Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Alexandr Ozerov

19 A Scalable Model of Fair Socioeconomic Relations Based on Blockchain and Machine Learning Algorithms-1: On Hyperinteraction and Intuition

Authors: Merey M. Sarsengeldin, Alexandr S. Kolokhmatov, Galiya Seidaliyeva, Alexandr Ozerov, Sanim T. Imatayeva

Abstract:

This series of interdisciplinary studies is an attempt to investigate and develop a scalable model of fair socioeconomic relations on the base of blockchain using positive psychology techniques and Machine Learning algorithms for data analytics. In this particular study, we use hyperinteraction approach and intuition to investigate their influence on 'wisdom of crowds' via created mobile application which was created for the purpose of this research. Along with the public blockchain and private Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) which were elaborated by us on the base of Ethereum blockchain, a model of fair financial relations of members of DAO was developed. We developed a smart contract, so-called, Fair Price Protocol and use it for implementation of model. The data obtained from mobile application was analyzed by ML algorithms. A model was tested on football matches.

Keywords: blockchain, Naïve Bayes algorithm, hyperinteraction, intuition, wisdom of crowd, decentralized autonomous organization

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18 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence

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17 Research of Concentratibility of Low Quality Bauxite Raw Materials

Authors: Nadezhda Nikolaeva, Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov

Abstract:

Processing of high-silicon bauxite on the base of the traditional clinkering method is related to high power consumption and capital investments, which makes production of alumina from those ores non-competitive in terms of basic economic showings. For these reasons, development of technological solutions enabling to process bauxites with various chemical and mineralogical structures efficiently with low level of thermal power consumption is important. Flow sheet of the studies on washability of ores from the Timanskoe and the Severo-Onezhskoe deposits is on the base of the flotation method.

Keywords: low-quality bauxite, resource-saving technology, optimization, aluminum, conditioning of composition, separation characteristics

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16 Iron Yoke Dipole with High Quality Field for Collector Ring FAIR

Authors: Tatyana Rybitskaya, Alexandr Starostenko, Kseniya Ryabchenko

Abstract:

Collector ring (CR) of FAIR project is a large acceptance storage ring and field quality plays a major role in the magnet design. The CR will use normal conducting dipole magnets. There will be 24 H-type sector magnets with a maximum field value of 1.6 T. The integrated over the length of the magnet field quality as a function of radius is ∆B.l/B.l = ±1x10⁻⁴. Below 1.6 T the value ∆B.l/B.l can be higher with a linear approximation up to ±2.5x10⁻⁴ at the field level of 0.8 T. An iron-dominated magnet with required field quality is produced with standard technology as the quality is dominated by the yoke geometry.

Keywords: conventional magnet, iron yoke dipole, harmonic terms, particle accelerators

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15 Application of Method of Symmetries at a Calculation and Planning of Circular Plate with Variable Thickness

Authors: Kirill Trapezon, Alexandr Trapezon

Abstract:

A problem is formulated for the natural oscillations of a circular plate of linearly variable thickness on the basis of the symmetry method. The equations of natural frequencies and forms for a plate are obtained, providing that it is rigidly fixed along the inner contour. The first three eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the eigenmodes of the oscillations of the acoustic element are constructed. An algorithm for applying the symmetry method and the factorization method for solving problems in the theory of oscillations for plates of variable thickness is shown. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the basis of comparison of known results and those obtained in the article. It is shown that the results are more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: vibrations, plate, method of symmetries, differential equation, factorization, approximation

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14 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress

Abstract:

A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

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13 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

Abstract:

Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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12 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Best Available Technique Application in a Food Processing Plant

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Pavel Budinsky, Ignac Hoza, Alexandr Bozek, Magdalena Naplavova

Abstract:

A cleaner production project was implemented in a bakery. The project is based on the substitution of the best available technique for an obsolete leaven production technology. The new technology enables production of durable, high-quality leavens. Moreover, 25% of flour as the original raw material can be replaced by pastry from the previous day production which has not been sold. That pastry was previously disposed in a waste incineration plant. Besides the environmental benefits resulting from less waste, lower consumption of energy, reduction of sewage waters quantity and floury dustiness there are also significant economic benefits. Payback period of investment was calculated with help of static method of financial analysis about 2.6 years, using dynamic method 3.5 years and an internal rate of return more than 29%. The supposed annual average profit after taxation in the second year of operation was incompliance with the real profit.

