Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: sandflies

5 Infection of Phlebotomus Sergenti with Leishmania Tropica in a Classical Focus of Leishmania Major in Tunisia

Authors: Kaouther Jaouadi, Jihene Bettaieb, Amira Bennour, Ghassen Kharroubi, Sadok Salem, Afif Ben Salah

Abstract:

In Tunisia, chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L) tropica is an important health problem. Its spreading has not been fully elucidated. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance since vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. In total, 650 sandflies were captured between June and August 2015 using sticky paper traps in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, a classical focus of L. major in the Central-West of Tunisia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and sequencing were used for Leishmania detection and identification. Ninety-seven unfed females were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA. Six Phlebotomus sergenti were found positive for L. tropica. This finding enhances the understanding of the cycle extension of L. tropica outside its original focus of Tataouine in the South-East of the country.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica, sandflies, Tunisia

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4 Molecular Detection of Leishmania from the Phlebotomus Genus: Tendency towards Leishmaniasis Regression in Constantine, North-East of Algeria

Authors: K. Frahtia, I. Mihoubi, S. Picot

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease with a varied clinical expression caused by flagellate protozoa of the Leishmania genus. These diseases are transmitted to humans and animals by the sting of a vector insect, the female sandfly. Among the groups of dipteral disease vectors, Phlebotominae occupy a prime position and play a significant role in human pathology, such as leishmaniasis that affects nearly 350 million people worldwide. The vector control operation launched by health services throughout the country proves to be effective since despite the prevalence of the disease remains high especially in rural areas, leishmaniasis appears to be declining in Algeria. In this context, this study mainly concerns molecular detection of Leishmania from the vector. Furthermore, a molecular diagnosis has also been made on skin samples taken from patients in the region of Constantine, located in the North-East of Algeria. Concerning the vector, 5858 sandflies were captured, including 4360 males and 1498 females. Male specimens were identified based on their morphological. The morphological identification highlighted the presence of the Phlebotomus genus with a prevalence of 93% against 7% represented by the Sergentomyia genus. About the identified species, P. perniciosus is the most abundant with 59.4% of the male identified population followed by P. longicuspis with 24.7% of the workforce. P. perfiliewi is poorly represented by 6.7% of specimens followed by P. papatasi with 2.2% and 1.5% S. dreyfussi. Concerning skin samples, 45/79 (56.96%) collected samples were found positive by real-time PCR. This rate appears to be in sharp decline compared to previous years (alert peak of 30,227 cases in 2005). Concerning the detection of Leishmania from sandflies by RT-PCR, the results show that 3/60 PCR performed genus are positive with melting temperatures corresponding to that of the reference strain (84.1 +/- 0.4 ° C for L. infantum). This proves that the vectors were parasitized. On the other side, identification by RT-PCR species did not give any results. This could be explained by the presence of an insufficient amount of leishmanian DNA in the vector, and therefore support the hypothesis of the regression of leishmaniasis in Constantine.

Keywords: Algeria, molecular diagnostic, phlebotomus, real time PCR

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3 An Optimal Control Model for the Dynamics of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Ibrahim M. Elmojtaba, Rayan M. Altayeb

Abstract:

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus leishmania. The transmission of the parasite to humans and animals occurs via the bite of adult female sandflies previously infected by biting and sucking blood of an infectious humans or animals. In this paper we use a previously proposed model, and then applied two optimal controls, namely treatment and vaccination to that model to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of the disease using treatment and vaccination as the system control variables. The possible impact of using combinations of the two controls, either one at a time or two at a time on the spread of the disease is also examined. Our results provide a framework for vaccination and treatment strategies to reduce susceptible and infection individuals of VL in five years.

Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis, treatment, vaccination, optimal control, numerical simulation

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2 The Survey of Phlebotomine Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Al-Asaba Area in the Northwest Region of the Libya

Authors: Asherf El-Abaied, Elsadik Anan, Badereddin Annajar, Mustafa Saieh, Abudalnaser El-Buni

Abstract:

Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) has been endemic in the Northwestern region of Libya for over nine decades. Survey of sandfly fauna in the region revealed that 13 species have been recorded with various distribution and abundance patterns. Phlebotomus papatasi proved to be the main vector of the disease in many areas. To identify sandfly species present in the Al-Asaba town and determine their spatial and seasonal abundance. An epidemiological analysis of the data obtained from the recorded cases was also carried out. Sand flies collected from various sites using sticky traps and CDC miniature light traps during the period from March-November 2006. Recorded ZCL cases were collected from the local Primary Health Care Department and analysed using SPSS statistical package. Ten species of sandflies were identified, seven belong to the genus Phlebotomus and three belong to the genus Sergentomyia. P. papatasi was the most abundant species with peak season recorded in September. The prevalence of the disease was low however; notable increase of ZCL cases in last three years has been indicated.

Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi, sandfly fauna, Libya

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1 Ports and Airports: Gateways to Vector-Borne Diseases in Portugal Mainland

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Maria J. Alves, Sofia Cunha

Abstract:

Vector-borne diseases are transmitted to humans by mosquitos, sandflies, bugs, ticks, and other vectors. Some are re-transmitted between vectors, if the infected human has a new contact when his levels of infection are high. The vector is infected for lifetime and can transmit infectious diseases not only between humans but also from animals to humans. Some vector borne diseases are very disabling and globally account for more than one million deaths worldwide. The mosquitoes from the complex Culex pipiens sl. are the most abundant in Portugal, and we dispose in this moment of a data set from the surveillance program that has been carried on since 2006 across the country. All mosquitos’ species are included, but the large coverage of Culex pipiens sl. and its importance for public health make this vector an interesting candidate to assess risk of disease amplification. This work focus on ports and airports identified as key areas of high density of vectors. Mosquitoes being ectothermic organisms, the main factor for vector survival and pathogen development is temperature. Minima and maxima local air temperatures for each area of interest are averaged by month from data gathered on a daily basis at the national network of meteorological stations, and interpolated in a geographic information system (GIS). The range of temperatures ideal for several pathogens are known and this work shows how to use it with the meteorological data in each port and airport facility, to focus an efficient implementation of countermeasures and reduce simultaneously risk transmission and mitigation costs. The results show an increased alert with decreasing latitude, which corresponds to higher minimum and maximum temperatures and a lower amplitude range of the daily temperature.

Keywords: human health, risk assessment, risk management, vector-borne diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 304