Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8363

Search results for: full scale measurement

8363 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

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8362 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz

Abstract:

The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: activated carbon, groundwater, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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8361 Application of Flexi-Wall in Noise Barriers Renewal

Authors: B. Daee, H. M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF) and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall) is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing sound barriers in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The result of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound barrier application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound barrier applications was also developed.

Keywords: noise barrier, polyurethane foam, accelerated construction, full-scale experiment

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8360 Dynamic Response Analyses for Human-Induced Lateral Vibration on Congested Pedestrian Bridges

Authors: M. Yoneda

Abstract:

In this paper, a lateral walking design force per person is proposed and compared with Imperial College test results. Numerical simulations considering the proposed walking design force which is incorporated into the neural-oscillator model are carried out placing much emphasis on the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) for a pedestrian bridge model with the span length of 50 m. Numerical analyses are also conducted for an existing pedestrian suspension bridge. As compared with full scale measurements for this suspension bridge, it is confirmed that the analytical method based on the neural-oscillator model might be one of the useful ways to explain the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) of pedestrians being on the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, human-induced lateral vibration, neural-oscillator, full scale measurement, dynamic response analysis

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8359 Creation and Validation of a Measurement Scale of E-Management: An Exploratory and Confirmatory Study

Authors: Hamadi Khlif

Abstract:

This paper deals with the understanding of the concept of e-management and the development of a measuring instrument adapted to the new problems encountered during the application of this new practice within the modern enterprise. Two principal e-management factors have been isolated in an exploratory study carried out among 260 participants. A confirmatory study applied to a second sample of 270 participants has been established in a cross-validation of the scale of measurement. The study presents the literature review specifically dedicated to e-management and the results of the exploratory and confirmatory phase of the development of this scale, which demonstrates satisfactory psychometric qualities. The e-management has two dimensions: a managerial dimension and a technological dimension.

Keywords: e-management, management, ICT deployment, mode of management

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8358 A Full-Scale Test of Coping-Girder Integrated Bridge

Authors: Heeyoung Lee, Woosung Bin, Kangseog Seo, Hyojeong Yun, Zuog An

Abstract:

Recently, a new continuous bridge system has been proposed to increase the space under the bridge and to improve aesthetic aspect of the urban area. The main feature of the proposed bridge is to connect steel I-girders and coping by means of prestressed high-strength steel bars and steel plate. The proposed bridge is able to lower the height of the bridge to ensure the workability and efficiency through a reduction of the cost of road construction. This study presents the experimental result of the full-scale connection between steel I-girders and coping under the negative bending moment. The composite behavior is thoroughly examined and discussed under the specific load levels such as service load, factored load and crack load. Structural response showed full composite action until the final load level because no relative displacement between coping and girder was observed. It was also found prestressing force into high-strength bars was able to control tensile stresses of deck slab. This indicated that cracks in deck slab can be controlled by above-mentioned prestressing force.

Keywords: coping, crack, integrated bridge, full-scale test

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8357 Evaluation of Intervention Effectiveness from the Client Perspective: Dimensions and Measurement of Wellbeing

Authors: Neşe Alkan

Abstract:

