Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3607

Search results for: pullout tests

3607 Pullout Capacity of Hybrid Anchor Piles

Authors: P. Hari Krishna, V. Ramana Murty

Abstract:

Different types of foundations are subjected to pullout or tensile loads depending on the soil in which they are embedded or due to the structural loads coming on them. In those circumstances, anchors were generally used to resist these loads. This paper presents the field pullout studies on hybrid anchor piles embedded in different types of soils. The pullout capacity and resistance of the hybrid granular anchor piles installed in the native expansive soil which is available in the campus are compared with similar hybrid concrete anchor piles which were installed in similar field conditions.

Keywords: expansive soil, hybrid concrete anchor piles, hybrid granular anchor piles, pullout tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3606 The Effect of Screw Parameters on Pullout Strength of Screw Fixation in Cervical Spine

Authors: S. Ritddech, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham

Abstract:

The pullout strength had an effect on the stability of plate screw fixation when inserted in the cervical spine. Nine different titanium alloy bone screws were used to test the pullout strength through finite element analysis. The result showed that the Moss Miami I can bear the highest pullout force at 1,075 N, which causes the maximum von Mises stress at 858.87 MPa, a value over the yield strength of titanium. The bone screw should have large outer diameter, core diameter and proximal root radius to increase the pullout strength.

Keywords: pullout strength, screw parameter, cervical spine, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3605 Fastening in Bio-Based Materials: Assessment of Pullout Strength in Hemp Concrete

Authors: Rebecca Roca, Fabien Delhomme, Yannick Salaün, Alberto-Manuel Martin, Elodie Prud’Homme, Jostar Laforet

Abstract:

Hempcrete masonry blocks are made of a bio-based material in order to reduce the carbon footprint and to have good thermal and acoustic properties. The objective of this research project is to assess the efficiency of post-installed anchors used for usual concrete blocks. Pullout tests were led to obtaining the mechanical resistances and failure modes. The characteristic resistances were obtained by in situ and standard methods, respectively, given by CISMA and ETAG. Screwed plastic fixation appears to be the most efficient and cheap solution but non-homologated. To validate these first results and develop a specific process, a large-scale experimental campaign has to be conducted. The moisture sensitivity of hempcrete also has to be addressed in mechanical performances and durability aspects to guarantee the safe use of post-installed anchors in bio-based materials.

Keywords: bio-based material, hempcrete, anchor, pullout test

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
3604 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim

Abstract:

Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: geogrid, soil, interface, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
3603 Investigation of Effective Parameters on Pullout Capacity in Soil Nailing with Special Attention to International Design Codes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

An important and influential factor in design and determining the safety factor in Soil Nailing is the ultimate pullout capacity, or, in other words, bond strength. This important parameter depends on several factors such as material and soil texture, method of implementation, excavation diameter, friction angle between the nail and the soil, grouting pressure, the nail depth (overburden pressure), the angle of drilling and the degree of saturation in soil. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), a customary regulation in the design of nailing, is considered only the effect of the soil type (or rock) and the method of implementation in determining the bond strength, which results in non-economic design. The other regulations are each of a kind, some of the parameters affecting bond resistance are not taken into account. Therefore, in the present paper, at first the relationships and tables presented by several valid regulations are presented for estimating the ultimate pullout capacity, and then the effect of several important factors affecting on ultimate Pullout capacity are studied. Finally, it was determined, the effect of overburden pressure (in method of injection with pressure), soil dilatation and roughness of the drilling surface on pullout strength is incremental, and effect of degree of soil saturation on pullout strength to a certain degree of saturation is increasing and then decreasing. therefore it is better to get help from nail pullout-strength test results and numerical modeling to evaluate the effect of parameters such as overburden pressure, dilatation, and degree of soil saturation, and so on to reach an optimal and economical design.

