Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1309

Search results for: human-induced lateral vibration

1309 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

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1308 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Analysis of Conventional Elevator

Authors: Mohammadreza Saviz, Sina Najafian


This paper presents an analytical study of vibration moving elevator and shows the elevator 2D dynamic model to evaluate the vertical and lateral motion. Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counterweight. The elasticity of these ropes and springs of sets that connect cabin to ropes make the elevator car to vibrate. A two-dimensional model is derived to calculate vibrations and displacements. The simulation results were validated by the results of similar works.

Keywords: elevator, vibration, simulation, analytical solution, 2D modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1307 The Lateral and Torsional Vibration Analysis of a Rotor-Bearing System Using Transfer Matrix Method

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Jalali, Mostafa Ghayour, Saeed Ziaei-Rad, Behrooz Shahriari


The vibration problems that can be occurred in the operational conditions of rotating machines may cause damage to the machine or even failure of the machine completely. Therefore, dynamic analysis of rotors is vital in the design and development stages of the rotating machines. In this study, the uncoupled torsional and lateral vibration analysis of a rotor-bearing system is carried out using transfer matrix method. The Campbell diagram, critical speed and the mode shape corresponding to the critical speed are obtained in order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the rotor.

Keywords: transfer matrix method, rotor-bearing system, campbell diagram, critical speed

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1306 Analysis Rotor Bearing System Dynamic Interaction with Bearing Supports

Authors: V. T. Ngo, D. M. Xie


Frequently, in the design of machines, some of parameters that directly affect the rotor dynamics of the machines are not accurately known. In particular, bearing stiffness support is one such parameter. One of the most basic principles to grasp in rotor dynamics is the influence of the bearing stiffness on the critical speeds and mode shapes associated with a rotor-bearing system. Taking a rig shafting as an example, this paper studies the lateral vibration of the rotor with multi-degree-of-freedom by using Finite Element Method (FEM). The FEM model is created and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated and analyzed to find natural frequencies, critical speeds, mode shapes. Then critical speeds and mode shapes are analyzed by set bearing stiffness changes. The model permitted to identify the critical speeds and bearings that have an important influence on the vibration behavior.

Keywords: lateral vibration, finite element method, rig shafting, critical speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1305 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Response for Corrugated Track Curves Supported on High-Density Polyethylene and Hytrel Rail Pads

Authors: B.M. Balekwa, D.V.V. Kallon, D.J. Fourie


Modal analysis is applied to establish the dynamic difference between vibration response of the rails supported on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Hytrel/6358 rail pads. The experiment was conducted to obtain the results in the form of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) in the vertical and lateral directions. Three antiresonance modes are seen in the vertical direction; one occurs at about 150 Hz when the rail resting on the Hytrel/6358 pad experiences a force mid-span. For the rail resting on this type of rail pad, no antiresonance occurs when the force is applied on the point of the rail that is resting on the pad and directly on top of a sleeper. The two antiresonance modes occur in a frequency range of 250 – 300 Hz in the vertical direction for the rail resting on HDPE pads. At resonance, the rail vibrates with a higher amplitude, but at antiresonance, the rail transmits vibration downwards to the sleepers. When the rail is at antiresonance, the stiffness of the rail pads play a vital role in terms of damping the vertical vibration to protect the sleepers. From the FRFs it is understood that the Hytrel/6358 rail pads perform better than the HDPE in terms of vertical response, given that at a lower frequency range of 0 – 300 Hz only one antiresonance mode was identified for vertical vibration of the rail supported on Hytrel/6358. This means the rail is at antiresonance only once within this frequency range and this is the only time when vibration is transmitted downwards.

Keywords: accelerance, FRF, rail corrugation, rail pad

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1304 Dynamic Response Analyses for Human-Induced Lateral Vibration on Congested Pedestrian Bridges

Authors: M. Yoneda


In this paper, a lateral walking design force per person is proposed and compared with Imperial College test results. Numerical simulations considering the proposed walking design force which is incorporated into the neural-oscillator model are carried out placing much emphasis on the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) for a pedestrian bridge model with the span length of 50 m. Numerical analyses are also conducted for an existing pedestrian suspension bridge. As compared with full scale measurements for this suspension bridge, it is confirmed that the analytical method based on the neural-oscillator model might be one of the useful ways to explain the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) of pedestrians being on the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, human-induced lateral vibration, neural-oscillator, full scale measurement, dynamic response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
1303 Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, S. Bab, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.

