Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13514

# Search results for: equation model

##### 13514 A Mathematical Equation to Calculate Stock Price of Different Growth Model

Authors: Weiping Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents an equation to calculate stock prices of different growth model. This equation is mathematically derived by using discounted cash flow method. It has the advantages of being very easy to use and very accurate. It can still be used even when the first stage is lengthy. This equation is more generalized because it can be used for all the three popular stock price models. It can be programmed into financial calculator or electronic spreadsheets. In addition, it can be extended to a multistage model. It is more versatile and efficient than the traditional methods. Downloads 277
##### 13513 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li

Abstract:

Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments. Downloads 268
##### 13512 Partial Differential Equation-Based Modeling of Brain Response to Stimuli

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

Abstract:

The brain is the information processing centre of the human body. Stimuli in the form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research, we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modelling of EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for modelling of brain response in case of internal stimuli. Downloads 409
##### 13511 Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of N-Heptane in the Critical Region

Authors: Sabrina Ladjama, Aicha Rizi, Azzedine Abbaci

Abstract:

In this work, we use the crossover model to formulate a comprehensive fundamental equation of state for the thermodynamic properties for several n-alkanes in the critical region that extends to the classical region. This equation of state is constructed on the basis of comparison of selected measurements of pressure-density-temperature data, isochoric and isobaric heat capacity. The model can be applied in a wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point for n-heptane. It is found that the developed model represents most of the reliable experimental data accurately. Downloads 307
##### 13510 Developing a Total Quality Management Model Using Structural Equation Modeling for Indonesian Healthcare Industry

Authors: Jonny, T. Yuri M. Zagloel

Abstract:

This paper is made to present an Indonesian Healthcare model. Currently, there are nine TQM (Total Quality Management) practices in healthcare industry. However, these practices are not integrated yet. Therefore, this paper aims to integrate these practices as a model by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). After administering about 210 questionnaires to various stakeholders of this industry, a LISREL program was used to evaluate the model's fitness. The result confirmed that the model is fit because the p-value was about 0.45 or above required 0.05. This has signified that previously mentioned of nine TQM practices are able to be integrated as an Indonesian healthcare model. Downloads 154
##### 13509 Energy Conservation and H-Theorem for the Enskog-Vlasov Equation

Authors: Eugene Benilov, Mikhail Benilov

Abstract:

The Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation is a widely used semi-phenomenological model of gas/liquid phase transitions. We show that it does not generally conserve energy, although there exists a restriction on its coefficients for which it does. Furthermore, if an energy-preserving version of the EV equation satisfies an H-theorem as well, it can be used to rigorously derive the so-called Maxwell construction which determines the parameters of liquid-vapor equilibria. Finally, we show that the EV model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamics of noble fluids, and there exists a version simple enough for use in applications. Downloads 31
##### 13508 Model Based Simulation Approach to a 14-Dof Car Model Using Matlab/Simulink

Abstract:

A fourteen degree of freedom (DOF) ride and handling control mathematical model is developed for a car using generalized boltzmann hamel equation which will create a basis for design of ride and handling controller. Mathematical model developed yield equations of motion for non-holonomic constrained systems in quasi-coordinates. The governing differential equation developed integrates ride and handling control of car. Model-based systems engineering approach is implemented for simulation using matlab/simulink, vehicle’s response in different DOF is examined and later validated using commercial software (ADAMS). This manuscript involves detailed derivation of full car vehicle model which provides response in longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion to demonstrate the advantages of the developed model over the existing dynamic model. The dynamic behaviour of the developed ride and handling model is simulated for different road conditions. Downloads 23
##### 13507 A Dynamic Equation for Downscaling Surface Air Temperature

Authors: Ch. Surawut, D. Sukawat

Abstract:

In order to utilize results from global climate models, dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques have been developed. For dynamical downscaling, usually a limited area numerical model is used, with associated high computational cost. This research proposes dynamic equation for specific space-time regional climate downscaling from the Educational Global Climate Model (EdGCM) for Southeast Asia. The equation is for surface air temperature. These equations provide downscaling values of surface air temperature at any specific location and time without running a regional climate model. In the proposed equations, surface air temperature is approximated from ground temperature, sensible heat flux and 2m wind speed. Results from the application of the equation show that the errors from the proposed equations are less than the errors for direct interpolation from EdGCM. Downloads 199
##### 13506 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme. Downloads 109
##### 13505 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model. Downloads 499
##### 13504 Soliton Solutions of the Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Dispersion Effects

