Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6649

Search results for: energy surplus

6649 Calculate Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus Using Integration

Authors: Bojan Radisic, Katarina Stavlic


The paper describes two economics terms consumer surplus and producer surplus using the definite integrals (the Riemann integral). The consumer surplus is the difference between what consumers are willing to pay and actual price. The producer surplus is the difference between what producers selling at the current price, rather than at the price they would have been are willing to accept. Using the definite integrals describe terms and mathematical formulas of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus and will be applied to the numerical examples.

Keywords: consumer surplus, producer surplus, definite integral, integration

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6648 A Study on Thermodynamic Prototype for Vernacular Dwellings in Perspective of Bioclimatic Architecture

Authors: Zhenzhen Zhang


As major human activity places, buildings consume a large amount of energy, and residential buildings are very important part of it. An extensive research work had been conducted to research how to achieve low energy goals, vernacular dwellings and contemporary technologies are two prime parameters among them. On one hand, some researchers concentrated on vernacular dwellings which were climate-response design and could offer a better living condition without mechanic application. On the other hand, a series concepts appeared based on modern technologies, surplus energy house, bioclimatic architecture, etc. especially thermodynamic architecture which integrates the micro-climate, human activity, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency into design. How to blend the two parameters is the key research topic now, which would act as the key to how to integrate the ancient design wise and contemporary new technologies. By several cases study, this paper will represent the evolution of thermodynamic architecture and then try to develop one methodology about how to produce a typical thermodynamic prototype for one area by blending the ancient building wise and contemporary concepts to achieve both low energy consumption and surplus energy.

Keywords: vernacular dwelling, thermodynamic architecture, bioclimatic architecture, thermodynamic prototype, surplus energy

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6647 Major Variables Influencing Marketed Surplus of Seed Cotton in District Khanewal, Pakistan

Authors: Manan Aslam, Shafqat Rasool


This paper attempts to examine impact of major factors affecting marketed surplus of seed cotton in district Khanewal (Punjab) using primary source of data. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The impact of major factors on marketed surplus of seed cotton growers was estimated by employing double log form of regression analysis. The value of adjusted R2 was 0.64 whereas the F-value was 10.81. The findings of analysis revealed that experience of farmers, education of farmers, area under cotton crop and distance from wholesale market were the significant variables affecting marketed surplus of cotton whereas the variables (marketing cost and sale price) showed insignificant impact. The study suggests improving prevalent marketing practices to increase volume of marketed surplus of cotton in district Khanewal.

Keywords: seed cotton, marketed surplus, double log regression analysis

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6646 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Sener, O. Isik, E. Eroglu, U. Sahin


The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Maxwell’s equations, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

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6645 Designing of Household Dishes to Help Food Waste Prevention Strategies

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Shang-Huan Wu


In recent years, environmental awareness has increased, environmental issues caused by meat-eating have been extended to promote reducing food surplus and waste advocates. We lose more than 3 million tons of food on average on a daily basis. Private households represent the largest food-waste faction. The main purpose of this study is to design and develop household dishes by using edible food surplus. The questionnaires were conducted to find the majority of food surplus from households, including carrot peel, pumpkin, fish skin, and soy dregs—this study designed and developed the household dishes by using the leftovers. We briefly discuss the contributions of the dishes. Mapping the household dishes deepens the promotion of household food waste prevention strategies. This study also linked the results with a set of policy, education, and restaurant business options

Keywords: food waste, food surplus, household dishes design, food waste prevention strategies

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6644 Production, Consumption, and Marketable Surplus of Milk in Jalandhar and Kapurthala Districts: A Study of Punjab State

Authors: Updesh Khinda


India is mainly an Agrarian Economy. The Indian Dairy sector is growing at 4.9 % annually. India is World’s Top Country in Milk Production. The present study is based on Primary data of two districts of Punjab named Jalandhar and Kapurthala District. An effort is being made to study the Production, Consumption and Marketable Surplus of Selected Milk Producers. Both Secondary and Primary data were used. The Sample Size is 100. Purposely Randomly selected from total of 10 villages, within 10 km from Main Cities ( 5 each) from Mentioned Districts. Data were analyzed by using Averages, Percentages and t-Test. The Production and Marketable Surplus were highest in Jalandhar District and the Consumption of Milk was highest in Kapurthala District.

