Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2054

Search results for: reliability and validity

2054 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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2053 Validity and Reliability of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument Using Rasch Model

Authors: Nurfirdawati Muhamad Hanafi, Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Jamil Ahmad, Sarebah Warman

Abstract:

This study was conducted to generate empirical evidence on validity and reliability of the item of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument using Rasch Model for polythomous data aided by Winstep software version 3.68. The construct validity was examined by analyzing the point-measure correlation index (PTMEA), in fit and outfit MNSQ values; meanwhile the reliability was examined by analyzing item reliability index. A survey technique was used as the major method with the CAI instrument on 156 teachers from vocational schools. The results have shown that the reliability of CAI Instrument items were between 0.80 and 0.98. PTMEA Correlation is in positive values, in which the item is able to distinguish between the ability of the respondent. Statistical data obtained shows that out of 154 items, 12 items from the instrument suggested to be omitted. This study is hoped could bring a new direction to the process of data analysis in educational research.

Keywords: competency assessment, reliability, validity, item analysis

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2052 Development of an Attitude Scale Towards Social Networking Sites

Authors: Münevver Başman, Deniz Gülleroğlu

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The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine the attitudes towards social networking sites. 45 tryout items, prepared for this aim, were applied to 342 students studying at Marmara University, Faculty of Education. The reliability and the validity of the scale were conducted with the help of these students. As a result of exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation, 41 items grouped according to the structure with three factors (interest, reality and negative effects) is obtained. While alpha reliability of the scale is obtained as .899; the reliability of factors is obtained as .899, .799, .775, respectively.

Keywords: Attitude, reliability, social networking sites, validity.

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2051 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız

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The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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2050 Validity and Reliability of a Questionaire for Measuring Behaviour Change of Low Performance Employee

Authors: Hazaila Binti Hassan, Abu Yazid Bin Abu Bakar, Salleh Amat

Abstract:

This study is to get the validity and reliability of the questionnaire for behaviour change on low-performing officers. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the behaviour of low performing officers. There are 75 items in this questionnaire which involves 5 subscales, which are the 5 dimensions intended to be studied: 1st emotional stability, 2nd psycho-spiritual enhancement, 3rd social skills development, 4th cognitive and rationality improvement and 5th behavioural alignment and adjustment. There are 2 processes in this research whereby to check the validity and reliability. Both use quantitative methods. Validity content testing has been conducted to validate the behavioural change questionnaire of the low performing officers. For the face validity, 4 people are involved, two are psychologists who carried out the program and the other two are officers of the same rank, i.e. supporting officers. They are involved in correction of sentences, languages, and grammar as well as the sentence structures so that it tallies with the purpose of studies. The questionnaire underwent content validity by the experts. Five experts are appointed to attend this session, 3 are directly involved in the construction of this questionnaire and 2 others are experts from the university with a background in questionnaire development. The result shows that the content validity obtained a high coefficient of 0.745 with a minimum and maximum value of more than 0.60 which satisfies the characteristic of Content Value Ratio. The Cronbach’s alpha result is 0.867. The highest scores are the behavioural alignment and adjustment sub-scale recorded the highest value, followed by social skills development sub-scale, cognitive and rational improvements sub-scale, psycho-spiritual enhancement sub-scale, and lastly emotional stability. Therefore, both of validity and reliability result were accepted that this questionnaire is valid and reliable can be used in the study of behaviour changes of low performing officers in the civil service.

Keywords: content validity, reliability, five dimension, low-performing officers, questionnaire

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2049 Reliability and Validity for Measurement of Body Composition: A Field Method

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Zarizi Ab Rahman

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Measurement of body composition via a field method has the most popular instruments which are used to estimate the percentage of body fat. Among the instruments used are the Body Mass Index, Bio Impedance Analysis and Skinfold Test. All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, are mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 and 14 years participated in this study. The study found that the test retest and Pearson correlation coefficient of reliability for the three instruments is very high, r = .99. While the inter class reliability also are at high level with r = .99 for Body Mass Index and Bio Impedance Analysis, r = .96 for Skin fold test. Intra class reliability coefficient for these three instruments is too high for Body Mass Index r = .99, Bio Impedance Analysis r = .97, and Skin fold Test r = .90. However, Standard Error of Measurement value for all three instruments indicates the Body Mass Index is the most appropriate instrument with a mean value of .000672 compared with other instruments. The findings show that the Body Mass Index is an instrument which is the most accurate and reliable in estimating body fat percentage for the population studied.

