Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: R. Vimal

14 Parametric Study and Modelling of Orthogonal Cutting Process for AISI 4340 and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah, Pawan Nagda, Vimal Jasoliya


The influence of parameters like velocity and depth of cut on cutting forces is investigated for the empirical relation of the coefficient of friction derived for CRS 1018 for different materials like AISI 4340 and Ti6Al4V. For this purpose, turning tests were carried out on the above materials using coated cemented carbide tool inserts for steel grade and uncoated cemented carbide cutting tool inserts for Titanium with different chip breaker geometries. The cutting forces were measured using a Kistler dynamometer where the multiplication factor taken is 200.The effect of cutting force variation was analyzed experimentally and are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: cutting forces, coefficient of friction, carbide tool inserts, titanium

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13 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan


Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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12 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam


Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN), Random Deployment, Clustering, Isolated Nodes, Networks Lifetime

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11 Flammability of Banana Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Sodium Bromate Blend: Investigation of Variation in Mechanical Properties

Authors: S. Badrinarayanan, R. Vimal, H. Sivaraman, P. Deepak, R. Vignesh Kumar, A. Ponshanmugakumar


In the present study, the flammability properties of banana fibre reinforced epoxy/ sodium bromate blended composites are studied. Two sets of composite material were prepared, one formed by blending sodium bromate with epoxy matrix and other with neat epoxy matrix. Epoxy resin was blended with various weight fractions of sodium bromate, 4%, 8% and 12%. The composite made with plain epoxy matrix was used as the standard reference material. The mechanical tests, heat deflection tests and flammability tests were carried out on all the composite samples. Flammability test shows the improved flammability properties of the sodium bromated banana-epoxy composite. The modification in flammability properties of the composites by the addition of sodium bromate results in the reduced mechanical properties. The fractured surfaces under various mechanical testing were analysed using morphological analysis done using scanning electron microscope.

Keywords: banana fibres, epoxy resin, sodium bromate, flammability test, heat deflection

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10 Design and Finite Element Analysis of Clamp Cylinder for Capacity Augmentation of Injection Moulding Machine

Authors: Vimal Jasoliya, Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah


The Injection Moulding is one of the principle methods of conversions of plastics into various end products using a very wide range of plastics materials from commodity plastics to specialty engineering plastics. Injection Moulding Machines are rated as per the tonnage force applied. The work present includes Design & Finite Element Analysis of a structure component of injection moulding machine i.e. clamp cylinder. The work of the project is to upgrade the 1300T clamp cylinder to 1500T clamp cylinder for injection moulding machine. The design of existing clamp cylinder of 1300T is checked. Finite Element analysis is carried out for 1300T clamp cylinder in ANSYS Workbench, and the stress values are compared with acceptance criteria and theoretical calculation. The relation between the clamp cylinder diameter and the tonnage capacity has been derived and verified for 1300T clamp cylinder. The same correlation is used to find out the thickness for 1500T clamp cylinder. The detailed design of 1500T cylinder is carried out based on calculated thickness.

Keywords: clamp cylinder, fatigue analysis, finite element analysis, injection moulding machines

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9 Influence of Bed Depth on Performance of Wire Screen Packed Bed Solar Air Heater

Authors: Vimal Kumar Chouksey, S. P. Sharma


This paper deals with theoretical analysis of performance of solar air collector having its duct packed with blackened wire screen matrices. The heat transfer equations for two-dimensional fully developed fluid flows under quasi-steady-state conditions have been developed in order to analyze the effect of bed depth on performance. A computer programme is developed in C++ language to estimate the temperature rise of entering air for evaluation of performance by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficient for packed bed systems. Results of air temperature rise and thermal efficiency obtained from the analysis have been compared with available experimental results and results have been found fairly in closed agreement. It has been found that there is considerable enhancement in performance with packed bed collector upto a certain total bed depth. Effect of total bed depth on efficiency show that there is an upper limiting value of total bed depth beyond which the thermal efficiency begins to fall again and this type of characteristics behavior is observed at all mass flow rate.