Keywords: agrarian economy, dairy, milk production, consumption, marketable surplus

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6643 Corporate In-Kind Donations and Economic Efficiency: The Case of Surplus Food Recovery and Donation

Authors: Sedef Sert, Paola Garrone, Marco Melacini, Alessandro Perego


This paper is aimed at enhancing our current understanding of motivations behind corporate in-kind donations and to find out whether economic efficiency may be a major driver. Our empirical setting is consisted of surplus food recovery and donation by companies from food supply chain. This choice of empirical setting is motivated by growing attention on the paradox of food insecurity and food waste i.e. a total of 842 million people worldwide were estimated to be suffering from regularly not getting enough food, while approximately 1.3 billion tons per year food is wasted globally. Recently, many authors have started considering surplus food donation to nonprofit organizations as a way to cope with social issue of food insecurity and environmental issue of food waste. In corporate philanthropy literature the motivations behind the corporate donations for social purposes, such as altruistic motivations, enhancements to employee morale, the organization’s image, supplier/customer relationships, local community support, have been examined. However, the relationship with economic efficiency is not studied and in many cases the pure economic efficiency as a decision making factor is neglected. Although in literature there are some studies give us the clue on economic value creation of surplus food donation such as saving landfill fees or getting tax deductions, so far there is no study focusing deeply on this phenomenon. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework which explores the economic barriers and drivers towards alternative surplus food management options i.e. discounts, secondary markets, feeding animals, composting, energy recovery, disposal. The case study methodology is used to conduct the research. Protocols for semi structured interviews are prepared based on an extensive literature review and adapted after expert opinions. The interviews are conducted mostly with the supply chain and logistics managers of 20 companies in food sector operating in Italy, in particular in Lombardy region. The results shows that in current situation, the food manufacturing companies can experience cost saving by recovering and donating the surplus food with respect to other methods especially considering the disposal option. On the other hand, retail and food service sectors are not economically incentivized to recover and donate surplus food to disfavored population. The paper shows that not only strategic and moral motivations, but also economic motivations play an important role in managerial decision making process in surplus food management. We also believe that our research while rooted in the surplus food management topic delivers some interesting implications to more general research on corporate in-kind donations. It also shows that there is a huge room for policy making favoring the recovery and donation of surplus products.

Keywords: corporate philanthropy, donation, recovery, surplus food

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6642 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang


Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

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6641 Possible Approach for Interlinking of Ponds to Mitigate Drought in Sivaganga Villages at Micro Level

Authors: Manikandan Sathianarayanan, Pernaidu Pasala


This paper presents the results of our studies concerning the implementation and exploitation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) dedicated to the support and assistance of decisions requested by drought management. In this study on diverting of surplus water through canals, pond sand check dams in the study area was carried out. The remote sensing data and GIS data was used to identify the drought prone villages in sivaganga taluk and to generate present land use, drainage pattern as well as slope and contour. This analysis was carried out for diverting surplus water through proposed canal and pond. The results of the study indicate that if the surplus water from the ponds and streams are diverted to the drought villages in Sivaganga taluk, it will definitely improve the agricultural production due to availability of water in the ponds. The improvements in agricultural production will help to improve the economical condition of the farmers in the region.

Keywords: interlinking, spatial analysis, remote sensing, GIS

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6640 Evaluation of Potential of Crop Residues for Energy Generation in Nepal