Keywords: bakery, best available technology, cleaner production, costs, economic benefit, efficiency, energy, environmental benefit, investment, savings

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11 Precious and Rare Metals in Overburden Carbonaceous Rocks: Methods of Extraction

Authors: Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov, Nadezhda Nikolaeva

Abstract:

A problem of complex mineral resources development is urgent and priority, it is aimed at realization of the processes of their ecologically safe development, one of its components is revealing the influence of the forms of element compounds in raw materials and in the processing products. In view of depletion of the precious metal reserves at the traditional deposits in the XXI century the large-size open cast deposits, localized in black shale strata begin to play the leading role. Carbonaceous (black) shales carry a heightened metallogenic potential. Black shales with high content of carbon are widely distributed within the scope of Bureinsky massif. According to academician Hanchuk`s data black shales of Sutirskaya series contain generally PGEs native form. The presence of high absorptive towards carbonaceous matter gold and PGEs compounds in crude ore results in decrease of valuable components extraction because of their sorption into dissipated carbonaceous matter.

Keywords: сarbonaceous rocks, bitumens, precious metals, concentration, extraction

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10 Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players

Authors: Svetlana Missina, Anatoliy Shipilov, Alexandr Vavaev

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.

Keywords: agility, female football players, sprint performance, vertical jump height

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9 Metagenomics Features of The Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Anna D. Kotrova, Alexandr N. Shishkin, Elena I. Ermolenko

Abstract:

The aim. To study the quantitative and qualitative colon bacteria ratio from patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from patients of 2 groups were identified and analyzed: the first group was formed by patients with metabolic syndrome, the second one - by healthy individuals. The metagenomics method was used with the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The libraries of the variable sites (V3 and V4) gene 16S RNA were analyzed using the MiSeq device (Illumina). To prepare the libraries was used the standard recommended by Illumina, a method based on two rounds of PCR. Results. At the phylum level in the microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy individuals, the proportion of Tenericutes was reduced, the proportion of Actinobacteria was increased. At the genus level, in the group with metabolic syndrome, relative to the second group was increased the proportion of Lachnospira. Conclusion. Changes in the colon bacteria ratio in the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome were found both at the type and the genus level. In the metabolic syndrome group, there is a decrease in the proportion of bacteria that do not have a cell wall. To confirm the revealed microbiota features in patients with metabolic syndrome, further study with a larger number of samples is required.

Keywords: gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome, metagenomics, tenericutes

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8 Data Modeling and Calibration of In-Line Pultrusion and Laser Ablation Machine Processes

Authors: David F. Nettleton, Christian Wasiak, Jonas Dorissen, David Gillen, Alexandr Tretyak, Elodie Bugnicourt, Alejandro Rosales

Abstract:

In this work, preliminary results are given for the modeling and calibration of two inline processes, pultrusion, and laser ablation, using machine learning techniques. The end product of the processes is the core of a medical guidewire, manufactured to comply with a user specification of diameter and flexibility. An ensemble approach is followed which requires training several models. Two state of the art machine learning algorithms are benchmarked: Kernel Recursive Least Squares (KRLS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The final objective is to build a precise digital model of the pultrusion and laser ablation process in order to calibrate the resulting diameter and flexibility of a medical guidewire, which is the end product while taking into account the friction on the forming die. The result is an ensemble of models, whose output is within a strict required tolerance and which covers the required range of diameter and flexibility of the guidewire end product. The modeling and automatic calibration of complex in-line industrial processes is a key aspect of the Industry 4.0 movement for cyber-physical systems.

Keywords: calibration, data modeling, industrial processes, machine learning

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7 Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging as an Objective Method for the Differential Diagnosis of a Stillborn and a Neonatal Death

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Sergey M. Voevodin, Veronica A. Sinitsyna, Alexandr I. Shchegolev

Abstract:

An important part of forensic and autopsy research in perinatology is the answer to the question of life and stillbirth. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an objective non-invasive research method that allows to store data for a long time and not to exhume the body to clarify the diagnosis. The purpose of the research is to study the possibilities of a postmortem MRI to determine the stillbirth and death of a newborn who had spontaneous breathing and died on the first day after birth. MRI and morphological data of a study of 23 stillborn bodies, prenatally dead at a gestational age of 22-39 weeks (Group I) and the bodies of 16 newborns who died from 2 to 24 hours after birth (Group II) were compared. Before the autopsy, postmortem MRI was performed on the Siemens Magnetom Verio 3T device in the supine position of the body. The control group for MRI studies consisted of 7 live newborns without lung disease (Group III). On T2WI in the sagittal projection was measured MR-signal intensity (SI) in the lung tissue (L) and shoulder muscle (M). During the autopsy, a pulmonary swimming test was evaluated, and macro- and microscopic studies were performed. According to the postmortem MRI, the highest values of mean SI of the lung (430 ± 27.99) and of the muscle (405.5 ± 38.62) on T2WI were detected in group I and exceeded the corresponding value of group II by 2.7 times. The lowest values were found in the control group - 77.9 ± 12.34 and 119.7 ± 6.3, respectively. In the group II, the lung SI was 1.6 times higher than the muscle SI, whereas in the group I and in the control group, the muscle SI was 2.1 times and 1.8 times larger than the lung. On the basis of clinical and morphological data, we calculated the formula for determining the breathing index (BI) during postmortem MRI: BI = SIL x SIM / 100. The mean value of BI in the group I (1801.14 ± 241.6) (values ranged from 756 to 3744) significantly higher than the corresponding average value of BI in the group II (455.89 ± 137.32, p < 0.05) (305-638.4). In the control group, the mean BI value was 91.75 ± 13.3 (values ranged from 53 to 154). The BI with the results of pulmonary swimming tests and microscopic examination of the lungs were compared. The boundary value of BI for the differential diagnosis of stillborn and newborn death was 700. Using the postmortem MRI allows to differentiate the stillborn with the death of the breathing newborn.

Keywords: lung, newborn, postmortem MRI, stillborn

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6 Possibilities of Postmortem CT to Detection of Gas Accumulations in the Vessels of Dead Newborns with Congenital Sepsis

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Viacheslav M. Lyapin, Vladimir G. Bychenko, Alexandr I. Shchegolev, Gennady T. Sukhikh

Abstract:

It is well known that the gas formed as a result of postmortem decomposition of tissues can be detected already 24-48 hours after death. In addition, the conditions of keeping and storage of the corpse (temperature and humidity of the environment) significantly determine the rate of occurrence and development of posthumous changes. The presence of sepsis is accompanied by faster postmortem decomposition and decay of the organs and tissues of the body. The presence of gas in the vessels and cavities can be revealed fully at postmortem CT. Radiologists must certainly report on the detection of intraorganic or intravascular gas, wich was detected at postmortem CT, to forensic experts or pathologists before the autopsy. This gas can not be detected during autopsy, but it can be very important for establishing a diagnosis. To explore the possibility of postmortem CT for the evaluation of gas accumulations in the newborns' vessels, who died from congenital sepsis. Researched of 44 newborns bodies (25 male and 19 female sex, at the age from 6 hours to 27 days) after 6 - 12 hours of death. The bodies were stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of +4°C in the supine position. Grouped 12 bodies of newborns that died from congenital sepsis. The control group consisted of 32 bodies of newborns that died without signs of sepsis. Postmortem CT examination was performed at the GEMINI TF TOF16 device, before the autopsy. The localizations of gas accumulations in the vessels were determined on the CT tomograms. The sepsis diagnosis was on the basis of clinical and laboratory data and autopsy results. Gases in the vessels were detected in 33.3% of cases in the group with sepsis, and in the control group - in 34.4%. A group with sepsis most often the gas localized in the heart and liver vessels - 50% each, of observations number with the detected gas in the vessels. In the heart cavities, aorta and mesenteric vessels - 25% each. In control most often gas was detected in the liver (63.6%) and abdominal cavity (54.5%) vessels. In 45.5% the gas localized in the cavities, and in 36.4% in the vessels of the heart. In the cerebral vessels and in the aorta gas was detected in 27.3% and 9.1%, respectively. Postmortem CT has high diagnostic capabilities to detect free gas in vessels. Postmortem changes in newborns that died from sepsis do not affect intravascular gas production within 6-12 hours. Radiation methods should be used as a supplement to the autopsy, including as a kind of ‘guide’, with the indication to the forensic medical expert of certain changes identified during CT studies, for better definition of pathological processes during the autopsy. Postmortem CT can be recommend as a first stage of autopsy.