Keywords: reliability, validity, body mass index, bio impedance analysis and skinfold test

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2048 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

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Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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2047 Development and Evaluation of a Psychological Adjustment and Adaptation Status Scale for Breast Cancer Survivors

Authors: Jing Chen, Jun-E Liu, Peng Yue

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Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a psychological adjustment and adaptation status scale for breast cancer survivors, and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Method: 37 breast cancer survivors were recruited in qualitative research; a five-subject theoretical framework and an item pool of 150 items of the scale were derived from the interview data. In order to evaluate and select items and reach a preliminary validity and reliability for the original scale, the suggestions of study group members, experts and breast cancer survivors were taken, and statistical methods were used step by step in a sample of 457 breast cancer survivors. Results: An original 24-item scale was developed. The five dimensions “domestic affections”, “interpersonal relationship”, “attitude of life”, “health awareness”, “self-control/self-efficacy” explained 58.053% of the total variance. The content validity was assessed by experts, the CVI was 0.92. The construct validity was examined in a sample of 264 breast cancer survivors. The fitting indexes of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fitting of the five dimensions model. The criterion-related validity of the total scale with PTGI was satisfactory (r=0.564, p<0.001). The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were tested. Cronbach’s alpha value (0.911) showed a good internal consistency reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC=0.925, p<0.001) showed a satisfactory test-retest reliability. Conclusions: The scale was brief and easy to understand, was suitable for breast cancer patients whose physical strength and energy were limited.

Keywords: breast cancer survivors, rehabilitation, psychological adaption and adjustment, development of scale

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2046 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

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In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: ASEBA, construct validity, psychological and behavioral problems, reliability

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2045 Validity and Reliability of Lifestyle Measurement of the LSAS among Recurrent Stroke Patients in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Meida Laely Ramdani, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito

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Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health. Measurement of lifestyle behaviors is necessary for the identification of causal associations between unhealthy lifestyle and health outcomes. There was many instruments have been measured for lifestyle, but not specific for stroke recurrence. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire of Lifestyle Adjustment Scale (LSAS) among recurrent stroke patients in Indonesia and to measure the reliability and validity of LSAS. The instrument consist of 33 items was developed from the responses of 30 recurrent stroke patients with the maximum age 60 years. Data was collected during October to November 2015. The properties of the instrument were evaluated by validity assessment and reliability measures. The content validity was judged adequate by a panel of five experts, with the result of I-CVI was 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure the reliability of LSAS. The result showed that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.819. LSAS were classified under the domains of dietary habit, smoking habit, physical activity, and stress management. The results of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each subscale were 0.60, 0.39, 0.67, 0.65 and 0.76 respectively. LSAS instrument was valid and reliable therefore can be used as research tool among recurrent stroke patients. The development of this questionnaire has been adapted to the socio-cultural context in Indonesia.

Keywords: LSAS, recurrent stroke patients, lifestyle, Indonesia

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2044 Adapting Depression and Anxiety Questionnaire for Children into Turkish: Reliability and Validity Studies

Authors: İsmail Seçer

Abstract:

Although depression and anxiety disorders are considered to be adult disorders, the evidence obtained from several studies conducted recently shows that the roots of depression and anxiety disorders go back to childhood years. Thus, it is thought that analyzing depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in the childhood is an important necessity. In the direction of the problem status of the study, the purpose of this study is to adapt anxiety and depression questionnaire for children into Turkish culture and analyze the psychometric characteristics of it on clinical and nonclinical samples separately. The study is a descriptive survey research. The study was conducted on two different sample groups, clinical and nonclinical. The clinical sample is formed of 205 individuals and the nonclinical sample is formed of 630 individuals. Through the study, anxiety and depression questionnaire for children, anxiety sensitivity index and obsessive compulsive disorder questionnaire for children were used. Experts’ opinions were asked to provide language validity of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity to analyze construct validity and internal consistency and split-half reliability analyses were done for reliability. In the direction of experts’ opinions, construct validity of the scale was analyzed with simple confirmatory factor analysis and it was determined that the model fit of the two-factor structure of the scale gives good fit on both the clinical and nonclinical samples after determining that the language validity of the scale is provided. In criterion-related validity, it was determined that there are positive and significant relations between anxiety and depression questionnaire for children and anxiety sensitivity and obsessive compulsive disorder. The results of internal consistency and half-split reliability analyses also show that the scale has adequate reliability value. It can be said that depression and anxiety questionnaire for children which was adapted to determine depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in childhood has adequate reliability and validity values and it can be used in future studies. It can be recommended that the psychometric characteristics of the scale can be analyzed and reported on new samples in the future studies.

Keywords: scale adapting, construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis, childhood depression

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2043 Developing a Health Literacy Questionnaire in Breast Cancer

Authors: Lida Moghaddam-Banaem, Mahmood Tavoosi, Soheila Khalili

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Objective: The main objective of this study was designing a breast cancer health literacy questionnaire and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to develop a primary questionnaire consisting of five domains. Qualitative and quantitative content validity were assessed by relevant experts, and after some modifications, the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative face validity were evaluated by a number of patients, and the impact score for each item was calculated. 225 women with breast cancer were asked to fill out the questionnaire and construct validity was determined by using exploratory factor analysis. The reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: A 36-item questionnaire with five domains of reading, having access, understanding, assessing/judgment, and decision making/behavior was designed. 2 items were omitted in the qualitative content validity process. All items achieved optimum values in CVI, CVR and impact scores. Content and face validity of the questionnaire were confirmed too. According to the exploratory factor analysis, the five-factor solution accounted for 64.98 percent of the observed variance. Conclusion: Due to the obtained satisfactory validity and reliability, this tool can be used to assess health literacy in women with breast cancer. Health policy makers can use these findings for improving health-related behaviors in breast cancer patients.

Keywords: health literacy, breast cancer, questionnaire, psychometric properties

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2042 Effective Retirement Planning: Exploring Financial Planning Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Stanley Yap Peng Lok, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

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Purpose: This paper examines how people treat on the importance of financial planning for their retirement. There is lack of standard instrument that enable us to access the retirement planning behavior. This paper studies the reliability and validity of a proposed scale for accessing this behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The Retirement Planning Behavior scale (RPB) is developed from the results of reviewing different papers on this topic. A total of 900 Malaysians from the age of 18 and above are used as the sample. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the RPB meets all criteria from the instrument reliability and validity which based on the theory of planned behavior. Second, our findings propose two components for this RPB scale; attitude toward planning for retirement and intention towards retirement planning behavior. Practical implication: An effective retirement planning achieves financial independence after the retirement. Our findings have important implications for the scope and significance of the retirement planning behavior measurement, especially for retirees. Originality/value: This study proposes a new approach to cater consumers’ needs for retirement planning. Therefore, consumers are able to achieve financial independence in their retirement age.

Keywords: retirement planning behavior (RPB) scale, reliability, validity, retirement planning, financial independence

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2041 Temporal Focus Scale: Examination of the Reliability and Validity in Japanese Adolescents and Young Adults

Authors: Yuta Chishima, Tatsuya Murakami, Michael McKay

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Temporal focus is described as one component of an individual’s time perspective and defined as the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. It affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. The 12-item Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is comprised of three-factors (past, current and future focus). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of TFS scores in Japanese adolescents and young adults. The TFS was translated into Japanese by a professional translator, and the original author confirmed the back translated items. Study 1 involved 979 Japanese university students aged 18-25 years old in a questionnaire-based study. The hypothesized three-factor structure (with reliability) was confirmed, although there were problems with item 10. Internal consistency estimates for scores without item 10 were over .70, and test-retest reliability was also adequate. To verify the concurrent and convergent validity, we tested the relationship between TFS scores and life satisfaction, time perspective, self-esteem, and career efficacy. Results of correlational analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, future focus was strongly correlated to career efficacy, while past and current focus was not. Study 2 involved 1030 Japanese junior and junior high school students aged 12-18 years old in a questionnaire-based study, and results of multigroup analyses supported the age invariance of the TFS.