Authors: Narayan Prasad Adhikari


In Nepal, the crop residues have often been considered as one of the potential sources of energy to cope with prevailing energy crisis. However, the lack of systematic studies about production and various other competent uses of crop production is the main obstacle to evaluate net potential of the residues for energy production. Under this background, this study aims to assess the net annual availability of crop residues for energy production by undertaking three different districts with the representation of country’s three major regions of lowland, hill, and mountain. The five major cereal crops of paddy, wheat, maize, millet, and barley are considered for the analysis. The analysis is based upon two modes of household surveys. The first mode of survey is conducted to total of 240 households to obtain key information about crop harvesting and livestock management throughout a year. Similarly, the quantification of main crops along with the respective residues on fixed land is carried out to 45 households during second mode. The range of area of such fixed land is varied from 50 to 100 m2. The measurements have been done in air dry basis. The quantity for competitive uses of respective crop residues is measured on the basis of respondents’ feedback. There are four major competitive uses of crop residues at household which are building material, burning, selling, and livestock fodder. The results reveal that the net annual available crop residues per household are 4663 kg, 2513 kg, and 1731 kg in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively. Of total production of crop residues, the shares of dedicated fodder crop residues (except maize stalk and maize cob) are 94 %, 62 %, and 89 % in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively and of which the corresponding shares of fodder are 87 %, 91 %, and 82 %. The annual percapita energy equivalent from net available crop residues in lowland, hill, and mountain are 2.49 GJ, 3.42 GJ, and 0.44 GJ which represent 30 %, 33 %, and 3 % of total annual energy consumption respectively whereas the corresponding current shares of crop residues are only 23 %, 8 %, and 1 %. Hence, even utmost exploitation of available crop residues can hardly contribute to one third of energy consumption at household level in lowland, and hill whereas this is limited to particularly negligible in mountain. Moreover, further analysis has also been done to evaluate district wise supply-demand context of dedicated fodder crop residues on the basis of presence of livestock. The high deficit of fodder crop residues in hill and mountain is observed where the issue of energy generation from these residues will be ludicrous. As a contrary, the annual production of such residues for livestock fodder in lowland meets annual demand with modest surplus even if entire fodder to be derived from the residues throughout a year and thus there seems to be further potential to utilize the surplus residues for energy generation.

Keywords: crop residues, hill, lowland, mountain

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6639 Study on Planning of Smart GRID Using Landscape Ecology

Authors: Sunglim Lee, Susumu Fujii, Koji Okamura


Smart grid is a new approach for electric power grid that uses information and communications technology to control the electric power grid. Smart grid provides real-time control of the electric power grid, controlling the direction of power flow or time of the flow. Control devices are installed on the power lines of the electric power grid to implement smart grid. The number of the control devices should be determined, in relation with the area one control device covers and the cost associated with the control devices. One approach to determine the number of the control devices is to use the data on the surplus power generated by home solar generators. In current implementations, the surplus power is sent all the way to the power plant, which may cause power loss. To reduce the power loss, the surplus power may be sent to a control device and sent to where the power is needed from the control device. Under assumption that the control devices are installed on a lattice of equal size squares, our goal is to figure out the optimal spacing between the control devices, where the power sharing area (the area covered by one control device) is kept small to avoid power loss, and at the same time the power sharing area is big enough to have no surplus power wasted. To achieve this goal, a simulation using landscape ecology method is conducted on a sample area. First an aerial photograph of the land of interest is turned into a mosaic map where each area is colored according to the ratio of the amount of power production to the amount of power consumption in the area. The amount of power consumption is estimated according to the characteristics of the buildings in the area. The power production is calculated by the sum of the area of the roofs shown in the aerial photograph and assuming that solar panels are installed on all the roofs. The mosaic map is colored in three colors, each color representing producer, consumer, and neither. We started with a mosaic map with 100 m grid size, and the grid size is grown until there is no red grid. One control device is installed on each grid, so that the grid is the area which the control device covers. As the result of this simulation we got 350 m as the optimal spacing between the control devices that makes effective use of the surplus power for the sample area.

Keywords: landscape ecology, IT, smart grid, aerial photograph, simulation

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6638 On the Optimization of a Decentralized Photovoltaic System

Authors: Zaouche Khelil, Talha Abdelaziz, Berkouk El Madjid


In this paper, we present a grid-tied photovoltaic system. The studied topology is structured around a seven-level inverter, supplying a non-linear load. A three-stage step-up DC/DC converter ensures DC-link balancing. The presented system allows the extraction of all the available photovoltaic power. This extracted energy feeds the local load; the surplus energy is injected into the electrical network. During poor weather conditions, where the photovoltaic panels cannot meet the energy needs of the load, the missing power is supplied by the electrical network. At the common connexion point, the network current shows excellent spectral performances.