Purpose: The point that applied/clinical psychology, which is the practice and research discipline of the mental health field, has reached today can be summarized as the necessity of handling the psychological well-being of people from multiple perspectives and the goal of moving it to a higher level. Clients' subjective assessment of their own condition and wellbeing is an integral part of evidence-based interventions. There is a need for tools through which clients can evaluate the effectiveness of the psychotherapy/intervention performed with them and their contribution to the wellbeing and wellbeing of this process in a valid and reliable manner. The aim of this research is to meet this need, to test the reliability and validity of the index in Turkish, and explore its usability in the practices of both researchers and psychotherapists. Method: A total of 213 adults aged between 18-54, 69.5% working and 29.5% university students, were included in the study. Along with their demographic information, the participants were administered a set of scales: wellbeing, life satisfaction, spiritual satisfaction, shopping addiction, and loneliness, namely via an online platform. The construct validity of the wellbeing scale was tested with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, convergent and discriminant validity were tested with two-way full and partial correlation analyses and, measurement invariance was tested with one-way analysis of variance. Results: Factor analyzes showed that the scale consisted of six dimensions as it is in its original structure. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be Cronbach α = .82. Two-way correlation analyzes revealed that the wellbeing scale total score was positively correlated with general life satisfaction (r = .62) and spiritual satisfaction (r = .29), as expected. It was negatively correlated with loneliness (r = -.51) and shopping addiction (r = -.15). While the scale score did not vary by gender, previous illness, or nicotine addiction, it was found that the total wellbeing scale scores of the participants who had used antidepressant medication during the past year were lower than those who did not use antidepressant medication (F(1,204) = 7.713, p = .005). Conclusion: It has been concluded that the 12-item wellbeing scale consisting of six dimensions can be used in research and health sciences practices as a valid and reliable measurement tool. Further research which examines the reliability and validity of the scale in different widely used languages such as Spanish and Chinese is recommended.

Keywords: wellbeing, intervention effectiveness, reliability and validity, effectiveness

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8356 Full-Scale Test of a Causeway Embankment Supported by Raft-Aggregate Column Foundation on Soft Clay Deposit

Authors: Tri Harianto, Lawalenna Samang, St. Hijraini Nur, Arwin

Abstract:

Recently, a port development is constructed in Makassar city, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Makassar city is located in lowland area that dominated by soft marine clay deposit. A two kilometers causeway construction was built which is situated on the soft clay layer. In order to investigate the behavior of causeway embankment, a full-scale test was conducted of high embankment built on a soft clay deposit. The embankment with 3,5 m high was supported by two types of reinforcement such as raft and raft-aggregate column foundation. Since the ground was undergoing consolidation due to the preload, the raft and raft-aggregate column foundations were monitored in order to analyze the vertical ground movement by inducing the settlement of the foundation. In this study, two types of foundation (raft and raft-aggregate column) were tested to observe the effectiveness of raft-aggregate column compare to raft foundation in reducing the settlement. The settlement monitored during the construction stage by using the settlement plates, which is located in the center and toe of the embankment. Measurements were taken every day for each embankment construction stage (4 months). In addition, an analytical calculation was conducted in this study to compare the full-scale test result. The result shows that the raft-aggregate column foundation significantly reduces the settlement by 30% compared to the raft foundation. A raft-aggregate column foundation also reduced the time period of each loading stage. The Good agreement of analytical calculation compared to the full-scale test result also found in this study.

Keywords: full-scale, preloading, raft-aggregate column, soft clay

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8355 Validation of the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and Vocational College Teachers

Authors: Wei Zhang, Lifen Zhao

Abstract:

The present study aims to translate and validate the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese university and vocational college teachers. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure that was consistent with the original structure of career motivation: career insight, career identity, and career resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a second-order three-factor model with correlated measurement errors best fit the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested, demonstrating that the Chinese version of the Career Motivation Scale did not differ across groups of school type, educational level, and working years in current institutions. The concurrent validity of the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was confirmed by its significant correlations with work engagement, career adaptability, career satisfaction, job crafting, and intention to quit. The results of the study indicated that the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was a valid and reliable measure of career motivation among university and vocational college teachers in China.

Keywords: career motivation scale, Chinese University, vocational college teachers, measurement invariance, validation

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8354 An Evaluation of Full-Scale Reinforced Concrete and Steel Girder Composite Members Using High Volume Fly-Ash

Authors: Sung-Won Yoo, Chul-Hyeon Kang, Kyoung-Tae Park, Hae-Sik Woo

Abstract:

Numerous studies were dedicated on the High Volume Fly-Ash (HVFA) concrete using high volume fly ash. The material properties of HVFA concrete have been the primordial topics of early studies, and interest shifted gradually toward the structural behavior of HVFA concrete such as elasticity modulus, stress-strain relationship, and structural behavior. However, structural studies consider small-scale members limited to the scope of reinforced concrete only. Therefore, in this paper, on the basis of recent studies on the structural behavior, 2 full-scale test members were manufactured with 7.5 m span length, fly ash replacement ratio of 50 % and concrete compressive strength of 50 MPa in order to evaluate the practicability of HVFA to real structures. In addition, 2 steel composite test members were also manufactured with span length of 3 m and using the same HVFA concrete for the same purpose. The test results of full-scale RC members showed that the practical use of HVFA on such structures is not hard despite small differences between test results and existing research results on the stress-strain relationship. The flexural test revealed very little difference between 50% fly ash concrete and general concrete in view of the similarity exhibited by the displacement and strain patterns. The experimental concrete shear strength being very close to that of design code, the existing design code can be applied. From the flexural test results of steel girder composite members, the composite behavior can be secured as much as that using normal concrete under the condition of sufficient arrangement of reinforcing bar.

Keywords: composite, fly ash, full-scale, high volume

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8353 Studies and Full Scale Tests for the Development of a Ravine Filling with a Depth of about 12.00m

Authors: Dana Madalina Pohrib, Elena Irina Ciobanu

Abstract:

In compaction works, the most often used codes and standards are those for road embankments and refer to a maximum filling height of 3.00m. When filling a height greater than 3.00m, such codes are no longer valid and thus their application may lead to technical difficulties in the process of compaction and to the achievement of a sufficient degree of compaction. For this reason, in the case of controlled fillings with heights greater than 3.00m it is necessary to formulate and apply a number of special techniques, which can be determined by performing a full scale test. This paper presents the results of the studies and full scale tests conducted for the stabilization of a ravine with vertical banks and a depth of about 12.00m. The fillings will support a heavy traffic road connecting the two parts of a village in Vaslui County, Romania. After analyzing two comparative intervention solutions, the variant of a controlled filling bordered by a monolith concrete retaining wall was chosen. The results obtained by the authors highlighted the need to insert a geogrid reinforcement at every 2.00m for creating a 12.00m thick compacted fill.

Keywords: compaction, dynamic probing, stability, soil stratification

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8352 Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels

Authors: Aleksandra Majchrzak, Katarzyna Baruch, Monika Sobolewska, Bartlomiej Chojnacki, Adam Pilch

Abstract:

Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.

Keywords: characteristic numbers, dimensional analysis, model study, scaled modeling, sound absorption coefficient

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8351 Experimental Study of the Infill Masonry Walls Response Subjected to Out-Of-Plane Static Loadings

Authors: André Furtado, Hugo Rodrigues, António Arêde, Humberto Varum

Abstract:

Besides characterized as non-structural elements, infill masonry (IM) walls have an important contribute in the structural response of reinforced concrete structures as proved by the damages observed recent earthquakes. In particular, the out-of-plane (OOP) collapse has been one of the most observed failure mechanism. The aim of this research is to contribute to the increase of understanding regarding the OOP behaviour of full-scale infill panels considering different variables such as panel support width and axial load on the top of columns. For this, it was carried out in the Laboratory of Earthquake and Structural Engineering (LESE) an experimental campaign of five full-scale IM walls subjected to OOP distributed cyclic loadings. Specimens with different variables such as previous in-plane damage, support conditions, axial load on the top of the columns were studied. The results will be presented and discussed along the manuscript in terms of force-displacement hysteretic curves, cracking pattern, initial stiffness, stiffness degradation and accumulative energy dissipation.

