Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Nonso Okoye

10 Gariep Dam Basin Management for Satisfying Ecological Flow Requirements

Authors: Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia

Abstract:

Multi-reservoir optimization operation has been a critical issue for river basin management. Water, as a scarce resource, is in high demand and the problems associated with the reservoir as its storage facility are enormous. The complexity in balancing the supply and demand of this prime resource has created the need to examine the best way to solve the problem using optimization techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithm for the operation of Gariep Dam for satisfying ecological flow requirements. This study uses an evolutionary algorithm called backtrack search algorithm (BSA) to determine the best way to optimise the dam operations of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply without affecting the environmental flow requirement for the survival of aquatic bodies and sustain life downstream of the dam. To achieve this objective, the operations of the dam that corresponds to different tradeoffs between the objectives are optimized. The results indicate the best model from the algorithm that satisfies all the objectives without any constraint violation. It is expected that hydropower generation will be improved and more water will be available for ecological flow requirements with the use of the algorithm. This algorithm also provides farmers with more irrigation water as well to improve their business.

Keywords: BSA evolutionary algorithm, metaheuristics, optimization, river basin management

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9 Training Programmes at KwaZulu Natal, South Africa for Water Professionals to Enhance Water Management

Authors: Joshua Ikpimi, Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia

Abstract:

Training programmes are integral parts of development for employees to develop themselves and also to develop the organisation. Lack of training and inadequate training adversely affect the productivity in any organisation. Lack of training in the water sector can impair development and improper management of water. Training programs are given to water professionals, especially in a developing country like South Africa, to perform well in their day to day activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current training program in place for water professionals at KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. The objectives were to determine the training programs that are suitable for their job descriptions and to determine the gaps with the training programs and to make recommendations on ways to improve the training programs. This study is a quantitative study which enabled an evaluation of training programs for KwaZulu Natal water professionals. The sample population was 120 professionals across all the cities and towns in KwaZulu Natal province. The water professionals were evaluated using structured questionnaire distributed to the respondents from September to December 2017. The data was analysed using R software. The study found that province has training programs that are valuable for their water professionals. However, involvement of some professionals in administrative activities was hindered by some inappropriate training. Many areas of improvement are suggested to the province in training its water professionals. Training was found to improve performance, commitment, motivation and staff retention of water professionals in the province.

Keywords: KwaZulu Natal, performance, training, water

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8 Integrated Framework for Establishing Born-Global Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nonso Ochinanwata, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue

Abstract:

This paper explores the process of creating and capturing born-global firm opportunities. It reviews the key constructs that underpin the establishment of born-global firms in sub-Saharan Africa. These include entrepreneurial orientation, resources and capabilities, collaboration, and contextual influences. The paper discusses how individuals and entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa can establish home-based born-global firms that seek early international markets from inception. The paper suggests that sub-Saharan African governments should make a favourable microeconomics policy that will enable entrepreneurs and firms to acquire some certain minimal resources and capabilities, in order to develop global products and services.

Keywords: born global-firms, collaboration, internationalisation, dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship, sub-Saharan Africa

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7 Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn) Level in Shellfish (Etheria elliptica), Water, and Sediments of River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O. O. Olawusi-Peters, O. E. Aguda, F. O. Okoye

Abstract:

Investigations on the accumulation of heavy metals in water and sediments of River Ogbese were carried out between December 2010 and February 2011 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Etheria elliptica a sessile organism was also used to determine the concentration of heavy metal in the aquatic environmental. In water, Cu had the highest concentration (0.55–0.13 mg/l ±0.1) while in sediments, the highest value obtained was in Fe (1.46-3.89mg/l±0.27). The minimum concentrations recorded were in Pb; which was below detectable level. The result also revealed that the shell accumulated more heavy metals than the flesh of the mussel with Cu in the shell exhibiting a negative correlation with all the metals in the flesh. However, the condition factor (K) value is 6.44, an indication of good health. The length-weight relationship is expressed as W=-0.48xL 1.94 (r2=0.29) showing the growth pattern to be negatively allometric.