Keywords: soil nailing, pullout capacity, federal highway administration (FHWA), grout

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
3602 Pullout Strength of Textile Reinforcement in Concrete by Embedded Length and Concrete Strength

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

The deterioration of the reinforced concrete is continuously accelerated due to aging of the reinforced concrete, enlargement of the structure, increase if the self-weight due to the manhattanization and cracking due to external force. Also, due to the abnormal climate phenomenon, cracking of reinforced concrete structures is accelerated. Therefore, research on the Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) which replaced reinforcement with textile is under study. However, in previous studies, adhesion performance to single yarn was examined without parameters, which does not reflect the effect of fiber twisting and concrete strength. In the present paper, the effect of concrete strength and embedded length on 2400tex (gram per 1000 meters) and 640tex textile were investigated. The result confirm that the increasing compressive strength of the concrete did not affect the pullout strength. However, as the embedded length increased, the pullout strength tended to increase gradually, especially at 2400tex with more twists.

Keywords: textile, TRC, pullout, strength, embedded length, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
3601 Vertical Uplift Capacity of a Group of Equally Spaced Helical Screw Anchors in Sand

Authors: Sanjeev Mukherjee, Satyendra Mittal

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigations on the behaviour of a group of single, double and triple helical screw anchors embedded vertically at the same level in sand. The tests were carried out on one, two, three and four numbers of anchors in sand for different depths of embedment keeping shallow and deep mode of behaviour in mind. The testing program included 48 tests conducted on three model anchors installed in sand whose density kept constant throughout the tests. It was observed that the ultimate pullout load varied significantly with the installation depth of the anchor and the number of anchors. The apparent coefficient of friction (f*) between anchor and soil was also calculated based on the test results. It was found that the apparent coefficient of friction varies between 1.02 and 4.76 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 numbers of single, double and triple helical screw anchors. Plate load tests conducted on model soil showed that the value of ф increases from 35o for virgin soil to 48o for soil with four double screw helical anchors. The graphs of ultimate pullout capacity of a group of two, three and four no. of anchors with respect to one anchor were plotted and design equations have been proposed correlating them. Based on these findings, it has been concluded that the load-displacement relationships for all groups can be reduced to a common curve. A 3-D finite element model, PLAXIS, was used to confirm the results obtained from laboratory tests and the agreement is excellent.

Keywords: apparent coefficient of friction, helical screw anchor, installation depth, plate load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
3600 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3599 A Review on Development of Pedicle Screws and Characterization of Biomaterials for Fixation in Lumbar Spine

Authors: Shri Dubey, Jamal Ghorieshi

Abstract:

Instability of the lumbar spine is caused by various factors that include degenerative disc, herniated disc, traumatic injuries, and other disorders. Pedicle screws are widely used as a main fixation device to construct rigid linkages of vertebrae to provide a fully functional and stable spine. Various technologies and methods have been used to restore the stabilization. However, loosening of pedicle screws is the main cause of concerns for neurosurgeons. This could happen due to poor bone quality with osteoporosis as well as types of pedicle screw used. Compatibilities and stabilities of pedicle screws with bone depend on design (thread design, length, and diameter) and material. Grip length and pullout strength affect the motion and stability of the spine when it goes through different phases such as extension, flexion, and rotation. Pullout strength of augmented pedicle screws is increased in both primary and salvage procedures by 119% (p = 0.001) and 162% (p = 0.01), respectively. Self-centering pedicle screws at different trajectories (0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°) show the same pullout strength as insertion in a straight-ahead trajectory. The outer cylindrical and inner conical shape of pedicle screws show the highest pullout strength in Grades 5 and 15 foams (synthetic bone). An outer cylindrical and inner conical shape with a V-shape thread exhibit the highest pullout strength in all foam grades. The maximum observed pullout strength is at axial pullout configuration at 0°. For Grade 15 (240 kg/m³) foam, there is a decline in pull out strength. The largest decrease in pullout strength is reported for Grade 10 (160 kg/m³) foam. The maximum pullout strength of 2176 N (0.32-g/cm³ Sawbones) on all densities. Type 1 Pedicle screw shows the best fixation due to smaller conical core diameter and smaller thread pitch (Screw 2 with 2 mm; Screws 1 and 3 with 3 mm).

Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, classical pedicle screws, CPS, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, EPEEKS, includes translaminar facet screw, TLFS, poly-ether-ether-ketone, PEEK, transfacetopedicular screw, TFPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3598 The Effect of Soil Reinforcement on Pullout Behaviour of Flat Under-Reamer Anchor Pile Placed in Sand

Authors: V. K. Arora, Amit Rastogi

Abstract:

To understand the anchor pile behaviour and to predict the capacity of piles under uplift loading are important concerns in foundation analysis. Experimental model tests have been conducted on single anchor pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to pure uplift loading. A gravel-filled geogrid layer was located around the enlarged pile base. The experimental tests were conducted on straight-shafted vertical steel piles with an outer diameter of 20 mm in a steel soil tank. The tested piles have embedment depth-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of 2, 3, and 4. The sand bed is prepared at three different values of density of 1.67, 1.59, and 1.50gm/cc. Single piles embedded in sandy soil were tested and the results are presented and analysed in this paper. The influences of pile embedment ratio, reinforcement, relative density of soil on the uplift capacity of piles were investigated. The study revealed that the behaviour of single piles under uplift loading depends mainly on both the pile embedment depth-to-diameter ratio and the soil density. It is believed that the experimental results presented in this study would be beneficial to the professional understanding of the soil–pile-uplift interaction problem.

Keywords: flat under-reamer anchor pile, geogrid, pullout reinforcement, soil reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
3597 Study of Drawing Characteristics due to Friction between the Materials by FEM

Authors: Won Jin Ryu, Mok Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon Hong Park, Sung Min Kim, Jong Bae Park

Abstract:

Pipes for offshore plants require specifications that satisfy both high strength and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, currently, clad pipes are used in offshore plants. Clad pipes can be made using either overlay welding or clad plates. The present study was intended to figure out the effects of friction between two materials, which is a factor that affects two materials, were figured out using FEM to make clad pipes through heterogenous material drawing instead of the two methods mentioned above. Therefore, FEM has conducted while all other variables that the variable friction was fixed. The experimental results showed increases in pullout force along with increases in the friction in the boundary layer.

Keywords: clad pipe, FEM, friction, pullout force

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3596 Mathieu Stability of Offshore Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, P. A. Kiran

Abstract:

Increasing demand for large-sized Floating, Storage and Regasification Units (FSRUs) for oil and gas industries led to the development of novel geometric form of Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform (BLSRP). BLSRP consists of a circular deck supported by six buoyant legs placed symmetrically with respect to wave direction. Circular deck is connected to buoyant legs using hinged joints, which restrain transfer of rotational response from the legs to deck and vice-versa. Buoyant legs are connected to seabed using taut moored system with high initial pretension, enabling rigid body motion in vertical plane. Encountered environmental loads induce dynamic tether tension variations, which in turn affect stability of the platform. The present study investigates Mathieu stability of BLSRP under the postulated tether pullout cases by inducing additional tension in the tethers. From the numerical studies carried out, it is seen that postulated tether pullout on any one of the buoyant legs does not result in Mathieu type instability even under excessive tether tension. This is due to the presence of hinged joints, which are capable of dissipating the unbalanced loads to other legs. However, under tether pullout of consecutive buoyant legs, Mathieu-type instability is observed.

Keywords: offshore platforms, stability, postulated failure, dynamic tether tension

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3595 The Use of Psychological Tests in Polish Organizations - Empirical Evidence

Authors: Milena Gojny-Zbierowska

Abstract:

In the last decades psychological tests have been gaining in popularity as a method used for evaluating personnel, and they bring consulting companies solid profits rising by up to 10% each year. The market is offering a growing range of tools for the assessment of personality. Tests are used in organizations mainly in the recruitment and selection of staff. This paper is an attempt to initially diagnose the state of the use of psychological tests in Polish companies on the basis of empirical research.

Keywords: psychological tests, personality, content analysis, NEO FFI, big five personality model

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3594 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
3593 Bonding Characteristics Between FRP and Concrete Substrates

Authors: Houssam A. Toutanji, Meng Han

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development of a fracture mechanics based-model that predicts the debonding behavior of FRP strengthened RC beams. In this study, a database includes 351 concrete prisms bonded with FRP plates tested in single and double shear were prepared. The existing fracture-mechanics-based models are applied to this database. Unfortunately the properties of adhesive layer, especially a soft adhesive layer, used on the specimens in the existing studies were not always able to found. Thus, the new model’s proposal was based on fifteen newly conducted pullout tests and twenty four data selected from two independent existing studies with the application of a soft adhesive layers and the availability of adhesive properties.