Keywords: infill masonry walls, experimental testing, out-of-plane, full-scale

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8350 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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8349 Full-Field Estimation of Cyclic Threshold Shear Strain

Authors: E. E. S. Uy, T. Noda, K. Nakai, J. R. Dungca

Abstract:

Cyclic threshold shear strain is the cyclic shear strain amplitude that serves as the indicator of the development of pore water pressure. The parameter can be obtained by performing either cyclic triaxial test, shaking table test, cyclic simple shear or resonant column. In a cyclic triaxial test, other researchers install measuring devices in close proximity of the soil to measure the parameter. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the cyclic threshold shear strain parameter using full-field measurement technique. The technique uses a camera to monitor and measure the movement of the soil. For this study, the technique was incorporated in a strain-controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test. Calibration of the camera was first performed to ensure that the camera can properly measure the deformation under cyclic loading. Its capacity to measure deformation was also investigated using a cylindrical rubber dummy. Two-dimensional image processing was implemented. Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm was applied to track the movement of the soil particles. Results from the full-field measurement technique were compared with the results from the linear variable displacement transducer. A range of values was determined from the estimation. This was due to the nonhomogeneous deformation of the soil observed during the cyclic loading. The minimum values were in the order of 10-2% in some areas of the specimen.

Keywords: cyclic loading, cyclic threshold shear strain, full-field measurement, optical flow

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8348 Finding Data Envelopment Analysis Target Using the Multiple Objective Linear Programming Structure in Full Fuzzy Case

Authors: Raziyeh Shamsi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problem in full fuzzy case and find Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) targets. In the presented model, we are seeking the least inputs and the most outputs in the production possibility set (PPS) with the variable return to scale (VRS) assumption, so that the efficiency projection is obtained for all decision making units (DMUs). Then, we provide an algorithm for finding DEA targets interactively in the full fuzzy case, which solves the full fuzzy problem without defuzzification. Owing to the use of interactive methods, the targets obtained by our algorithm are more applicable, more realistic, and they are according to the wish of the decision maker. Finally, an application of the algorithm in 21 educational institutions is provided.

Keywords: DEA, MOLP, full fuzzy, target

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8347 A Study of Stress and Coping Strategies of School Teachers

Authors: G.S. Patel

Abstract:

In this research paper the discussion have been made on teachers work mental stress and coping strategies. Stress Measurement scale was developed for school teachers. All the scientific steps of test construction was followed. For this test construction, different factors like teachers workplace, teachers' residential area, teachers' family life, teachers' ability and skills, economic factors and other factors to construct teachers stress measurement scale. In this research tool, situational statements have been made and teachers have to give a response in each statement on five-point rating scale what they experienced in their daily life. Special features of the test also established like validity and reliability of this test and also computed norms for its interpretation. A sample of 320 teachers of school teachers of Gujarat state was selected by Cluster sampling technique. t-test was computed for testing null hypothesis. The main findings of the present study are Urban area teachers feel more stressful situation compare to rural area teachers. Those teachers who live in the joint family feel less stress compare to teachers who live in a nuclear family. This research work is very useful to prepare list of activities to reduce teachers mental stress.

Keywords: stress measurement scale, level of stress, validity, reliability, norms

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8346 Design of a Virtual Instrument (VI) System for Earth Resistivity Survey

Authors: Henry Okoh, Obaro Verisa Omayuli, Gladys A. Osagie

Abstract:

One of the challenges of developing nations is the dearth of measurement devices. Aside the shortage, when available, they are either old or obsolete and also very expensive. When this is the situation, researchers must design alternative systems to help meet the desired needs of academia. This paper presents a design of cost-effective multi-disciplinary virtual instrument system for scientific research. This design was based on NI USB-6255 multifunctional DAQ which was used for earth resistivity measurement in Schlumberger array and the result obtained compared closely with that of a conventional ABEM Terrameter. This instrument design provided a hands-on experience as related to full-waveform signal acquisition in the field.

Keywords: cost-effective, data acquisition (DAQ), full-waveform, multi-disciplinary, Schlumberger array, virtual Instrumentation (VI).

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8345 Modelisation of a Full-Scale Closed Cement Grinding

Authors: D. Touil, L. Ouadah

Abstract:

An industrial model of cement grinding circuit is proposed on the basis of sampling surveys undertaken in the Meftah cement plant in Algiers, Algeria. The ball mill is described by a series of equal fully mixed stages that incorporates the effect of air sweeping. The kinetic parameters of this material in the energy normalized form obtained using the data of batch dry ball milling are taken into account in developing the present scale-up procedure. The dynamic separator is represented by the air classifier selectivity equation corrected by empirical factors. The model is incorporated in computer program that predict full size distributions and mass flow rates for all streams in a circuit under a particular set of operating conditions.