Keywords: super harmonic resonances, non-linear vibration, axially moving beam, Galerkin method

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1302 Early Installation Effect on the Machines’ Generated Vibration

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani


Motor vibration issues were analyzed by several studies. It is generally accepted that vibration issues result from poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump the vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plates that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data was recorded for several similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded -for two and a half hours- and the vibration readings were analyzed to determine when the readings became consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: vibration, noise, installation, machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1301 In situ Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Vibration of a Rotor-Stator with Multiple Parametric Excitations

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu


This paper presents a 4-DOF nonlinear model of a cracked of Laval rotor established based on Energy Principles. The model has been used to simulate coupled torsional-lateral response of the cracked rotor stator-system with multiple parametric excitations, namely, rotor-stator-rub, a breathing transverse crack, unbalanced mass, and an axial force. Nonlinearity due to a “breathing” crack is incorporated by considering a simple hinge model which is suitable for small breathing crack. The vibration response of a cracked rotor passing through its critical speed with rotor-stator interaction is analyzed, and an attempt for crack detection and monitoring explored. Effects of unbalanced eccentricity with phase and acceleration are investigated. By solving the motion equations, steady-state vibration response is obtained in presence of several rotor faults. The presence of a crack is observable in the power spectrum despite the excitation by the axial force and rotor-stator rub impact. Presented results are consistent with existing literature and could be adopted into rotor condition monitoring strategies

Keywords: rotor, crack, rubbing, axial force, non linear

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1300 Field Investigating the Effects of Lateral Support Elements on Lateral Resistance of Ballasted Tracks with Sharp Curves

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Jabbar Ali Zakeri


Lateral movement of CWR ballasted track occurs in sharp curves because of the lack of adequate lateral resistance. Several strategies have been proposed and used for increase the lateral resistance of ballasted tracks, but still there are some problems in tracks with small radius curves. In this paper, a new method has been presented for increase the lateral resistance. This method is using the lateral supports as numerical and field studies. In this paper, the field and laboratory tests have been conducted by using the single tie pressure test (STPT) and track panel loading test (LTPT). Then, their results were compared with the numerical results. The results of numerical and field tests showed that the lateral stiffness of ballasted tracks significantly increased when there were lateral supports in ballasted tracks. Also, the track structure had a bilinear behavior.

Keywords: ballasted railway, Lateral resistance, railway buckling, field and numerical studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1299 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seung-Hun Kim, Seong-Uk Hong


Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: vibration, frequency, accelerometer, concrete slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1298 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim


In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

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1297 Spatial and Time Variability of Ambient Vibration H/V Frequency Peak

Authors: N. Benkaci, E. Oubaiche, J.-L. Chatelain, R. Bensalem, K. Abbes


The ambient vibration H/V technique is widely used nowadays in microzonation studies, because of its easy field handling and its low cost, compared to other geophysical methods. However, in presence of complex geology or lateral heterogeneity evidenced by more than one peak frequency in the H/V curve, it is difficult to interpret the results, especially when soil information is lacking. In this work, we focus on the construction site of the Baraki 40000=place stadium, located in the north-east side of the Mitidja basin (Algeria), to identify the seismic wave amplification zones. H/V curve analysis leads to the observation of spatial and time variability of the H/V frequency peaks. The spatial variability allows dividing the studied area into three main zones: (1) one with a predominant frequency around 1,5 Hz showing an important amplification level, (2) the second exhibits two peaks at 1,5 Hz and in the 4 Hz – 10 Hz range, and (3) the third zone is characterized by a plateau between 2 Hz and 3 Hz. These H/V curve categories reveal a consequent lateral heterogeneity dividing the stadium site roughly in the middle. Furthermore, a continuous ambient vibration recording during several weeks allows showing that the first peak at 1,5 Hz in the second zone, completely disappears between 2 am and 4 am, and reaching its maximum amplitude around 12 am. Consequently, the anthropogenic noise source generating these important variations could be the Algiers Rocade Sud highway, located in the maximum amplification azimuth direction of the H/V curves. This work points out that the H/V method is an important tool to perform nano-zonation studies prior to geotechnical and geophysical investigations, and that, in some cases, the H/V technique fails to reveal the resonance frequency in the absence of strong anthropogenic source.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, amplification, fundamental frequency, lateral heterogeneity, site effect