Authors: H. Triki, Y. Hamaizi, A. El-Akrmi

Abstract:

We consider the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation model with fourth-order dispersion, cubic-quintic terms, and self-steepening. This equation governs the propagation of fem to second pulses in optical fibers. We present new bright and dark solitary wave type solutions for such a model under certain parametric conditions. This kind of solution may be useful to explain some physical phenomena related to wave propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber systems supporting high-order nonlinear and dispersive effects. Downloads 509
##### 13503 A Mathematical-Based Formulation of EEG Fluctuations

Authors: Razi Khalafi

Abstract:

Brain is the information processing center of the human body. Stimuli in form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modeling of the EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for the modeling of brain response in case of internal stimuli. Downloads 313
##### 13502 State Estimation Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Burgers’ Equation

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves, and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation. However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations. Downloads 48
##### 13501 On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu

Abstract:

Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, Richard's, stochastic

##### 13500 Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recent technological advance has prompted significant interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems. Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic disturbances. Downloads 299
##### 13499 Climate Change Awareness at the Micro Level: Case Study of Grande Riviere, Trinidad

Authors: Sherry Ann Ganase, Sandra Sookram

Abstract:

This study investigates the level of awareness to climate change and major factors that influence such awareness in Grande Riviere, Trinidad. Through the development of an Awareness Index and application of a Structural Equation Model to survey data, the findings suggest an Awareness index value of 0.459 in Grande Riviere. These results suggest that households have climate smart attitudes and behaviors but climate knowledge is lacking. This is supported by the structural equation model which shows a negative relationship between awareness and causes of climate change. The study concludes by highlighting the need for immediate action on increasing knowledge. Downloads 323
##### 13498 A Fuzzy Structural Equation Model for Development of a Safety Performance Index Assessment Tool in Construction Sites

Authors: Murat Gunduz, Mustafa Ozdemir

Abstract:

In this research, a framework is to be proposed to model the safety performance in construction sites. Determinants of safety performance are to be defined through extensive literature review and a multidimensional safety performance model is to be developed. In this context, a questionnaire is to be administered to construction companies with sites. The collected data through questionnaires including linguistic terms are then to be defuzzified to get concrete numbers by using fuzzy set theory which provides strong and significant instruments for the measurement of ambiguities and provides the opportunity to meaningfully represent concepts expressed in the natural language. The validity of the proposed safety performance model, relationships between determinants of safety performance are to be analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) which is a highly strong multi variable analysis technique that makes possible the evaluation of latent structures. After validation of the model, a safety performance index assessment tool is to be proposed by the help of software. The proposed safety performance assessment tool will be based on the empirically validated theoretical model. Downloads 376
##### 13497 Mathematical Model to Quantify the Phenomenon of Democracy

Authors: Mechlouch Ridha Fethi

Abstract:

This paper presents a recent mathematical model in political sciences concerning democracy. The model is represented by a logarithmic equation linking the Relative Index of Democracy (RID) to Participation Ratio (PR). Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender. Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO.

Keywords: democracy, mathematic, modelization, quantification

##### 13496 A Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equation Model for Image Enhancement

Authors: Tudor Barbu

Abstract:

We present a robust nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE)-based denoising scheme in this article. Our approach is based on a second-order anisotropic diffusion model that is described first. Then, a consistent and explicit numerical approximation algorithm is constructed for this continuous model by using the finite-difference method. Finally, our restoration experiments and method comparison, which prove the effectiveness of this proposed technique, are discussed in this paper. Downloads 159
##### 13495 A Simple Finite Element Method for Glioma Tumor Growth Model with Density Dependent Diffusion

Authors: Shangerganesh Lingeshwaran

Abstract:

In this presentation, we have performed numerical simulations for a reaction-diffusion equation with various nonlinear density-dependent diffusion operators and proliferation functions. The mathematical model represented by parabolic partial differential equation is considered to study the invasion of gliomas (the most common type of brain tumors) and to describe the growth of cancer cells and response to their treatment. The unknown quantity of the given reaction-diffusion equation is the density of cancer cells and the mathematical model based on the proliferation and migration of glioma cells. A standard Galerkin finite element method is used to perform the numerical simulations of the given model. Finally, important observations on the each of nonlinear diffusion functions and proliferation functions are presented with the help of computational results. Downloads 108
##### 13494 Operational Matrix Method for Fuzzy Fractional Reaction Diffusion Equation