Keywords: carbon fiber composite materials, interface response, fracture characteristics, maximum shear stress, ultimate transferable load

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3592 Nonstationarity Modeling of Economic and Financial Time Series

Authors: C. Slim

Abstract:

Traditional techniques for analyzing time series are based on the notion of stationarity of phenomena under study, but in reality most economic and financial series do not verify this hypothesis, which implies the implementation of specific tools for the detection of such behavior. In this paper, we study nonstationary non-seasonal time series tests in a non-exhaustive manner. We formalize the problem of nonstationary processes with numerical simulations and take stock of their statistical characteristics. The theoretical aspects of some of the most common unit root tests will be discussed. We detail the specification of the tests, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The empirical study focuses on the application of these tests to the exchange rate (USD/TND) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Tunisia, in order to compare the Power of these tests with the characteristics of the series.

Keywords: stationarity, unit root tests, economic time series, ADF tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3591 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne

Abstract:

The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05 g.cm-³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
3590 Effect of Hooked-End Steel Fibres Geometry on Pull-Out Behaviour of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Sadoon Abdallah, Mizi Fan, Xiangming Zhou

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive approach has been adopted to examine in detail the effect of various hook geometries on bond-slip characteristics. Extensive single fibre pull-out tests on ultra-high performance matrix with three different W/B ratios and embedded lengths have been carried out. Test results showed that the mechanical deformation of fibre hook is the main mechanism governing the pull-out behaviour. Furthermore, the quantitative analyses have been completed to compare the hook design contribution of 3D, 4D and 5D fibres to assess overall pull-out behaviour. It was also revealed that there is a strong relationship between the magnitude of hook contribution and W/B ratio (i.e. matrix strength). Reducing the W/B ratio from 0.20 to 0.11 greatly optimizes the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and enables better mobilization, straightening of the hook and results in bond-slip-hardening behaviour.

Keywords: bobond mechanisms, fibre-matrix interface, hook geometry, pullout behaviour and water to binder ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3589 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

Abstract:

The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
3588 The Study on Life of Valves Evaluation Based on Tests Data

Authors: Binjuan Xu, Qian Zhao, Ping Jiang, Bo Guo, Zhijun Cheng, Xiaoyue Wu

Abstract:

Astronautical valves are key units in engine systems of astronautical products; their reliability will influence results of rocket or missile launching, even lead to damage to staff and devices on the ground. Besides failure in engine system may influence the hitting accuracy and flight shot of missiles. Therefore high reliability is quite essential to astronautical products. There are quite a few literature doing research based on few failure test data to estimate valves’ reliability, thus this paper proposed a new method to estimate valves’ reliability, according to the corresponding tests of different failure modes, this paper takes advantage of tests data which acquired from temperature, vibration, and action tests to estimate reliability in every failure modes, then this paper has regarded these three kinds of tests as three stages in products’ process to integrate these results to acquire valves’ reliability. Through the comparison of results achieving from tests data and simulated data, the results have illustrated how to obtain valves’ reliability based on the few failure data with failure modes and prove that the results are effective and rational.

Keywords: censored data, temperature tests, valves, vibration tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
3587 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma

Abstract:

Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
3586 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3585 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3584 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes web application for evaluating tests using expert system in distance learning systems. Proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. Web application works with test questions and uses expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation the results are visualized and shown to student.

Keywords: distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3583 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: compression tests, elastic constants, fir wood, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3582 Development and Optimization of German Diagnostical Tests in Mathematics for Vocational Training

Authors: J. Thiele

Abstract:

Teachers working at vocational Colleges are often confronted with the problem, that many students graduated from different schools and therefore each had a different education. Especially in mathematics many students lack fundamentals or had different priorities at their previous schools. Furthermore, these vocational Colleges have to provide Graduations for many different working-fields, with different core themes. The Colleges are interested in measuring the different Education levels of their students and providing assistance for those who need to catch up. The Project mathe-meistern was initiated to remedy this problem at vocational Colleges. For this purpose, online-tests were developed. The aim of these tests is to evaluate basic mathematical abilities of the students. The tests are online Multiple-Choice-Tests with a total of 65 Items. They are accessed online with a unique Transaction-Number (TAN) for each participant. The content is divided in several Categories (Arithmetic, Algebra, Fractions, Geometry, etc.). After each test, the student gets a personalized summary depicting their strengths and weaknesses in mathematical Basics. Teachers can visit a special website to examine the results of their classes or single students. In total 5830 students did participate so far. For standardization and optimization purposes the tests are being evaluated, using the classic and probabilistic Test-Theory regarding Objectivity, Reliability and Validity, annually since 2015. This Paper is about the Optimization process considering the Rasch-scaling and Standardization of the tests. Additionally, current results using standardized tests will be discussed. To achieve this Competence levels and Types of errors of students attending vocational Colleges in Nordrheinwestfalen, Germany, were determined, using descriptive Data and Distractorevaluations.

Keywords: diagnostical tests in mathematics, distractor devaluation, test-optimization, test-theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
3581 Finite Element Analysis of Ball-Joint Boots under Environmental and Endurance Tests

Authors: Young-Doo Kwon, Seong-Hwa Jun, Dong-Jin Lee, Hyung-Seok Lee

Abstract:

Ball joints support and guide certain automotive parts that move relative to the frame of the vehicle. Such ball joints are covered and protected from dust, mud, and other interfering materials by ball-joint boots made of rubber—a flexible and near-incompressible material. The boots may experience twisting and bending deformations because of the motion of the joint arm. Thus, environmental and endurance tests of ball-joint boots apply both bending and twisting deformations. In this study, environmental and endurance testing was simulated via the finite element method performed by using a commercial software package. The ranges of principal stress and principal strain values that are known to directly affect the fatigue lives of the parts were sought. By defining these ranges, the number of iterative tests and modifications of the materials and dimensions of the boot can be decreased. Therefore, instead of performing actual part tests, manufacturers can perform standard fatigue tests in trials of different materials by applying only the defined range of stress or strain values.

Keywords: boot, endurance tests, rubber, FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3580 Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Ozgur, Gurcan Yazici

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not shown significant correlation. Although the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.

Keywords: yo-yo test, anaerobic power, soccer, sergeant jump test

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3579 Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Validation of a Warm Bulge Test System

Authors: Emine Feyza Şükür, Mevlüt Türköz, Murat Dilmeç, Hüseyin Selçuk Halkacı

Abstract:

In this study, a warm bulge test system was designed, built and experimentally validated to perform warm bulge tests with all necessary systems. In addition, performance of each sub-system is validated through repeated production and/or test runs as well as through part quality measurements. Validation and performance tests were performed to characterize the repeatability of the system. As a result of these tests, the desired temperature distribution on the sheet metal was obtained by the heating systems and the good repeatability of the bulge tests was obtained. Consequently, this study is expected to provide other researchers and manufacturer with a set of design and process guidelines to develop similar systems.

Keywords: design, test unit, warm bulge test unit, validation test

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3578 Parameters Identification of Granular Soils around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Younes Abed

Abstract:

The successful application of in-situ testing of soils heavily depends on development of interpretation methods of tests. The pressuremeter test simulates the expansion of a cylindrical cavity and because it has well defined boundary conditions, it is more unable to rigorous theoretical analysis (i. e. cavity expansion theory) then most other in-situ tests. In this article, and in order to make the identification process more convenient, we propose a relatively simple procedure which involves the numerical identification of some mechanical parameters of a granular soil, especially, the elastic modulus and the friction angle from a pressuremeter curve. The procedure, applied here to identify the parameters of generalised prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager criterion from a pressuremeter curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the curve obtained by integrating the model along the loading path in in-situ testing. The numerical process implemented here is based on the established finite element program. We present a validation of the proposed approach by a database of tests on expansion of cylindrical cavity. This database consists of four types of tests; thick cylinder tests carried out on the Hostun RF sand, pressuremeter tests carried out on the Hostun sand, in-situ pressuremeter tests carried out at the site of Fos with marine self-boring pressuremeter and in-situ pressuremeter tests realized on the site of Labenne with Menard pressuremeter.

Keywords: granular soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, identification procedure

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