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1296 Development of a Human Vibration Model Considering Muscles and Stiffness of Intervertebral Discs

Authors: Young Nam Jo, Moon Jeong Kang, Hong Hee Yoo


Most human vibration models have been modeled as a multibody system consisting of some rigid bodies and spring-dampers. These models are developed for certain posture and conditions. So, the models cannot be used in vibration analysis in various posture and conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a human vibration model that represent human vibration characteristics under various conditions by employing a musculoskeletal model. To do this, the human vibration model is developed based on biomechanical models. In addition, muscle models are employed instead of spring-dampers. Activations of muscles are controlled by PD controller to maintain body posture under vertical vibration is applied. Each gain value of the controller is obtained to minimize the difference of apparent mass and acceleration transmissibility between experim ent and analysis by using an optimization method.

Keywords: human vibration analysis, hill type muscle model, PD control, whole-body vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
1295 Vibration Absorption Strategy for Multi-Frequency Excitation

Authors: Der Chyan Lin


Since the early introduction by Ormondroyd and Den Hartog, vibration absorber (VA) has become one of the most commonly used vibration mitigation strategies. The strategy is most effective for a primary plant subjected to a single frequency excitation. For continuous systems, notable advances in vibration absorption in the multi-frequency system were made. However, the efficacy of the VA strategy for systems under multi-frequency excitation is not well understood. For example, for an N degrees-of-freedom (DOF) primary-absorber system, there are N 'peak' frequencies of large amplitude vibration per every new excitation frequency. In general, the usable range for vibration absorption can be greatly reduced as a result. Frequency modulated harmonic excitation is a commonly seen multi-frequency excitation example: f(t) = cos(ϖ(t)t) where ϖ(t)=ω(1+α sin⁡(δt)). It is known that f(t) has a series expansion given by the Bessel function of the first kind, which implies an infinity of forcing frequencies in the frequency modulated harmonic excitation. For an SDOF system of natural frequency ωₙ subjected to f(t), it can be shown that amplitude peaks emerge at ω₍ₚ,ₖ₎=(ωₙ ± 2kδ)/(α ∓ 1),k∈Z; i.e., there is an infinity of resonant frequencies ω₍ₚ,ₖ₎, k∈Z, making the use of VA strategy ineffective. In this work, we propose an absorber frequency placement strategy for SDOF vibration systems subjected to frequency-modulated excitation. An SDOF linear mass-spring system coupled to lateral absorber systems is used to demonstrate the ideas. Although the mechanical components are linear, the governing equations for the coupled system are nonlinear. We show using N identical absorbers, for N ≫ 1, that (a) there is a cluster of N+1 natural frequencies around every natural absorber frequency, and (b) the absorber frequencies can be moved away from the plant's resonance frequency (ω₀) as N increases. Moreover, we also show the bandwidth of the VA performance increases with N. The derivations of the clustering and bandwidth widening effect will be given, and the superiority of the proposed strategy will be demonstrated via numerical experiments.

Keywords: Bessel function, bandwidth, frequency modulated excitation, vibration absorber

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1294 Tuned Mass Damper Vibration Control of Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Qinglin Shu


Based on the analysis of the structural vibration comfort of a domestic bridge, this paper studies the vibration reduction control principle of TMD, the derivation process of design parameter optimization and how to simulate TMD in the finite element software ANSYS. The research shows that, in view of the problem that the comfort level of a bridge exceeds the limit in individual working conditions, the vibration reduction control design of the bridge can effectively reduce the vibration of the structure by using TMD. Calculations show that when the mass ratio of TMD is 0.01, the vibration reduction rate under different working conditions is more than 90%, and the dynamic displacement of the TMD mass block is within 0.01m, indicating that the design of TMD is reasonable and safe.