Keywords: plane collector, solar air heater, solar energy, wire screen packed bed

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8 Non Interferometric Quantitative Phase Imaging of Yeast Cells

Authors: P. Praveen Kumar, P. Vimal Prabhu, Renu John


In biology most microscopy specimens, in particular living cells are transparent. In cell imaging, it is hard to create an image of a cell which is transparent with a very small refractive index change with respect to the surrounding media. Various techniques like addition of staining and contrast agents, markers have been applied in the past for creating contrast. Many of the staining agents or markers are not applicable to live cell imaging as they are toxic. In this paper, we report theoretical and experimental results from quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells with a commercial bright field microscope. We reconstruct the phase of cells non-interferometrically based on the transport of intensity equations (TIE). This technique estimates the axial derivative from positive through-focus intensity measurements. This technique allows phase imaging using a regular microscope with white light illumination. We demonstrate nano-metric depth sensitivity in imaging live yeast cells using this technique. Experimental results will be shown in the paper demonstrating the capability of the technique in 3-D volume estimation of living cells. This real-time imaging technique would be highly promising in real-time digital pathology applications, screening of pathogens and staging of diseases like malaria as it does not need any pre-processing of samples.

Keywords: axial derivative, non-interferometric imaging, quantitative phase imaging, transport of intensity equation

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7 Assessment of Pre-Processing Influence on Near-Infrared Spectra for Predicting the Mechanical Properties of Wood

Authors: Aasheesh Raturi, Vimal Kothiyal, P. D. Semalty


We studied mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis using FT-NIR spectroscopy. Firstly, spectra were pre-processed to eliminate useless information. Then, prediction model was constructed by partial least squares regression. To study the influence of pre-processing on prediction of mechanical properties for NIR analysis of wood samples, we applied various pretreatment methods like straight line subtraction, constant offset elimination, vector-normalization, min-max normalization, multiple scattering. Correction, first derivative, second derivatives and their combination with other treatment such as First derivative + straight line subtraction, First derivative+ vector normalization and First derivative+ multiplicative scattering correction. The data processing methods in combination of preprocessing with different NIR regions, RMSECV, RMSEP and optimum factors/rank were obtained by optimization process of model development. More than 350 combinations were obtained during optimization process. More than one pre-processing method gave good calibration/cross-validation and prediction/test models, but only the best calibration/cross-validation and prediction/test models are reported here. The results show that one can safely use NIR region between 4000 to 7500 cm-1 with straight line subtraction, constant offset elimination, first derivative and second derivative preprocessing method which were found to be most appropriate for models development.

Keywords: FT-NIR, mechanical properties, pre-processing, PLS

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6 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga


Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: acoustics, fibre, non-woven, noise, sound absorption properties, sound absorption coefficient

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5 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: baffle, instability, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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4 Study of Mechanical Properties of Glutarylated Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: V. Manush Nandan, K. Lokdeep, R. Vimal, K. Hari Hara Subramanyan, C. Aswin, V. Logeswaran


Natural fibers have attained the potential market in the composite industry because of the huge environmental impact caused by synthetic fibers. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. Even though there is a good motive to utilize the natural supplement, the strength of the natural fiber composites is still a topic of discussion. In recent days, many researchers are showing interest in the chemical modification of the natural fibers to increase various mechanical and thermal properties. In the present study, jute fibers have been modified chemically using glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The glutaric anhydride solution is prepared by dissolving the different quantity of glutaric anhydride in benzene and dimethyl-sulfoxide using sodium formate catalyst. The jute fiber mats have been treated by the method of retting at various time intervals of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. The modification structure of the treated fibers has been confirmed with infrared spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with an increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure. The unmodified fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix under room temperature. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of unmodified fiber.

Keywords: flexural properties, glutarylation, glutaric anhydride, tensile properties

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3 Comparisonal Study of Succinylation and Glutarylation of Jute Fiber: Study of Mechanical Properties of Modified Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: R. Vimal, K. Hari Hara Subramaniyan, C. Aswin, B. Logeshwaran, M. Ramesh


Due to several environmental concerns, natural fibers have greatly replaced the synthetic fibers as a reinforcing material in polymer matrix composites. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. In recent years, modification of plant fibers with range of chemicals to increase various mechanical and thermal properties has been focused greatly. Among that, some of the plant fibers were modified using succinic anhydride. In the present study, Jute fibers have been modified chemically by treatment with succinic anhydride and glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The fiber modification was done under retting condition at various retention times of 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. The modification of fiber structure in both the cases is confirmed with Infrared Spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure which is common in both the cases. Comparatively, treatment of fibers with glutaric anhydride has shown efficient output than that of succinic anhydride. The unmodified fibers, succinylated fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix at various volume fractions of fiber under room temperature. The composite made using unmodified fiber is used as a standard material. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of succinylated and unmodified fiber.