Keywords: congenital sepsis, gas, newborn, postmortem CT

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5 Changes in Kidney Tissue at Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging Depending on the Time of Fetal Death

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Viacheslav M. Lyapin, Vladimir G. Bychenko, Alexandr I. Shchegolev, Gennady T. Sukhikh

Abstract:

All cases of stillbirth undoubtedly subject to postmortem examination, since it is necessary to find out the cause of the stillbirths, as well as a forecast of future pregnancies and their outcomes. Determination of the time of death is an important issue which is addressed during the examination of the body of a stillborn. It is mean the period from the time of death until the birth of the fetus. The time for fetal deaths determination is based on the assessment of the severity of the processes of maceration. To study the possibilities of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining the time of intrauterine fetal death based on the evaluation of maceration in the kidney. We have conducted MRI morphological comparisons of 7 dead fetuses (18-21 gestational weeks) and 26 stillbirths (22-39 gestational weeks), and 15 bodies of died newborns at the age of 2 hours – 36 days. Postmortem MRI 3T was performed before the autopsy. The signal intensity of the kidney tissue (SIK), pleural fluid (SIF), external air (SIA) was determined on T1-WI and T2-WI. Macroscopic and histological signs of maceration severity and time of death were evaluated in the autopsy. Based on the results of the morphological study, the degree of maceration varied from 0 to 4. In 13 cases, the time of intrauterine death was up to 6 hours, in 2 cases - 6-12 hours, in 4 -12-24 hours, in 9 -2-3 days, in 3 -1 week, in 2 -1,5-2 weeks. At 15 dead newborns, signs of maceration were absent, naturally. Based on the data from SIK, SIF, SIA on MR-tomograms, we calculated the coefficient of MR-maceration (M). The calculation of the time of intrauterine death (MP-t) (hours) was performed by our formula: МR-t = 16,87+95,38×М²-75,32×М. A direct positive correlation of MR-t and autopsy data from the dead at the gestational ages 22-40 weeks, with a dead time, not more than 1 week, was received. The maceration at the antenatal fetal death is characterized by changes in T1-WI and T2-WI signals at postmortem MRI. The calculation of MP-t allows defining accurately the time of intrauterine death within one week at the stillbirths who died on 22-40 gestational weeks. Thus, our study convincingly demonstrates that radiological methods can be used for postmortem study of the bodies, in particular, the bodies of stillborn to determine the time of intrauterine death. Postmortem MRI allows for an objective and sufficiently accurate analysis of pathological processes with the possibility of their documentation, storage, and analysis after the burial of the body.

Keywords: intrauterine death, maceration, postmortem MRI, stillborn

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4 Numerical Investigation of Plasma-Fuel System (PFS) for Coal Ignition and Combustion

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

To enhance the efficiency of solid fuels’ use, to decrease the fuel oil rate in the thermal power plants fuel balance and to minimize harmful emissions, a plasma technology of coal ignition, gasification and incineration is successfully applied. This technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of fuel for burning (PTCPF). In the framework of this concept, some portion of pulverized solid fuel (PF) is separated from the main PF flow and undergone the activation by arc plasma in a specific chamber with plasma torch – PFS. The air plasma flame is a source of heat and additional oxidation, it provides a high-temperature medium enriched with radicals, where the fuel mixture is heated, volatile components of coal are extracted, and carbon is partially gasified. This active blended fuel can ignite the main PF flow supplied into the furnace. This technology provides the boiler start-up and stabilization of PF flame and eliminates the necessity for addition of highly reactive fuel. In the report, a model of PTCPF, implemented as a program PlasmaKinTherm for the PFS calculation is described. The model combines thermodynamic and kinetic methods for describing the process of PTCPF in PFS. The numerical investigation of operational parameters of PFS depending on the electric power of the plasma generator and steam coal ash content revealed the temperature and velocity of gas and coal particles, and concentrations of PTCPF products dependences on the PFS length. Main mechanisms of PTCPF were disclosed. It was found that in the range of electric power of plasma generator from 40 to 100 kW high ash bituminous coal, having consumption 1667 kg/h is ignited stably. High level of temperature (1740 K) and concentration of combustible components (44%) at the PFS exit is a confirmation of it. Augmentation in power of plasma generator results displacement maxima temperatures and speeds of PTCPF products upstream (in the direction of the plasma source). The maximum temperature and velocity vary in a narrow range of values and practically do not depend on the power of the plasma torch. The numerical study of indicators of the process of PTCPF depending on the ash content in the range of its values 20-70% demonstrated that at the exit of PFS concentration of combustible components decreases with an increase in coal ash, the temperature of the gaseous products is increasing, and coal carbon conversion rate is increased to a maximum value when the ash content of 60%, dramatically decreasing with further increase in the ash content.