Keywords: seven-level inverter, multi-level DC/DC converter, photovoltaic, non-linear load

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6637 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal


The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.

Keywords: solar energy, battery storage, electric vehicle, charging stations

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6636 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete


There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: root crops, sweet potato, surplus, alcohol

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6635 Recycling Service Strategy by Considering Demand-Supply Interaction

Authors: Hui-Chieh Li


Circular economy promotes greater resource productivity and avoids pollution through greater recycling and re-use which bring benefits for both the environment and the economy. The concept is contrast to a linear economy which is ‘take, make, dispose’ model of production. A well-design reverse logistics service strategy could enhance the willingness of recycling of the users and reduce the related logistics cost as well as carbon emissions. Moreover, the recycle brings the manufacturers most advantages as it targets components for closed-loop reuse, essentially converting materials and components from worn-out product into inputs for new ones at right time and right place. This study considers demand-supply interaction, time-dependent recycle demand, time-dependent surplus value of recycled product and constructs models on recycle service strategy for the recyclable waste collector. A crucial factor in optimizing a recycle service strategy is consumer demand. The study considers the relationships between consumer demand towards recycle and product characteristics, surplus value and user behavior. The study proposes a recycle service strategy which differs significantly from the conventional and typical uniform service strategy. Periods with considerable demand and large surplus product value suggest frequent and short service cycle. The study explores how to determine a recycle service strategy for recyclable waste collector in terms of service cycle frequency and duration and vehicle type for all service cycles by considering surplus value of recycled product, time-dependent demand, transportation economies and demand-supply interaction. The recyclable waste collector is responsible for the collection of waste product for the manufacturer. The study also examines the impacts of utilization rate on the cost and profit in the context of different sizes of vehicles. The model applies mathematical programming methods and attempts to maximize the total profit of the distributor during the study period. This study applies the binary logit model, analytical model and mathematical programming methods to the problem. The model specifically explores how to determine a recycle service strategy for the recycler by considering product surplus value, time-dependent recycle demand, transportation economies and demand-supply interaction. The model applies mathematical programming methods and attempts to minimize the total logistics cost of the recycler and maximize the recycle benefits of the manufacturer during the study period. The study relaxes the constant demand assumption and examines how service strategy affects consumer demand towards waste recycling. Results of the study not only help understanding how the user demand for recycle service and product surplus value affects the logistics cost and manufacturer’s benefits, but also provide guidance such as award bonus and carbon emission regulations for the government.

Keywords: circular economy, consumer demand, product surplus value, recycle service strategy

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6634 The Integrated Strategy of Maintenance with a Scientific Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Meckawey


This research is dealing with one of the most important aspects of maintenance fields, that is Maintenance Strategy. It's the branch which concerns the concepts and the schematic thoughts in how to manage maintenance and how to deal with the defects in the engineering products (buildings, machines, etc.) in general. Through the papers we will act with the followings: i) The Engineering Product & the Technical Systems: When we act with the maintenance process, in a strategic view, we act with an (engineering product) which consists of multi integrated systems. In fact, there is no engineering product with only one system. We will discuss and explain this topic, through which we will derivate a developed definition for the maintenance process. ii) The factors or basis of the functionality efficiency: That is the main factors affect the functional efficiency of the systems and the engineering products, then by this way we can give a technical definition of defects and how they occur. iii) The legality of occurrence of defects (Legal defects and Illegal defects): with which we assume that all the factors of the functionality efficiency been applied, and then we will discuss the results. iv) The Guarantee, the Functional Span Age and the Technical surplus concepts: In the complementation with the above topic, and associated with the Reliability theorems, where we act with the Probability of Failure state, with which we almost interest with the design stages, that is to check and adapt the design of the elements. But in Maintainability we act in a different way as we act with the actual state of the systems. So, we act with the rest of the story that means we have to act with the complementary part of the probability of failure term which refers to the actual surplus of the functionality for the systems.