Keywords: Japanese, reliability, scale, temporal focus, validity

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2040 Adaptation of the Scenario Test for Greek-speaking People with Aphasia: Reliability and Validity Study

Authors: Marina Charalambous, Phivos Phylactou, Thekla Elriz, Loukia Psychogios, Jean-Marie Annoni

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Background: Evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA) in Greek are mainly impairment-based. Functional and multimodal communication is usually under assessed and neglected by clinicians. This study explores the adaptation and psychometric testing of the Greek (GR) version of The Scenario Test. The Scenario Test assesses the everyday functional communication of PWA in an interactive multimodal communication setting with the support of an active communication facilitator. Aims: To define the reliability and validity of The Scenario Test GR and discuss its clinical value. Methods & Procedures: The Scenario Test-GR was administered to 54 people with chronic stroke (6+ months post-stroke): 32 PWA and 22 people with stroke without aphasia. Participants were recruited from Greece and Cyprus. All measures were performed in an interview format. Standard psychometric criteria were applied to evaluate reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability) and validity (construct and known – groups validity) of the Scenario Test GR. Video analysis was performed for the qualitative examination of the communication modes used. Outcomes & Results: The Scenario Test-GR shows high levels of reliability and validity. High scores of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .95), test-retest reliability (ICC = .99), and interrater reliability (ICC = .99) were found. Interrater agreement in scores on individual items fell between good and excellent levels of agreement. Correlations with a tool measuring language function in aphasia (the Aphasia Severity Rating Scale of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination), a measure of functional communication (the Communicative Effectiveness Index), and two instruments examining the psychosocial impact of aphasia (the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life questionnaire and the Aphasia Impact Questionnaire) revealed good convergent validity (all ps< .05). Results showed good known – groups validity (Mann-Whitney U = 96.5, p < .001), with significantly higher scores for participants without aphasia compared to those with aphasia. Conclusions: The psychometric qualities of The Scenario Test-GR support the reliability and validity of the tool for the assessment of functional communication for Greek-speaking PWA. The Scenario Test-GR can be used to assess multimodal functional communication, orient aphasia rehabilitation goal setting towards the activity and participation level, and be used as an outcome measure of everyday communication. Future studies will focus on the measurement of sensitivity to change in PWA with severe non-fluent aphasia.

Keywords: the scenario test GR, functional communication assessment, people with aphasia (PWA), tool validation

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2039 Psychometric Properties of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire among Adolescents at Five Secondary Schools

Authors: Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

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This study aimed to evaluate the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire (3SQ) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency among adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 secondary school students in five secondary schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select schools and participants. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS to examine construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. The reliability analysis was performed by SPSS to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the original six-factor model with 44 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, suggesting poor model fit. The new five-factor model of 3SQ with 22 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit indices to signify a model fit. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value for the new version 3SQ was 0.93, while the five constructs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.68 and 0.93, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Our study did not support the construct validity of the original version of 3SQ. We found the new version 3SQ showed more convincing evidence of validity and reliability to measure stressors of adolescents. Continued research is needed to verify and maximize the psychometric credentials of 3SQ across countries.