Keywords: flexural strength, glutarylation, jute fibers, succinylation, tensile strength

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2 An Easy Approach for Fabrication of Macroporous Apatite-Based Bone Cement Used As Potential Trabecular Bone Substitute

Authors: Vimal Kumar Dewangan, T. S. Sampath Kumar, Mukesh Doble, Viju Daniel Varghese


The apatite-based, i.e., calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHAp) bone cement is well-known potential bone graft/substitute in orthopaedics due to its similar chemical composition with natural bone minerals. Therefore, an easy approach was attempted to fabricate the apatite-based (CDHAp) bone cement with improved injectability, bioresorbability, and macroporosity. In this study, the desired bone cement was developed by mixing the solid phase (consisting of wet chemically synthesized nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and commercially available (synthetic) tricalcium phosphate) and the liquid phase (consisting of cement binding accelerator with few biopolymers in a dilute acidic solution) along with a liquid porogen as polysorbate or a solid porogen as mannitol (for comparison) in an optimized liquid-to-powder ratio. The fabricated cement sets within clinically preferred setting time (≤20 minutes) are better injectable (>70%) and also stable at ~7.3-7.4 (physiological pH). The CDHAp phased bone cement was resulted by immersing the fabricated after-set cement in phosphate buffer solution and other similar artificial body fluids and incubated at physiological conditions for seven days, confirmed through the X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analyses. The so-formed synthetic apatite-based bone cement holds the acceptable compressive strength (within the range of trabecular bone) with average interconnected pores size falls in a macropores range (~50-200μm) inside the cement, verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-CT analysis techniques. Also, it is biodegradable (degrades ~19-22% within 10-12 weeks) when incubated in artificial body fluids under physiological conditions. The biocompatibility study of the bone cement, when incubated with MG63 cells, shows a significant increase in the cell viability after 3rd day of incubation compared with the control, and the cells were well-attached and spread completely on the surface of the bone cement, confirmed through SEM and fluorescence microscopy analyses. With this all, we can conclude that the developed synthetic macroporous apatite-based bone cement may have the potential to become promising material used as a trabecular bone substitute.

Keywords: calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, synthetic apatite-based bone cement, injectability, macroporosity, trabecular bone substitute

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1 Carbohydrate Intake and Physical Activity Levels Modify the Association between FTO Gene Variants and Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: First Nutrigenetics Study in an Asian Indian Population

Authors: K. S. Vimal, D. Bodhini, K. Ramya, N. Lakshmipriya, R. M. Anjana, V. Sudha, J. A. Lovegrove, V. Mohan, V. Radha


Gene-lifestyle interaction studies have been carried out in various populations. However, to date there are no studies in an Asian Indian population. Hence, we examined whether lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity modify the association between fat mass and obesity–associated (FTO) gene variants and obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Asian Indian population. We studied 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) in Southern India. Obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization Asia Pacific Guidelines (non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene (rs9940128, rs7193144, rs8050136, rs918031, rs1588413 and rs11076023) identified from recent genome-wide association studies for T2D were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated food frequency questionnaire and physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the model. A joint likelihood ratio test of the main SNP effects and the SNP-diet/physical activity interaction effects was used in the linear regression analyses to maximize statistical power. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 13. There was a significant interaction between FTO SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.04) on obesity, where the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 2.46 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=3.0x10-5) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage. Furthermore, among those who had lower levels of physical activity, the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=4.0x10-5). We also found a borderline interaction between SNP rs11076023 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.08) on T2D, where the ‘A’ allele carriers in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage, had 1.57 times higher risk of T2D than those with ‘TT’ genotype (P=0.002). There was also a significant interaction between SNP rs11076023 and physical activity (Pinteraction=0.03) on T2D. No further significant interactions between SNPs and macronutrient intake or physical activity on obesity and T2D were observed. In conclusion, this is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. These findings suggest that the association between FTO gene variants and obesity and T2D is influenced by carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels. Greater understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions will advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies predicted to reduce the development of metabolic diseases in ‘A’ allele carriers of both SNPs in this Asian Indian population.

Keywords: dietary intake, FTO, obesity, physical activity, type 2 diabetes, Asian Indian.

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