Keywords: grinding circuit, clinker, cement, modeling, population balance, energy

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8344 Developing New Media Credibility Scale: A Multidimensional Perspective

Authors: Hanaa Farouk Saleh

Abstract:

The main purposes of this study are to develop a scale that reflects emerging theoretical understandings of new media credibility, based on the evolution of credibility studies in western researches, identification of the determinants of credibility in the media and its components by comparing traditional and new media credibility scales and building accumulative scale to test new media credibility. This approach was built on western researches using conceptualizations of media credibility, which focuses on four principal components: Source (journalist), message (article), medium (newspaper, radio, TV, web, etc.), and organization (owner of the medium), and adding user and cultural context as key components to assess new media credibility in particular. This study’s value lies in its contribution to the conceptualization and development of new media credibility through the creation of a theoretical measurement tool. Future studies should explore this scale to test new media credibility, which represents a promising new approach in the efforts to define and measure credibility of all media types.

Keywords: credibility scale, media credibility components, new media credibility scale, scale development

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8343 Taking Learning beyond Kirkpatrick’s Levels: Applying Return on Investment Measurement in Training

Authors: Charles L. Sigmund, M. A. Aed, Lissa Graciela Rivera Picado

Abstract:

One critical component of the training development process is the evaluation of the impact and value of the program. Oftentimes, however, learning organizations bypass this phase either because they are unfamiliar with effective methods for measuring the success or effect of the training or because they believe the effort to be too time-consuming or cumbersome. As a result, most organizations that do conduct evaluation limit their scope to Kirkpatrick L1 (reaction) and L2 (learning), or at most carry through to L4 (results). In 2021 Microsoft made a strategic decision to assess the measurable and monetized impact for all training launches and designed a scalable and program-agnostic tool for providing full-scale L5 return on investment (ROI) estimates for each. In producing this measurement tool, the learning and development organization built a framework for making business prioritizations and resource allocations that is based on the projected ROI of a course. The analysis and measurement posed by this process use a combination of training data and operational metrics to calculate the effective net benefit derived from a given training effort. Business experts in the learning field generally consider a 10% ROI to be an outstanding demonstration of the value of a project. Initial findings from this work applied to a critical customer-facing program yielded an estimated ROI of more than 49%. This information directed the organization to make a more concerted and concentrated effort in this specific line of business and resulted in additional investment in the training methods and technologies being used.

Keywords: evaluation, measurement, return on investment, value

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8342 Single Atom Manipulation with 4 Scanning Tunneling Microscope Technique

Authors: Jianshu Yang, Delphine Sordes, Marek Kolmer, Christian Joachim

Abstract:

Nanoelectronics, for example the calculating circuits integrating at molecule scale logic gates, atomic scale circuits, has been constructed and investigated recently. A major challenge is their functional properties characterization because of the connecting problem from atomic scale to micrometer scale. New experimental instruments and new processes have been proposed therefore. To satisfy a precisely measurement at atomic scale and then connecting micrometer scale electrical integration controller, the technique improvement is kept on going. Our new machine, a low temperature high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, as a customer required instrument constructed by Omicron GmbH, is expected to be scaling down to atomic scale characterization. Here, we will present our first testified results about the performance of this new instrument. The sample we selected is Au(111) surface. The measurements have been taken at 4.2 K. The atomic resolution surface structure was observed with each of four scanners with noise level better than 3 pm. With a tip-sample distance calibration by I-z spectra, the sample conductance has been derived from its atomic locally I-V spectra. Furthermore, the surface conductance measurement has been performed using two methods, (1) by landing two STM tips on the surface with sample floating; and (2) by sample floating and one of the landed tips turned to be grounding. In addition, single atom manipulation has been achieved with a modified tip design, which is comparable to a conventional LT-STM.