Keywords: stressors, adolescents, secondary school students, 3SQ, psychometric properties

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2038 Development of Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Diabetes Management in Thailand and Lao People Democratic Republic

Authors: Phoutsathaphone Sibounheuang, Phayom Sookaneknun Olson, Chanuttha Ploylearmsang, Santiparp Sookaneknun, Chanthanom Manithip

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Patient satisfaction is an outcome that can be measured and used to improve diabetes care and management. There are limited instruments for assessing patient satisfaction covering the whole process of diabetes management. In this study, the questionnaire was developed with items pooled from a systematic review of qualitative studies of patients’ and healthcare providers’ perspectives in diabetes management. The questionnaire consists of 11 domains with 45 items. The Thai version was translated to Lao and then checked by back-translating it into Thai. We tested the questionnaire on 150 diabetes patients in Thailand and 150 in Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR). Validity was performed by factor analysis and Pearson correlation. Internal consistency reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The study was approved by the Mahasarakham University Ethics Committee, and the National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Lao PDR. The Thai and Lao versions showed the construct validity by principal component analysis. This consisted of 11 domains which account for 71.23% of the variance (Thai version) and 71.66% of the variance (Lao version) in the total patient satisfaction scores. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures were 0.85 for the Thai version and 0.75 for the Lao version. The Bartlett tests of sphericity of both versions were significant (p < 0.001). The factor loadings of all items in both versions were > 0.40. The convergent validity of the Thai and Lao versions was 93.63% and 79.54% respectively. The discriminant validity for the Thai and Lao versions was 92.68% and 88.68% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 in both versions. The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) in both versions had acceptable properties. This study has yielded evidence supporting the validity and reliability of both versions.

Keywords: construct validity, diabetes management, patient satisfaction, questionnaire development, reliability

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2037 Use of PACER Application as Physical Activity Assessment Tool: Results of a Reliability and Validity Study

Authors: Carine Platat, Fatima Qshadi, Ghofran Kayed, Nour Hussein, Amjad Jarrar, Habiba Ali

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Nowadays, smartphones are very popular. They are offering a variety of easy-to-use and free applications among which step counters and fitness tests. The number of users is huge making of such applications a potentially efficient new strategy to encourage people to become more active. Nonetheless, data on their reliability and validity are very scarce and when available, they are often negative and contradictory. Besides, weight status, which is likely to introduce a bias in the physical activity assessment, was not often considered. Hence, the use of these applications as motivational tool, assessment tool and in research is questionable. PACER is one of the free step counters application. Even though it is one of the best rated free application by users, it has never been tested for reliability and validity. Prior any use of PACER, this remains to be investigated. The objective of this work is to investigate the reliability and validity of the smartphone application PACER in measuring the number of steps and in assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness by the 6 minutes walking test. 20 overweight or obese students (10 male and 10 female) were recruited at the United Arab Emirate University, aged between 18 and 25 years old. Reliability and validity were tested in real life conditions and in controlled conditions by using a treadmill. Test-retest experiments were done with PACER on 2 days separated by a week in real life conditions (24 hours each time) and in controlled conditions (30 minutes on treadmill, 3km/h). Validity was tested against the pedometer OMRON in the same conditions. During treadmill test, video was recorded and steps numbers were compared between PACER, pedometer and video. The validity of PACER in estimating the cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) as part of the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) was studied against the 20m shuttle running test. Reliability was studied by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and by Bland-Altman plots. Validity was studied by calculating Spearman correlation coefficient (rho) and Bland-Altman plots. PACER reliability was good in both male and female in real life conditions (p≤10-3) but only in female in controlled conditions (p=0.01). PACER was valid against OMRON pedometer in male and female in real life conditions (rho=0.94, p≤10-3 ; rho=0.64, p=0.01, in male and female respectively). In controlled conditions, PACER was not valid against pedometer. But, PACER was valid against video in female (rho=0.72, p≤10-3). PACER was valid against the shuttle run test in male and female (rho-=0.66, p=0.01 ; rho=0.51, p=0.04) to estimate VO2max. This study provides data on the reliability and viability of PACER in overweight or obese male and female young adults. Globally, PACER was shown as reliable and valid in real life conditions in overweight or obese male and female to count steps and assess fitness. This supports the use of PACER to assess and promote physical activity in clinical follow-up and community interventions.