Keywords: engineering product and technical systems, functional span age, legal and illegal defects, technical and functional surplus

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6633 Energy Efficient Buildings in Tehran by Reviewing High-Tech Methods and Vernacular Architecture Principles

Authors: Shima Naderi, Abbas Abbaszadeh Shahri


Energy resources are reachable and affordable in Iran, thus surplus access to fossil fuels besides high level of economic growth leads to serious environmental critical such as pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, increase in average degrease and lack of water sources specially in Tehran as a capital city of Iran. As building sector consumes a huge portion of energy, taking actions towards alternative sources of energy as well as conserving non-renewable energy resources and architectural energy saving methods are the fundamental basis for achieving sustainability`s goals. This study tries to explore implantation of both high technologies and traditional issues for reduction of energy demands in buildings of Tehran and introduce some factors and instructions for achieving this purpose. Green and energy efficient buildings such as ZEBs make it possible to preserve natural resources for the next generations by reducing pollution and increasing ecosystem self-recovery. However ZEB is not widely spread in Iran because of its low economic efficiency, it is not viable for a private entrepreneur without the governmental supports. Therefore executing of Architectural Energy Efficiency can be a better option. It is necessary to experience a substructure expansion with respect to traditional residential building style. Renewable energies and passive design which are the substantial part of the history of architecture in Iran can be regenerated and employed as an essential part of designing energy efficient buildings.

Keywords: architectural energy efficiency, passive design, renewable energies, zero energy buildings

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6632 Direct Current Grids in Urban Planning for More Sustainable Urban Energy and Mobility

Authors: B. Casper


The energy transition towards renewable energies and drastically reduced carbon dioxide emissions in Germany drives multiple sectors into a transformation process. Photovoltaic and on-shore wind power are predominantly feeding in the low and medium-voltage grids. The electricity grid is not laid out to allow an increasing feed-in of power in low and medium voltage grids. Electric mobility is currently in the run-up phase in Germany and still lacks a significant amount of charging stations. The additional power demand by e-mobility cannot be supplied by the existing electric grids in most cases. The future demands in heating and cooling of commercial and residential buildings are increasingly generated by heat-pumps. Yet the most important part in the energy transition is the storage of surplus energy generated by photovoltaic and wind power sources. Water electrolysis is one way to store surplus energy known as power-to-gas. With the vehicle-to-grid technology, the upcoming fleet of electric cars could be used as energy storage to stabilize the grid. All these processes use direct current (DC). The demand of bi-directional flow and higher efficiency in the future grids can be met by using DC. The Flexible Electrical Networks (FEN) research campus at RWTH Aachen investigates interdisciplinary about the advantages, opportunities, and limitations of DC grids. This paper investigates the impact of DC grids as a technological innovation on the urban form and urban life. Applying explorative scenario development, analyzation of mapped open data sources on grid networks and research-by-design as a conceptual design method, possible starting points for a transformation to DC medium voltage grids could be found. Several fields of action have emerged in which DC technology could become a catalyst for future urban development: energy transition in urban areas, e-mobility, and transformation of the network infrastructure. The investigation shows a significant potential to increase renewable energy production within cities with DC grids. The charging infrastructure for electric vehicles will predominantly be using DC in the future because fast and ultra fast charging can only be achieved with DC. Our research shows that e-mobility, combined with autonomous driving has the potential to change the urban space and urban logistics fundamentally. Furthermore, there are possible win-win-win solutions for the municipality, the grid operator and the inhabitants: replacing overhead transmission lines by underground DC cables to open up spaces in contested urban areas can lead to a positive example of how the energy transition can contribute to a more sustainable urban structure. The outlook makes clear that target grid planning and urban planning will increasingly need to be synchronized.

Keywords: direct current, e-mobility, energy transition, grid planning, renewable energy, urban planning

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6631 A New Optimization Algorithm for Operation of a Microgrid

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Rohala Moghimi


The main advantages of microgrids are high energy efficiency through the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), high quality and reliability of the delivered electric energy and environmental and economic advantages. This study presents an energy management system (EMS) to optimize the operation of the microgrid (MG). In this paper an Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm (AMFA) is presented for optimal operation of a typical MG with renewable energy sources (RESs) accompanied by a back-up Micro-Turbine/Fuel Cell/Battery hybrid power source to level the power mismatch or to store the energy surplus when it’s needed. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear constraint problem to minimize the total operating cost. The management of Energy storage system (ESS), economic load dispatch and operation optimization of distributed generation (DG) are simplified into a single-object optimization problem in the EMS. The proposed algorithm is tested on a typical grid-connected MG including WT/PV/Micro Turbine/Fuel Cell and Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) then its superior performance is compared with those from other evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Fuzzy Self Adaptive PSO (FSAPSO), Chaotic Particle PSO (CPSO), Adaptive Modified PSO (AMPSO), and Firefly Algorithm (FA).