Authors: Sachin Kumar

Abstract:

Fuzzy fractional diffusion equation is widely useful to depict different physical processes arising in physics, biology, and hydrology. The motive of this article is to deal with the fuzzy fractional diffusion equation. We study a mathematical model of fuzzy space-time fractional diffusion equation in which unknown function, coefficients, and initial-boundary conditions are fuzzy numbers. First, we find out a fuzzy operational matrix of Legendre polynomial of Caputo type fuzzy fractional derivative having a non-singular Mittag-Leffler kernel. The main advantages of this method are that it reduces the fuzzy fractional partial differential equation (FFPDE) to a system of fuzzy algebraic equations from which we can find the solution of the problem. The feasibility of our approach is shown by some numerical examples. Hence, our method is suitable to deal with FFPDE and has good accuracy. Downloads 21
##### 13493 Research on Online Consumption of College Students in China with Stimulate-Organism-Reaction Driven Model

Authors: Wei Lu

Abstract:

With the development of information technology in China, network consumption is becoming more and more popular. As a special group, college students have a high degree of education and distinct opinions and personalities. In the future, the key groups of network consumption have gradually become the focus groups of network consumption. Studying college students’ online consumption behavior has important theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) driving model and the structural equation model, this paper establishes the influencing factors model of College students’ online consumption behavior, evaluates and amends the model by using SPSS and AMOS software, analyses and determines the positive factors of marketing college students’ consumption, and provides an effective basis for guiding and promoting college student consumption. Downloads 20
##### 13492 An Alternative Richards’ Growth Model Based on Hyperbolic Sine Function

Abstract:

Richrads growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richards growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richards growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richards nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richards growth model. Downloads 272
##### 13491 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji

Abstract:

The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced. Downloads 137
##### 13490 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

Authors: P. Srinivas, P. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands. The DTC of SRM is analysed by two methods. In one of the methods, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model. Downloads 352
##### 13489 Stress Solitary Waves Generated by a Second-Order Polynomial Constitutive Equation

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive law and a curve fitting, two relationships between the stress-strain and the shear stress-strain for sandstone material were used to obtain a second-order polynomial constitutive equation. Based on the established polynomial constitutive equations and Newton’s second law, a mathematical model of the non-homogeneous nonlinear wave equation under an external pressure was derived. The external pressure can be assumed as an impulse function to simulate a real earthquake source. A displacement response under nonlinear two-dimensional wave equation was determined by a numerical method and computer-aided software. The results show that a suit pressure in the sandstone generates the phenomenon of stress solitary waves. Downloads 369
##### 13488 Effect of Gaseous Imperfections on the Supersonic Flow Parameters for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche

Abstract:

When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas doesn’t remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes for a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and intermolecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermodynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for the molecular size and intermolecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model. Downloads 345
##### 13487 Proposal of Design Method in the Semi-Acausal System Model

Abstract:

This study is used as a definition method to the value and function in manufacturing sector. In concurrence of discussion about present condition of modeling method, until now definition of 1D-CAE is ambiguity and not conceptual. Across all the physics fields, those methods are defined with the formulation of differential algebraic equation which only applied time derivation and simulation. At the same time, we propose semi-acausal modeling concept and differential algebraic equation method as a newly modeling method which the efficiency has been verified through the comparison of numerical analysis result between the semi-acausal modeling calculation and FEM theory calculation. Downloads 336
##### 13486 2D RF ICP Torch Modelling with Fluid Plasma

Abstract:

A numerical model for the radio-frequency (RF) Argon discharge chamber is developed to simulate the low pressure low temperature inductively coupled plasma. This model will be of fundamental importance in the design of the plasma magnetic control system. Electric and magnetic fields inside the discharge chamber are evaluated by solving a magnetic vector potential equation. To start with, the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory will be presented describing the basic behaviour of magnetically confined plasma and equations are discretized with finite element method in cylindrical coordinates. The discharge chamber is assumed to be axially symmetric and the plasma is treated as a compressible gas. Plasma generation due to ionization is added to the continuity equation. Magnetic vector potential equation is solved for the electromagnetic fields. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained. Downloads 291
##### 13485 Thermal and Caloric Imperfections Effect on the Supersonic Flow Parameters with Application for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche, Omar Abada

Abstract:

When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas does not remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and inter molecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermo dynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for molecular size and inter molecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model. Downloads 369