Keywords: low temperature ultra-high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, nanoelectronics, point contact, single atom manipulation, tunneling resistance

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8341 The Benefits of Full Day Kindergarten versus Half Day Kindergarten: Review of Literature

Authors: Majedah Fawzy Abu Alrub

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of full-day vs. half-day kindergarten. Research suggests that there is a common trend among full-day kindergarten programs. Academic, social, and emotional benefits are evident, as well as preferential trends among the parents and teachers. The review began by identifying 20 references of literature on full-day kindergarten published in the last two decades (1997-2017). Of these, 20 passed an initial screening designed to identify research reports that examined academic, social, and emotional outcomes of full-day kindergarten programs as compared with half-day programs. Studies indicated that children who attend full-day kindergarten are positively related to high performance through their schools. There is much evidence to support a full-day program for children. Results indicated that full-day programs have obvious benefits for children; however, they may not be the best program for all children.

Keywords: preschool, full-day kindergarten, academic benefits, social and emotional benefits

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8340 Identification of Microbial Community in an Anaerobic Reactor Treating Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, John O. Odiyo, Feroz M. Swalaha

Abstract:

The study of microbial ecology and their function in anaerobic digestion processes are essential to control the biological processes. This is to know the symbiotic relationship between the microorganisms that are involved in the conversion of complex organic matter in the industrial wastewater to simple molecules. In this study, diversity and quantity of bacterial community in the granular sludge taken from the different compartments of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed three major eubacteria phyla that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi in the full-scale UASB reactor, with different groups populating different compartment. The result of qPCR assay showed high amount of eubacteria with increase in concentration along the reactor’s compartment. This study extends our understanding on the diverse, topological distribution and shifts in concentration of microbial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. The colonization and the trophic interactions among these microbial populations in reducing and transforming complex organic matter within the UASB reactors were established.

Keywords: bacteria, brewery wastewater, real-time quantitative PCR, UASB reactor

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8339 Early Age Behavior of Wind Turbine Gravity Foundations

Authors: Janet Modu, Jean-Francois Georgin, Laurent Briancon, Eric Antoinet

Abstract:

The current practice during the repowering phase of wind turbines is deconstruction of existing foundations and construction of new foundations to accept larger wind loads or once the foundations have reached the end of their service lives. The ongoing research project FUI25 FEDRE (Fondations d’Eoliennes Durables et REpowering) therefore serves to propose scalable wind turbine foundation designs to allow reuse of the existing foundations. To undertake this research, numerical models and laboratory-scale models are currently being utilized and implemented in the GEOMAS laboratory at INSA Lyon following instrumentation of a reference wind turbine situated in the Northern part of France. Sensors placed within both the foundation and the underlying soil monitor the evolution of stresses from the foundation’s early age to stresses during service. The results from the instrumentation form the basis of validation for both the laboratory and numerical works conducted throughout the project duration. The study currently focuses on the effect of coupled mechanisms (Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical) that induce stress during the early age of the reinforced concrete foundation, and scale factor considerations in the replication of the reference wind turbine foundation at laboratory-scale. Using THMC 3D models on COMSOL Multi-physics software, the numerical analysis performed on both the laboratory-scale and the full-scale foundations simulate the thermal deformation, hydration, shrinkage (desiccation and autogenous) and creep so as to predict the initial damage caused by internal processes during concrete setting and hardening. Results show a prominent effect of early age properties on the damage potential in full-scale wind turbine foundations. However, a prediction of the damage potential at laboratory scale shows significant differences in early age stresses in comparison to the full-scale model depending on the spatial position in the foundation. In addition to the well-known size effect phenomenon, these differences may contribute to inaccuracies encountered when predicting ultimate deformations of the on-site foundation using laboratory scale models.