Keywords: smartphone application, pacer, reliability, validity, steps, fitness, physical activity

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2036 Reliability and Construct Validity of the Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ)

Authors: A. Zurraini, Syed Alwi Sar, H. Helmy, H. Nazeefah

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Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ’s reliability and validity. Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). The result showed that the overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach’s alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). Pearson correlation coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong, positive correlation between the two variables, r = 0.992, N=160, P <0.001. The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.

Keywords: Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ), screening, primary care, construct validity

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2035 Key Factors of Success and Deterrent of IT Projects, Case study: Islamic Azad University, Zahedan Branch

Authors: Mohammad Reza Abidi, Zahra Nourouz Pour, Mehdi Moudi

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In this research, firstly critical success factors and deterrent factors in implementing projects and also the factors those cause information technology productivity (IT) paradox in Islamic Azad University, Zahedan branch examined. Research method of this paper is descriptive. In fact, the researcher by using survey, proposed useful solutions. In this research, subjects’ responders to questionnaires items were based on Likert scale. In the questionnaire, economic, technical, organizational and cultural factors in the university have been assessed in order to obtain the necessary validity. We used masters and technicians of IT department’s advices to realize reliability and consistency. For the reliability test we used Cronbach’s reliability test and validity has been obtained using SPSS software. Because of the research questions and objectives, t-student test is used for hypothesis testing. Finally we analyze the findings, we offer conclusions and suggestions.

Keywords: IT projects, Islamic Azad University, success factors, deterrent factors

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2034 Reliability and Validity of Determining Ventilatory Threshold and Respiratory Compensation Point by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Tso-Yen Mao, De-Yen Liu, Chun-Feng Huang

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Purpose: This research intends to investigate the reliability and validity of ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) determined by skeletal muscle hemodynamic status. Methods: One hundred healthy male (age: 22±3 yrs; height: 173.1±6.0 cm; weight: 67.1±10.5 kg) performed graded cycling exercise test which ventilatory and skeletal muscle hemodynamic data were collected simultaneously. VT and RCP were determined by combined V-slope (VE vs. VCO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2 vs. VE/VCO2) methods. Pearson correlation, paired t-test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze reliability, validity, and similarities. Statistical significance was set at α =. 05. Results: There are high test-retest correlations of VT and RCP in ventilatory or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods (VT vs. VTNIRS: 0.95 vs. 0.94; RCP vs. RCPNIRS: 0.93 vs. 0.93, p<. 05). There are high coefficient of determination at the first timing point of O2Hb decreased (R2 = 0.88, p<. 05) with VT, and high coefficient of determination at the second timing point of O2Hb declined (R2 = 0.89, p< .05) with RCP. VO2 of VT and RCP are not significantly different between ventilatory and NIRS methods (p>. 05). Conclusion: Using NIRS method to determine VT and RCP is reliable and valid in male individuals during graded exercise. Non-invasive skeletal muscle hemodynamics monitor also can be used for controlling training intensity in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic threshold, exercise intensity, hemodynamic, NIRS

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2033 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh

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Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity

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2032 Psychological Testing in Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Validity and Reliability of Psychological Assessments in the Workplace

Authors: Melissa C. Monney

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Psychological testing has been of interest to researchers for many years as useful tools in assessing and diagnosing various disorders as well as to assist in understanding human behavior. However, for over 20 years now, researchers and laypersons alike have been interested in using them for other purposes, such as determining factors in employee selection, promotion, and even termination. In recent years, psychological assessments have been useful in facilitating workplace decision processing, regarding employee circulation within organizations. This literature review explores four of the most commonly used psychological tests in workplace environments, namely cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, integrity, and personality tests, as organizations have used these tests to assess different factors of human behavior as predictive measures of future employee behaviors. The findings suggest that while there is much controversy and debate regarding the validity and reliability of these tests in workplace settings as they were not originally designed for these purposes, the use of such assessments in the workplace has been useful in decreasing costs and employee turnover as well as increase job satisfaction by ensuring the right employees are selected for their roles.