Keywords: pedestrian bridges, human-induced vibration, comfort, tuned mass dampers

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1293 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf


Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength

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1292 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping


Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

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1291 Computer Simulation Studies of Aircraft Wing Architectures on Vibration Responses

Authors: Shengyong Zhang, Mike Mikulich


Vibration is a crucial limiting consideration in the analysis and design of airplane wing structures to avoid disastrous failures due to the propagation of existing cracks in the material. In this paper, we build CAD models of aircraft wings to capture the design intent with configurations. Subsequent FEA vibration analysis is performed to study the natural vibration properties and impulsive responses of the resulting user-defined wing models. This study reveals the variations of the wing’s vibration characteristics with respect to changes in its structural configurations. Integrating CAD modelling and FEA vibration analysis enables designers to improve wing architectures for implementing design requirements in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: aircraft wing, CAD modelling, FEA, vibration analysis

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1290 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen


The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

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1289 Influence of Vibration Amplitude on Reaction Time and Drowsiness Level

Authors: Mohd A. Azizan, Mohd Z. Zali


It is well established that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human health, comfort, and performance. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on performance combined with drowsiness level during vibration exposure. This paper reports a study investigating the influence of vibration amplitude on seated occupant reaction time and drowsiness level. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment, total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat pan and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude (low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude) for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement, volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) before vibration, every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However, the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However, no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. It is concluded that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness, especially at higher vibration amplitude.

Keywords: drowsiness, human vibration, karolinska sleepiness scale, psychomotor vigilance test

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1288 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares


Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

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1287 Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile

Authors: Jungbhin You, Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park


Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected.

Keywords: adhesion performance, lateral reinforcement, pull-out test, textile

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1286 Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph to Determine Sex in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Paulus Maulana


Forensic identification is to help investigators determine a person's identity. Personal identification is often a problem in civil and criminal cases. Orthodontists like all other dental professionals can play a major role by maintaining lateral cephalogram and thus providing important or vital information or can clues to the legal authorities in order to help them in their search. Radiographic lateral cephalometry is a measurement method which focused on the anatomical points of human lateral skull. Sex determination is one of the most important aspects of the personal identification in forensic. Lateral cephalogram is a valuable tool in identification of sex as reveal morphological details of the skull on single radiograph. This present study evaluates the role of lateral cephalogram in identification of sex that parameters of lateral cephalogram are linear measurement and angle measurement. The linear measurements are N-S ( Anterior cranial length), Sna-Snp (Palatal plane length), Me-Go (menton-gonion), N-Sna ( Midfacial anterior height ), Sna-Me (Lower anterior face height), Co-Gn (total mandibular length). The angle measurements are SNA, SNB, ANB, Gonial, Interincical, and facial.

Keywords: lateral cephalometry, cephalogram, sex, forensic, parameter

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1285 Numerical Analysis of Jet Grouting Strengthened Pile under Lateral Loading

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Naeem Gholampoor


Jet grouting strengthened pile (JPP) is one of composite piles used in soft ground improvement. It may improve the vertical and lateral bearing capacity effectively and it has been practically used in a considerable scale. In order to make a further research on load transfer mechanism of single JPP with and without cap under lateral loads, JPP is analyzed by means of FEM analysis. It is resulted that the JPP pile could improve lateral bearing capacity by compared with bored concrete pile which is higher for shorter pile and the biggest bending moment of JPP pile is located in the depth of around 48% of embedded length of the pile. Meanwhile, increase of JPP pile length causes to increase of peak mobilized bending moment. Also, by cap addition, JPP piles will have a much higher lateral bearing capacity and increasing in cohesion of soil layer resulted to increase of lateral bearing capacity of JPP pile. In addition, the numerical results basically coincide with the experimental results presented by other researchers.