Keywords: cement hydration, early age behavior, reinforced concrete, shrinkage, THMC 3D models, wind turbines

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8338 An Analysis of a Relational Frame Skills Training Intervention to Increase General Intelligence in Early Childhood

Authors: Ian M. Grey, Bryan Roche, Anna Dillon, Justin Thomas, Sarah Cassidy, Dylan Colbert, Ian Stewart

Abstract:

This paper presents findings from a study conducted in two schools in Abu Dhabi. The hypothesis is that teaching young children to derive various relations between stimuli leads to increases in full-scale IQ scores of typically developing children. In the experimental group, sixteen 6-7-year-old children were exposed over six weeks to an intensive training intervention designed specifically for their age group. This training intervention, presented on a tablet, aimed to improve their understanding of the relations Same, Opposite, Different, contextual control over the concept of Sameness and Difference, and purely arbitrary derived relational responding for Sameness and Difference. In the control group, sixteen 6-7-year-old children interacted with KIBO robotics over six weeks. KIBO purports to improve cognitive skills through engagement with STEAM activities. Increases in full-scale IQ were recorded for most children in the experimental group, while no increases in full-scale IQ were recorded for the control group. These findings support the hypothesis that relational skills underlie many aspects of general cognitive ability.

Keywords: early childhood, derived relational responding, intelligence, relational frame theory, relational skills

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8337 Transcendental Birth of the Column from the Full Jar Expressed at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint Germain-des-Pres

Authors: Kang Woobang

Abstract:

The base of the column is not only a support but also the embodiment of profound symbolism full of cosmic energy. Finding the full jars from which various energy emanate at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint-Germain-des-Pres in France, the author was so shocked. As the column is cosmic tree, from the Full Jar full with cosmic energy emerges the cosmic tree composed of shaft and capital.

Keywords: full picher or jar, transcendental or supernatural birth from yonggi, yonggimun, yonggissak

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
8336 Performance Analysis on the Smoke Management System of the Weiwuying Center for the Arts Using Hot Smoke Tests

Authors: K. H. Yang, T. C. Yeh, P. S. Lu, F. C. Yang, T. Y. Wu, W. J. Sung

Abstract:

In this study, a series of full-scale hot smoke tests has been conducted to validate the performances of the smoke management system in the WWY center for arts before grand opening. Totaled 19 scenarios has been established and experimented with fire sizes ranging from 2 MW to 10 MW. The measured ASET data provided by the smoke management system experimentation were compared with the computer-simulated RSET values for egress during the design phase. The experimental result indicated that this system could successfully provide a safety margin of 200% and ensure a safe evacuation in case of fire in the WWY project, including worst-cases and fail-safe scenarios. The methodology developed and results obtained in this project can provide a useful reference for future applications, such as for the large-scale indoor sports dome and arena, stadium, shopping malls, airport terminals, and stations or tunnels for railway and subway systems.

Keywords: building hot smoke tests, performance-based smoke management system designs, full-scale experimental validation, tenable condition criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
8335 A Study on the Development of Social Participation Activity Scale for the Elderly

Authors: Young-Kwang Lee, Eun-Gu Ji, Min-Joo Kim, Seung-Jae Oh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a social participation activity scale for the elderly. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using maximum likelihood method using bundled items. In conclusion, thirteen items of social participation activity scale seemed appropriate. Finally, convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified on the scale with the fit. The convergent validity was based on the variance extracted value. In other words, the hypothesis that the variables are the same is rejected and the validity is confirmed. This study extensively considered the measurement items of the social participation activity scale used to measure social participation activities of the elderly. In the future, it will be meaningful that it can be used as a tool to verify the effectiveness of services in organizations that provide social welfare services to elderly people such as comprehensive social welfare centers and the elderly comprehensive social welfare centers.

Keywords: elderly, social participation, scale development, validity

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8334 A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test

Authors: Ji Hun Choi, Seung Un Chae, Kyeong Suk Cho

Abstract:

Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.

Keywords: synthetic resins, fire test, full-scale test, heat release rate, smoke production rate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, urethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 217