Keywords: cognitive ability, personality testing, predictive validity, workplace behavior

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2031 The Development and Evaluation of the Reliability and Validity of the Science Flow Experience Scale

Authors: Wen-Wei Chiang

Abstract:

In this study, the researcher developed a scale for use in measuring the degree to which high school students experience a state of flow. The researcher then verified its reliability and validity in an actual classroom setting. The ultimate objective was to identify feasible methods by which to promote the experience of a flow state among high school students engaged in the study of science. The nine indices identified in this study to assess the engagement of high school students focus primarily on the study of science-related topics; however, the principles on which they are based are applicable to a wide range of learning situations. Teachers must outline the goals of each lesson clearly and provide unambiguous feedback. They must also look for ways to make the lessons more fun and appealing.

Keywords: flow experience, positive psychology, questionnaire, science learning

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2030 Reliability of Social Support Measurement Modification of the BC-SSAS among Women with Breast Cancer Who Undergone Chemotherapy in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: R. R. Dewi Rahmawaty Aktyani Putri, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito

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There were many instruments have been developed to assess social support which has the different dimension in breast cancer patients. The Issue of measurement is a challenge to determining the component of dimensional concept, defining the unit of measurement, and establishing the validity and reliability of the measurement. However, the instruments where need to know how much support which obtained and perceived among women with breast cancer who undergone chemotherapy which it can help nurses to prevent of non-adherence in chemotherapy. This study aimed to measure the reliability of BC-SSAS instrument among 30 Indonesian women with breast cancer aged 18 years and above who undergone chemotherapy for six cycles in the oncological unit of Outpatient Department (OPD), Margono Soekardjo Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected during October to December 2015 by using modified the Breast Cancer Social Support Assessment (BC-SSAS). The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure internal consistency for reliability test of BC-SSAS instrument. This study used five experts for content validity index. The results showed that for content validity, I-CVI was 0.98 and S-CVI was 0.98; Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.971 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the subscales were high, with 0.903 for emotional support, 0.865 for informational support, 0.901 for tangible support, 0.897 for appraisal support and 0.884 for positive interaction support. The results confirmed that the BC-SSAS instrument has high reliability. BC-SSAS instruments were reliable and can be used in health care services to measure the social support received and perceived among women with breast cancer who undergone chemotherapy so that preventive interventions can be developed and the quality of health services can be improved.

Keywords: BC-SSAS, women with breast cancer, chemotherapy, Indonesia

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2029 Development and Validation of Employee Trust Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Getrude Cosmas, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi

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The aims of this study were to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent validity) of the employees trust scale, a newly created instrument by the researchers. The employees trust scale initially contained 82 items to measure employee’s trust toward their supervisors. A sample of 818 (343 females, 449 males) employees were selected randomly from public and private organization sectors in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 19 to 67 years old with the mean of 34.55 years old. Their average tenure with their current employer was 11.2 years (s.d. = 7.5 years). The respondents were asked to complete the employees trust scale, as well as a managerial trust questionnaire from Mishra. The exploratory factor analysis on employee’s trust toward their supervisor’s extracted three factors, labeled 'trustworthiness' (32 items), 'position status' (11 items) and 'relationship' (6 items) which accounted for 62.49% of the total variance. Trustworthiness factors were re-categorized into three sub factors: competency (11 items), benevolence (8 items) and integrity (13 items). All factors and sub factors of the scales demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency of Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.85. The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between the score of all factors and sub factors of the scale and the score on the managerial trust questionnaire which measured the same construct. The convergent validity of employees trust scale was further supported by the significant and positive inter correlation between the factors and sub factors of the scale. The results suggest that the employees trust scale is a reliable and valid measure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of sample as to further validate the Scale.

