 and 93% of the dyes. Using the four adsorbents P2VP, P4VP, CarTuna2VP, and CarTuna4VP, it was observed that the dyes studied, Direct Blue 80, Direct Turquoise 86, and Direct Orange 26, were adsorbed in the range between 46.1 and 188.7mg∙g-1 by means of electrostatic interactions between the anionic groups in the dyes with the cationic groups in the adsorbents. By using adsorbent materials in the treatment of wastewater from the textile industry, an improvement in the quality of the water was observed by decreasing its pH, COD, conductivity, and color considerably

Keywords: adsorption, anionic dyes, composite, polyelectrolytes

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4259 Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: G. E. Sharaf El-Deen, S. E. A. Sharaf El-Deen

Abstract:

Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Keywords: coconut shell, activated carbon, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, lead removal

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4258 Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: M. Belhachemi, M. Monteiro de Castro, M. Casco, A. Sepúlveda-Escribano, F. Rodríguez-Reinoso

Abstract:

In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, activated carbon, vanadium doping, adsorption

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4257 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav

Abstract:

A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

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4256 Comparative Study of Fenton and Activated Carbon Treatment for Dyeing Waste Water

Authors: Prem Mohan, Namrata Jariwala

Abstract:

In recent years 10000 dyes are approximately used by dying industry which makes dyeing wastewater more complex in nature. It is very difficult to treat dyeing wastewater by conventional methods. Here an attempt has been made to treat dyeing wastewater by the conventional and advanced method for removal of COD. Fenton process is the advanced method and activated carbon treatment is the conventional method. Experiments have been done on synthetic wastewater prepared from three different dyes; acidic, disperse and reactive. Experiments have also been conducted on real effluent obtained from industry. The optimum dose of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process and optimum activated carbon dose for each of these wastewaters were obtained. In Fenton treatment, COD removal was obtained up to 95% whereas 70% removal was obtained with activated carbon treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, advanced oxidation process, dyeing waste water, fenton oxidation process

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4255 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

Abstract:

We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

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4254 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu

Abstract:

The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.

Keywords: distillery, waste water, orange peel, activated carbon, adsorption

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4253 Fabrication of Activated Carbon from Palm Trunksfor Removal of Harmful Dyes

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

Abstract:

Date palm trees are abundant and cheap natural resources in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an activated carbon was prepared from palm trunks by chemical processes. The chemical activation was performed by impregnation of the raw materials after grinding with H3PO4 solution (63%), followed by placing of the sample solution on a muffle furnace at 400ºC for 30 min, and then at 800ºC for 10 min. The morphology of the fabricated material was checked using scanning electron microscopy that showed the rough surfaces on the carbon samples. The use of fabricated activated carbon for removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions at different contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent doses was investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption process attains equilibrium within 20 min. The adsorption isotherm equilibrium was studied by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that the data fit the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 126.58 mg g-1. The results indicated that the home made activated carbon prepared from palm trunks has the ability to remove eosin dye from aqueous solution and it will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of harmful dyes from waste water.

Keywords: activated carbon, date palm trunks, H3PO4 activation, adsorption, dye removal, eosin dye, isotherm

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4252 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural waste

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4251 Reduction of Nitrogen Monoxide with Carbon Monoxide from Gas Streams by 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/Activated Carbon

Authors: K. L. Pan, M. B. Chang

Abstract:

Nitrogen oxides (NOₓ) is regarded as one of the most important air pollutants. It not only causes adverse environmental effects but also harms human lungs and respiratory system. As a post-combustion treatment, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) possess the highest NO removal efficiency ( ≥ 85%), which is considered as the most effective technique for removing NO from gas streams. However, injection of reducing agent such as NH₃ is requested, and it is costly and may cause secondary pollution. Reduction of NO with carbon monoxide (CO) as reducing agent has been previously investigated. In this process, the key step involves the NO adsorption and dissociation. Also, the high performance mainly relies on the amounts of oxygen vacancy on catalyst surface and redox ability of catalyst, because oxygen vacancy can activate the N-O bond to promote its dissociation. Additionally, perfect redox ability can promote the adsorption of NO and oxidation of CO. Typically, noble metals such as iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) are used as catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO; however, high cost has limited their applications. Recently, transition metal oxides have been investigated for the reduction of NO with CO, especially CuₓOy, CoₓOy, Fe₂O₃, and MnOₓ are considered as effective catalysts. However, deactivation is inevitable as oxygen (O₂) exists in the gas streams because active sites (oxygen vacancies) of catalyst are occupied by O₂. In this study, Cu-Ce-Fe-Co is prepared and supported on activated carbon by impregnation method to form 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon catalyst. Generally, addition of activated carbon on catalyst can bring several advantages: (1) NO can be effectively adsorbed by interaction between catalyst and activated carbon, resulting in the improvement of NO removal, (2) direct NO decomposition may be achieved over carbon associated with catalyst, and (3) reduction of NO could be enhanced by a reducing agent over carbon-supported catalyst. Therefore, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon may have better performance for reduction of NO with CO. Experimental results indicate that NO conversion achieved with 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon reaches 83% at 150°C with 300 ppm NO and 10,000 ppm CO. As temperature is further increased to 200°C, 100% NO conversion could be achieved, implying that 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon prepared has good activity for the reduction of NO with CO. In order to investigate the effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO, 1-5% O₂ are introduced into the system. The results indicate that NO conversions still maintain at ≥ 90% with 1-5% O₂ conditions at 200°C. It is worth noting that effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO could be significantly improved as carbon is used as support. It is inferred that carbon support can react with O₂ to produce CO₂ as O₂ exists in the gas streams. Overall, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon is demonstrated with good potential for reduction of NO with CO, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), carbon monoxide (CO), reduction of NO with CO, carbon material, catalysis

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4250 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial waste water effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. Thus, a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding activated carbon with different dosages to waste water, and for each group waste water was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. At the end of this paper, a comparison was made between the efficiency of using activated carbon and the efficiency of using limestone in the same circumstances.

Keywords: adsorption, COD removal, filtration, TDS removal

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4249 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna M. Zain

Abstract:

Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation, and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 1500C. Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK, regeneration, thermal

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4248 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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