Keywords: microgrid, operation management, optimization, firefly algorithm (AMFA)

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6630 Liquidity Management in Islamic Banks: Challenges and Prospects for Non-Interest Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Fatai O. Bakare


This paper x-rays the liquidity problems exposed to by Islamic banks in terms of challenges in managing surplus as well as deficit liquidity positions and the attendant effects in the contemporary system of Islamic banking. Effective liquidity management is understood to be a cardinal consideration for sustainability of Islamic/non-interest banking in Nigeria and the world over. While a background is laid by considering the general situations at a global scale, a particular attention is devoted to the peculiar circumstances of the non-interest banking in Nigeria. In bring home the points various efforts of major notable supra-national institutions in bridging liquidity management gap in Islamic banks are presented. While it is believed that a good lesson could be learnt from the developmental phases of Malaysian Islamic banking system and the approaches to meeting its liquidity management problems, much emphasis is laid in maintaining that, although in the absence of political will to provide systemic support for non-interest banking in Nigeria, the challenge of liquidity management is not unsurmountable.

Keywords: deficit, liquidity management, non-interest, surplus

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6629 Policy Views of Sustainable Integrated Solution for Increased Synergy between Light Railways and Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Mansoureh Zangiabadi, Shamil Velji, Rajendra Kelkar, Neal Wade, Volker Pickert


The EU has set itself a long-term goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% of the 1990 levels by 2050 as set in the Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper reports on the European Union H2020 funded E-Lobster project which demonstrates tools and technologies, software and hardware in integrating the grid distribution, and the railway power systems with power electronics technologies (Smart Soft Open Point - sSOP) and local energy storage. In this context this paper describes the existing policies and regulatory frameworks of the energy market at European level with a special focus then at National level, on the countries where the members of the consortium are located, and where the demonstration activities will be implemented. By taking into account the disciplinary approach of E-Lobster, the main policy areas investigated includes electricity, energy market, energy efficiency, transport and smart cities. Energy storage will play a key role in enabling the EU to develop a low-carbon electricity system. In recent years, Energy Storage System (ESSs) are gaining importance due to emerging applications, especially electrification of the transportation sector and grid integration of volatile renewables. The need for storage systems led to ESS technologies performance improvements and significant price decline. This allows for opening a new market where ESSs can be a reliable and economical solution. One such emerging market for ESS is R+G management which will be investigated and demonstrated within E-Lobster project. The surplus of energy in one type of power system (e.g., due to metro braking) might be directly transferred to the other power system (or vice versa). However, it would usually happen at unfavourable instances when the recipient does not need additional power. Thus, the role of ESS is to enhance advantages coming from interconnection of the railway power systems and distribution grids by offering additional energy buffer. Consequently, the surplus/deficit of energy in, e.g. railway power systems, is not to be immediately transferred to/from the distribution grid but it could be stored and used when it is really needed. This will assure better energy management exchange between the railway power systems and distribution grids and lead to more efficient loss reduction. In this framework, to identify the existing policies and regulatory frameworks is crucial for the project activities and for the future development of business models for the E-Lobster solutions. The projections carried out by the European Commission, the Member States and stakeholders and their analysis indicated some trends, challenges, opportunities and structural changes needed to design the policy measures to provide the appropriate framework for investors. This study will be used as reference for the discussion in the envisaged workshops with stakeholders (DSOs and Transport Managers) in the E-Lobster project.