Keywords: employees trust scale, psychometric properties, trustworthiness, position status, relationship

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2028 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: R. A. Deshpande, P. Chandhra Sekhar, V. Sankar

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In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: distribution system, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

Procedia PDF Downloads 641
2027 The Happiness Pulse: A Measure of Individual Wellbeing at a City Scale, Development and Validation

Authors: Rosemary Hiscock, Clive Sabel, David Manley, Sam Wren-Lewis

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As part of the Happy City Index Project, Happy City have developed a survey instrument to measure experienced wellbeing: how people are feeling and functioning in their everyday lives. The survey instrument, called the Happiness Pulse, was developed in partnership with the New Economics Foundation (NEF) with the dual aim of collecting citywide wellbeing data and engaging individuals and communities in the measurement and promotion of their own wellbeing. The survey domains and items were selected through a review of the academic literature and a stakeholder engagement process, including local policymakers, community organisations and individuals. The Happiness Pulse was included in the Bristol pilot of the Happy City Index (n=722). The experienced wellbeing items were subjected to factor analysis. A reduced number of items to be included in a revised scale for future data collection were again entered into a factor analysis. These revised factors were tested for reliability and validity. Among items to be included in a revised scale for future data collection three factors emerged: Be, Do and Connect. The Be factor had good reliability, convergent and criterion validity. The Do factor had good discriminant validity. The Connect factor had adequate reliability and good discriminant and criterion validity. Some age, gender and socioeconomic differentiation was found. The properties of a new scale to measure experienced wellbeing, intended for use by municipal authorities, are described. Happiness Pulse data can be combined with local data on wellbeing conditions to determine what matters for peoples wellbeing across a city and why.

Keywords: city wellbeing , community wellbeing, engaging individuals and communities, measuring wellbeing and happiness

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2026 Development and Validation of the University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS) for College Students

Authors: Ryan Dale B. Elnar

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This study developed a multidimensional need assessment scale for college students called The University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS). Although there are context-specific instruments measuring the needs of clinical and non-clinical samples, literature reveals no standardized scales to measure the needs of the college students thus a four-phase item development process was initiated to support its content validity. Comprising seven broad facets namely spiritual-moral, intrapersonal, socio-personal, psycho-emotional, cognitive, physical and sexual, a pyramid model of college needs was deconstructed through FGD sample to support the literature review. Using various construct validity procedures, the model was further tested using a total of 881 Filipino college samples. The result of the study revealed evidences of the reliability and validity of the UMNAS. The reliability indices range from .929-.933. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a one-factor-six-dimensional instrument to measure the needs of the college students. Using multivariate regression analysis, year level and course are found predictors of students’ needs. Content analysis attested the usefulness of the instrument to diagnose students’ personal and academic issues and concerns in conjunction with other measures. The norming process includes 1728 students from the different colleges of the University of Mindanao. Further validation is recommended to establish a national norm for the instrument.

Keywords: needs assessment scale, validity, factor analysis, college students

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2025 Single Item Presenteeism Question Reliability and Validity of Persian Version in Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi

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Purpose: Our study aimed to validate single item presenteeism question (SIPQ) into the Persian language for patients with low back pain. Background information: low back pain is a common health problem, and it is one of the most prevalent disorder in working people. There are the different subjective way to evaluate the effect of back pain on work productivity that one of them is by implementing single item presenteeism question. This question has not been validated into the Persian language. Method: Patients were asked to answer SIPQ and pain from 0 to 10 according to numerical rating scale (NRS). The functional rating index was administrated to evaluate construct validity. For test-retest reliability, almost 50 patients re-completed the Persian SIPQ. The construct validity of SIPQ was assessed by analyzing Spearman rank correlation between this question and the Persian version of Functional rating index questionnaire. To analyze test-retest reliability, we assessed intraclass correlation coefficient (agreement) (ICC agreement) (two-way random effects model, single measure). Results: The SIPQ score of two groups of patients (84 males, 16 females, mean age ±SD: 33.85±11.16 years, range: 19-67 years) and healthy subjects (48 male, 2 female ones, mean age ±SD: 24.24 ±8.07 years) was statistically significant. (Mann-Whitney U =198.00, P<.001). The Spearman correlation of data showed that there is a significant correlation between Persian SIPQ score and Persian FRI band (r= .559, P<.001). The ICC was .62. So, the analysis indicated good, test-retest reliability. Conclusion: This study showed that Persian version of SIPQ is reliable and valid when applied to back pain patients.

Keywords: cross cultural adaptation, economic burden, low back pain, Persian language, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 337