Keywords: condition factor, Etheria elliptica, heavy metals, River Ogbese

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6 Effects of Stirring Time and Reinforcement Preheating on the Porosity of Particulate Periwinkle Shell-Aluminium 6063 Metal Matrix Composite (PPS-ALMMC) Produced by Two-Step Casting

Authors: Reginald Umunakwe, Obinna Chibuzor Okoye, Uzoma Samuel Nwigwe, Damilare John Olaleye, Akinlabi Oyetunji

Abstract:

The potential for the development of PPS-AlMMCs as light weight material for industrial applications was investigated. Periwinkle shells were milled and the density of the particles determined. Particulate periwinkle shell of particle size 75µm was used to reinforce aluminium 6063 alloy at 10wt% filler loading using two-step stir casting technique. The composite materials were stirred for five minutes in a semi-solid state and the stirring time varied as 3, 6 and 9 minutes at above the liquidus temperature. A specimen was also produced with pre-heated filler. The effect of variation in stirring time and reinforcement pre-heating on the porosity of the composite materials was investigated. The results of the analysis show that a composition of reinforcement pre-heating and stirring for 3 minutes produced a composite material with the lowest porosity of 1.05%.

Keywords: composites, periwinkle shell, two-step casting, porosity

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5 Modeling of Age Hardening Process Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System: Results from Aluminum Alloy A356/Cow Horn Particulate Composite

Authors: Chidozie C. Nwobi-Okoye, Basil Q. Ochieze, Stanley Okiy

Abstract:

This research reports on the modeling of age hardening process using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The age hardening output (Hardness) was predicted using ANFIS. The input parameters were ageing time, temperature and percentage composition of cow horn particles (CHp%). The results show the correlation coefficient (R) of the predicted hardness values versus the measured values was of 0.9985. Subsequently, values outside the experimental data points were predicted. When the temperature was kept constant, and other input parameters were varied, the average relative error of the predicted values was 0.0931%. When the temperature was varied, and other input parameters kept constant, the average relative error of the hardness values predictions was 80%. The results show that ANFIS with coarse experimental data points for learning is not very effective in predicting process outputs in the age hardening operation of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite. The fine experimental data requirements by ANFIS make it more expensive in modeling and optimization of age hardening operations of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), age hardening, aluminum alloy, metal matrix composite

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4 Integrated Business Model Innovation in Nigerian Higher Education: Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Nonso Ochinanwata, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue

Abstract:

This paper explores challenges and prospects in Nigerian higher education. The paper develops an integrated business model that aimed to innovate Nigeria higher education system. A survey and semi-structured interview among Nigerian higher education academics, students and graduates are used to explore the challenges and prospects. The study provides a comparison between lecturers, students and graduates opinions to evaluate challenges and prospects in Nigerian higher institutions. The study found to achieve efficient and effectiveness innovation in Nigerian higher education, there is a need for higher institutions to collaborate with industry professionals and other stakeholders such as company management, and government policy makers in designing higher education institutions curricula. The study found that the curriculum design and delivery need to blend theoretical understanding and real-life experience from industry, and with social cultural influences related to Nigerian environment. This will enable lecturers to organise their teaching and assessments such that students can learn around theoretical and practical study themes. The curriculum design and delivery need to link the core ideas to challenging problems in society, nationally and globally. Hence, this approach will support business start-ups and social entrepreneurship which resolve key societal problems. The study suggests that higher education executives, directors, deans, head of departments, and even individual academics need to emulate innovative business managers to create value-adding products and services from innovative research and academic work.

Keywords: higher education, curriculum innovation, business model innovation, teaching and research excellence, economic development

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3 Evaluation of the Socio-Economic Impact of Marine Debris in Coastal Nigeria

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

Abstract:

Marine debris from fishing nets to medical equipment to food packaging that play major roles in boosting the economy and protecting human health is now more than an environmental problem that can be solved by legislation, law enforcement and technical solutions. It has also been identified as a cultural problem that can only be addressed by identifying instruments that can be used to change human attitudes and behaviors. This may be through management approaches, education and involvement of all sectors/interests, including the public. To contribute to the sustainable development of coastal Nigeria, two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of marine debris problem in coastal Nigeria. The following methods were used: (1) semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and businesses on beaches, waterfronts and waterways within the study areas and (2) observational study of beaches, waterfronts and waterways within the study areas. The results of the study have shown that marine debris is a cultural and multi-sectoral problem that poses great threat not only to the environmental sustainability of the study areas but also to the wellbeing of its citizens and the economy of coastal Nigeria. Current solid waste and marine debris management practices are inefficient due to inadequate knowledge of how to tackle the problem. To ensure environmental sustainability in coastal Nigeria and avoid waste of scarce financial resources, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the marine debris problem need to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: sustainability, coastal Nigeria, study areas, aquaculture

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2 Assessment of the Root Causes of Marine Debris Problem in Lagos State

Authors: Chibuzo Okoye Daniels, Gillian Glegg, Lynda Rodwell

Abstract:

The continuously growing quantity of very slow degrading litter deliberately discarded into the coastal waters around Lagos as marine debris is obvious. What is not known is how to tackle this problem to reduce its prevalence and impact on the environment, economy and community. To identify ways of tackling the marine debris problem two case study areas (Ikoyi and Victoria Islands of Lagos State) were used to assess the root causes, the threat posed by marine debris in the coastal waters around Lagos and the efficacy of current instruments, programmes and initiatives that address marine debris in the study areas. The following methods were used: (1) Self-completed questionnaires for households and businesses within the study areas; (2) Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders; (3) Observational studies of waste management from collection to disposal and waste management facilities for waste originating from land and maritime sources; (4) Beach surveys and marine debris surveys on shorelines and ports; and (5) Fishing for marine debris. Results of this study identified the following root causes: (1) Indiscriminate human activities and behaviors, and lack of awareness on the part of the main stakeholders and the public of the potential consequences of their actions; (2) Poor solid waste management practices; (3) Lack of strict legal frameworks addressing waste and marine debris problem; and (4) Disposal of non-degradable wastes into domestic sewer system and open streets drains. To effectively tackle marine debris problem in the study areas, adequate, appropriate and cost effective solutions to the above mentioned root causes needs to be identified and effectively transferred for implementation in the study areas.

Keywords: marine debris problem, Lagos state, litter, coastal waters

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1 Evaluation of Visco-Elastic Properties and Microbial Quality of Oat-Based Dietetic Food

Authors: Uchegbu Nneka Nkechi, Okoye Ogochukwu Peace

Abstract:

The evaluation of the visco-elastic properties and microbial quality of a formulated oat-based dietetic food were investigated. Oat flour, pumpkin seed flour, carrot flour and skimmed milk powder were blended in varying proportions to formulate a product with codes OCF, which contains 70% oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 10% skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 65 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 15 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 60 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 20 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 55 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 25 % skimmed milk powder and OF with 95 % oat as the commercial control. All the samples were assessed for their proximate composition, microbial quality and visco-elastic properties. The moisture content was highest at sample OF (10.73%) and lowest at OCF (7.10%) (P<0.05). Crude protein ranged from 13.38%-22.86%, with OCF having the highest (P<0.05) protein content and OF having the lowest. Crude fat was 3.74% for OCF and 6.31% for OF. Crude fiber ranged from 3.58% - 17.39% with OF having the lowest (P<0.05) fiber content and OCF having the highest. Ash content was 1.30% for OCF and 2.75% for OCF. There was no mold growth in the samples. The total viable ml/wl count ranged from 1.5×10³ cfu/g - 2.6×10³ cfu/g, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest (P<0.05) total viable count. The peak viscosity of the sample ranged from 75.00 cP-2895.00 cP, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest value. The final viscosity was 130.50 cP in OCF and 3572.50 cP in OF. The setback viscosity was 58.00 cP in OCF and 1680.50 cP in OF. The peak time was 6.93 mins in OCF to 5.57 mins in OF. There was no pasting temperature for all samples except the OF, which had 86.43. Sample OF was the highest in terms of overall acceptability. This study showed that the oat-based composite flour produced had a nutritional profile that would be acceptable for the aged population.

Keywords: dietetic, pumpkin, visco-elastic, microbial

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