Keywords: light railway, electrical distribution network, Electrical Energy Storage, policy

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6628 Techno-Economic Prospects of High Wind Energy Share in Remote vs. Interconnected Island Grids

Authors: Marina Kapsali, John S. Anagnostopoulos


On the basis of comparative analysis of alternative “development scenarios” for electricity generation, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the techno-economic viability of high wind energy (WE) use at the local (island) level. An integrated theoretical model is developed based on first principles assuming two main possible scenarios for covering future electrification needs of a medium–sized Greek island, i.e. Lesbos. The first scenario (S1), assumes that the island will keep using oil products as the main source for electricity generation. The second scenario (S2) involves the interconnection of the island with the mainland grid to satisfy part of the electricity demand, while remarkable WE penetration is also achieved. The economic feasibility of the above solutions is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for the time-period 2020-2045, including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results obtained, interconnection of Lesbos Island with the mainland grid (S2) presents considerable economic interest in comparison to autonomous development (S1) with WE having a prominent role to this effect.

Keywords: electricity generation cost, levelized cost of energy, mainland, wind energy surplus

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6627 Renewable Energy and Hydrogen On-Site Generation for Drip Irrigation and Agricultural Machinery

Authors: Javier Carroquino, Nieves García-Casarejos, Pilar Gargallo, F. Javier García-Ramos


The energy used in agriculture is a source of global emissions of greenhouse gases. The two main types of this energy are electricity for pumping and diesel for agricultural machinery. In order to reduce these emissions, the European project LIFE REWIND addresses the supply of this demand from renewable sources. First of all, comprehensive data on energy demand and available renewable resources have been obtained in several case studies. Secondly, a set of simulations and optimizations have been performed, in search of the best configuration and sizing, both from an economic and emission reduction point of view. For this purpose, it was used software based on genetic algorithms. Thirdly, a prototype has been designed and installed, that it is being used for the validation in a real case. Finally, throughout a year of operation, various technical and economic parameters are being measured for further analysis. The prototype is not connected to the utility grid, avoiding the cost and environmental impact of a grid extension. The system includes three kinds of photovoltaic fields. One is located on a fixed structure on the terrain. Another one is floating on an irrigation raft. The last one is mounted on a two axis solar tracker. Each has its own solar inverter. The total amount of nominal power is 44 kW. A lead acid battery with 120 kWh of capacity carries out the energy storage. Three isolated inverters support a three phase, 400 V 50 Hz micro-grid, the same characteristics of the utility grid. An advanced control subsystem has been constructed, using free hardware and software. The electricity produced feeds a set of seven pumps used for purification, elevation and pressurization of water in a drip irrigation system located in a vineyard. Since the irrigation season does not include the whole year, as well as a small oversize of the generator, there is an amount of surplus energy. With this surplus, a hydrolyser produces on site hydrogen by electrolysis of water. An off-road vehicle with fuel cell feeds on that hydrogen and carries people in the vineyard. The only emission of the process is high purity water. On the one hand, the results show the technical and economic feasibility of stand-alone renewable energy systems to feed seasonal pumping. In this way, the economic costs, the environmental impacts and the landscape impacts of grid extensions are avoided. The use of diesel gensets and their associated emissions are also avoided. On the other hand, it is shown that it is possible to replace diesel in agricultural machinery, substituting it for electricity or hydrogen of 100% renewable origin and produced on the farm itself, without any external energy input. In addition, it is expected to obtain positive effects on the rural economy and employment, which will be quantified through interviews.

Keywords: drip irrigation, greenhouse gases, hydrogen, renewable energy, vineyard

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6626 The Reality of Food Scarcity in Madhya Pradesh: Is It a Glimpse or Not?