Keywords: bending moment, FEM analysis, JPP pile, lateral bearing capacity

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1284 Elastic Deformation of Multistory RC Frames under Lateral Loads

Authors: Hamdy Elgohary, Majid Assas


Estimation of lateral displacement and interstory drifts represent a major step in multistory frames design. In the preliminary design stage, it is essential to perform a fast check for the expected values of lateral deformations. This step will help to ensure the compliance of the expected values with the design code requirements. Also, in some cases during or after the detailed design stage, it may be required to carry fast check of lateral deformations by design reviewer. In the present paper, a parametric study is carried out on the factors affecting in the lateral displacements of multistory frame buildings. Based on the results of the parametric study, simplified empirical equations are recommended for the direct determination of the lateral deflection of multistory frames. The results obtained using the recommended equations have been compared with the results obtained by finite element analysis. The comparison shows that the proposed equations lead to good approximation for the estimation of lateral deflection of multistory RC frame buildings.

Keywords: lateral deflection, interstory drift, approximate analysis, multistory frames

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1283 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Flexible Structure for Vibration Suppression Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Shih-Chieh Tseng


Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper use a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to suppress the disturbance. A fuzzy sliding mode controller is developed and applied to this system. Experimental results illustrate that the controller and MFC actuator are very effective in attenuating the structural vibration near the first resonant freuqency. Furthermore, this controller is shown to outperform the traditional skyhook controller, with nearly 90% of the vibration suppressed at the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: Fuzzy sliding mode controller, macro-fiber-composite actuator, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

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1282 Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Jeng-Jie Huang


Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper employs a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to reject the disturbance. A notch filter with an adaptive tuning algorithm, the leaky filtered-X least mean square algorithm (leaky FXLMS algorithm), is developed and applied to the system. Experimental results show that the controller and MFC actuator was very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. Furthermore, this notch filter controller was compared with the traditional skyhook controller. It was found that its performance was better, with over 88% vibration suppression near the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: macro-fiber composite, notch filter, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

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1281 Effects of Long Term Whole Body Vibration Training on Lipid Profile of Young Men

Authors: Farshad Ghazalian, Laleh Hakemi, Lotfali Pourkazemi, Maryam Ameri, Seyed Hossein Alavi


Background: The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise method has rapidly increased over the last decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate long term effects of different amplitudes of whole body vibration training with progressive frequencies on lipid profile of young healthy men. Materials and methods: Thirty three healthy male students were divided randomly in three groups: high amplitude vibration group (n=11), low amplitude vibration group (n=11), and control group (n=11). The vibration training consisted of 5 week whole-body vibration 3 times a week with amplitudes 4 and 2 mm and progressive frequencies from 25 Hz with increments of 5 Hz weekly. Concentrations TG, HDL, LDL, cholesterol, and VLDL before and after 5 weeks of training were measured in plasma samples. Statistical analysis was done using one way analysis of variance. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The most important result of the present study is finding no favorable changes of 5-week vibration training with different amplitudes on blood lipid profiles. Discussion and conclusions: It was emphasized that in vibration training there should be a relationship between intensity and volume of exercise and lipid responses in order to improve blood lipoprotein profiles.

Keywords: long term, body, vibration training, lipid

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1280 Investigation on the Bogie Pseudo-Hunting Motion of a Reduced-Scale Model Railway Vehicle Running on Double-Curved Rails

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Ryoichi Kinoshita


In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study on the bogie pseudo-hunting motion of a reduced-scale model railway vehicle, running on double-curved rails, is presented. Since the actual bogie hunting motion, occurring for real railway vehicles running on straight rails at high travelling speeds, cannot be obtained in laboratory conditions, due to the speed and wavelength limitations, a pseudo- hunting motion was induced by employing double-curved rails. Firstly, the test rig and the experimental procedure are described. Then, a geometrical model of the double-curved rails is presented. Based on such model, the variation of the carriage rotation angle relative to the bogies and the working conditions of the yaw damper are clarified. Vibration spectra recorded during vehicle travelling, on straight and double-curved rails, are presented and interpreted based on a simple vibration model of the railway vehicle. Ride comfort of the vehicle is evaluated according to the ISO 2631 standard, and also by using some particular frequency weightings, which account for the discomfort perceived during the reading and writing activities. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of the yaw dampers, which are used to attenuate the lateral vibration of the train car bodies.

Keywords: double-curved rail, octave analysis, vibration model, ride comfort, railway vehicle

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