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma generator, plasma-fuel system

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3 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova

Abstract:

Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: biomaterials, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, neurotransmitters, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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2 Arc Plasma Application for Solid Waste Processing

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alfred Mosse, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

Hygiene and sanitary study of typical medical-biological waste made in Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus and other countries show that their risk to the environment is much higher than that of most chemical wastes. For example, toxicity of solid waste (SW) containing cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics is comparable to toxicity of radioactive waste of high and medium level activity. This report presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of thermal processing of SW and experiments at the developed plasma unit for SW processing. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the maximum yield of the synthesis gas at plasma gasification of SW in air and steam mediums is achieved at a temperature of 1600K. At the air plasma gasification of SW high-calorific synthesis gas with a concentration of 82.4% (СO – 31.7%, H2 – 50.7%) can be obtained, and at the steam plasma gasification – with a concentration of 94.5% (СO – 33.6%, H2 – 60.9%). Specific heat of combustion of the synthesis gas produced by air gasification amounts to 14267 kJ/kg, while by steam gasification - 19414 kJ/kg. At the optimal temperature (1600 K), the specific power consumption for air gasification of SW constitutes 1.92 kWh/kg, while for steam gasification - 2.44 kWh/kg. Experimental study was carried out in a plasma reactor. This is device of periodic action. The arc plasma torch of 70 kW electric power is used for SW processing. Consumption of SW was 30 kg/h. Flow of plasma-forming air was 12 kg/h. Under the influence of air plasma flame weight average temperature in the chamber reaches 1800 K. Gaseous products are taken out of the reactor into the flue gas cooling unit, and the condensed products accumulate in the slag formation zone. The cooled gaseous products enter the gas purification unit, after which via gas sampling system is supplied to the analyzer. Ventilation system provides a negative pressure in the reactor up to 10 mm of water column. Condensed products of SW processing are removed from the reactor after its stopping. By the results of experiments on SW plasma gasification the reactor operating conditions were determined, the exhaust gas analysis was performed and the residual carbon content in the slag was determined. Gas analysis showed the following composition of the gas at the exit of gas purification unit, (vol.%): СO – 26.5, H2 – 44.6, N2–28.9. The total concentration of the syngas was 71.1%, which agreed well with the thermodynamic calculations. The discrepancy between experiment and calculation by the yield of the target syngas did not exceed 16%. Specific power consumption for SW gasification in the plasma reactor according to the results of experiments amounted to 2.25 kWh/kg of working substance. No harmful impurities were found in both gas and condensed products of SW plasma gasification. Comparison of experimental results and calculations showed good agreement. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.607.21.0118, project RFMEF160715X0118).

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma-fuel system, plasma generator

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1 Arc Plasma Thermochemical Preparation of Coal to Effective Combustion in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

This work presents plasma technology for solid fuel ignition and combustion. Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal ignition and combustion. To realise this technology at coal fired power plants plasma-fuel systems (PFS) were developed. PFS improve efficiency of power coals combustion and decrease harmful emission. PFS is pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch. Plasma torch is the main element of the PFS. Plasma forming gas is air. It is blown through the electrodes forming plasma flame. Temperature of this flame is varied from 5000 to 6000 K. Plasma torch power is varied from 100 to 350 kW and geometrical sizes are the following: the height is 0.4-0.5 m and diameter is 0.2-0.25 m. The base of the PFS technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of coal for burning. It consists of heating of the pulverized coal and air mixture by arc plasma up to temperature of coal volatiles release and char carbon partial gasification. In the PFS coal-air mixture is deficient in oxygen and carbon is oxidised mainly to carbon monoxide. As a result, at the PFS exit a highly reactive mixture is formed of combustible gases and partially burned char particles, together with products of combustion, while the temperature of the gaseous mixture is around 1300 K. Further mixing with the air promotes intensive ignition and complete combustion of the prepared fuel. PFS have been tested for boilers start up and pulverized coal flame stabilization in different countries at power boilers of 75 to 950 t/h steam productivity. They were equipped with different types of pulverized coal burners (direct flow, muffle and swirl burners). At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (lignite, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were incinerated. Volatile content of them was from 4 to 50%, ash varied from 15 to 48% and heat of combustion was from 1600 to 6000 kcal/kg. To show the advantages of the plasma technology before conventional technologies of coal combustion numerical investigation of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration in an experimental furnace with heat capacity of 3 MW was fulfilled. Two computer-codes were used for the research. The computer simulation experiments were conducted for low-rank bituminous coal of 44% ash content. The boiler operation has been studied at the conventional mode of combustion and with arc plasma activation of coal combustion. The experiments and computer simulation showed ecological efficiency of the plasma technology. When a plasma torch operates in the regime of plasma stabilization of pulverized coal flame, NOX emission is reduced twice and amount of unburned carbon is reduced four times. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.613.21.0005, project RFMEFI61314X0005).

Keywords: coal, ignition, plasma-fuel system, plasma torch, thermal power plant

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