Authors: Kalyan Sundar Som, Ghanshyam Prasad Jhariya


Population growth is an important pervasive phenomenon in the world. Its survival depends upon many daily needs and food is one of them. Population factors play a decisive role in the human endeavor to attain food. Nutrition and health status compose integral part of human development and progress of a society. Therefore, the neglect any one of these components may leads to the deterioration of the quality of life. Food is also intimately related with economic growth and social progress as well as with political stability and peace. It refers to the availability of food and its access to it. It can be observed from global to local level. Food scarcity has emerged as a matter of great concern all over the world due to uncontrolled and unregulated growth of population .For this purpose this study try to find out the deficit or surplus production of food availability in terms of their total population in the study area. It also ascertains the population pressure, demand and supply of food stuff and demarcation of insecure areas.The data base of the study under discussion includes government published data regarding agriculture production, yield and cropped area in 2005-06 to 2011-12 available at commissioner land record Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior. It also includes the census of India for population data. For measuring food security or insecurity regions is based on the consumption of net food available in terms caloric value minus the consumption by the weighted total population. This approach has been adopted because the direct estimate of production and consumption is the only reliable way to ascertain food security in a unit area and to compare one area with another (Noor Mohammad, dec. 2002). The scenario in 2005-06 is 57.78 percent district has food insufficient in terms of their population. On the other hand after 5 years, there are only 22 % districts are deficit in term of food availability where Burhanpur is the most deficit (56 percent) district. While 20% district are highly surplus district in the state where Harda and Hoshangabad districts are very high surplus district (5 times and 3.95 times) in term of food availability(2011). The drastic change (agriculture transformation) is happen due government good intervention in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: agriculture transformation, caloric value method, deficit or surplus region, population pressure

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6625 Welfare Estimation in a General Equilibrium Model with Cities

Authors: Oded Hochman


We first show that current measures of welfare changes in the whole economy do not apply to an economy with cities. In addition, since such measures are defined over a partial equilibrium, they capture only partially the effect of a welfare change. We then define a unique and additive measure that we term the modified economic surplus (mES) which fully captures the welfare effects caused by a change in the price of a nationally traded good. We show that the price change causes, on the one hand a change of land rents in the economy and, on the other hand, an equal change of mES that can be estimated by measuring areas in the price-quantity national demand and supply plane. We construct for each city a cost function from which we derive a city’s and, after aggregation, an economy-wide demand and supply functions of nationwide prices and of either the unearned incomes (Marshalian functions) or the utility levels (compensated functions).

Keywords: city cost function, welfare measures, modified compensated variation, modified economic surplus, unearned income function, differential land rents, city size

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6624 India’s Demonetization and Its Impact on Modi’s “Neighborhood First” Policy

Authors: Umang Prajapati


Elected prime minister of India Narendra Modi has very largely focused on improving ties with the neighbors since day one of his regime. This was the most significant initiative to focus on major Asian powers also emphasizing on the two decades old look east policy. The “neighborhood first policy” as termed by the media has been a corner stone in improving ties with the immediate neighbors of the country through several bilateral talks with the nations individually. However, the announcement of demonetisation policy in India, ceasing the usage of 500 and 1000 rupee notes has rattled countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar who encourage Indian currency parallel to theirs. According to the ministry of commerce and industry (MCI), India’s total trade with neighboring countries stood at US$21.6 in the fiscal year 2015-16, India has good surplus trade surplus with its neighbors and has a strong interest in ensuring smooth trade flows. India might have this benefit, but yet this policy can create issues between India and neighboring countries. The demonetisation policy might benefit in the long run, but in the short run, this might create border issues. While there would be more countries affected by this policy, this paper will emphasize on the problems faced by the countries and the impact of demonetisation on all other neighboring countries.

Keywords: bilateral trades, demonetization, neighborhood policy, value of rupee

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6623 Investigation on Development of Pv and Wind Power with Hydro Pumped Storage to Increase Renewable Energy Penetration: A Parallel Analysis of Taiwan and Greece

Authors: Robel Habtemariam


Globally, wind energy and photovoltaics (PV) solar energy are among the leading renewable energy sources (RES) in terms of installed capacity. In order to increase the contribution of RES to the power supply system, large scale energy integration is required, mainly due to wind energy and PV. In this paper, an investigation has been made on the electrical power supply systems of Taiwan and Greece in order to integrate high level of wind and photovoltaic (PV) to increase the penetration of renewable energy resources. Currently, both countries heavily depend on fossil fuels to meet the demand and to generate adequate electricity. Therefore, this study is carried out to look into the two cases power supply system by developing a methodology that includes major power units. To address the analysis, an approach for simulation of power systems is formulated and applied. The simulation is based on the non-dynamic analysis of the electrical system. This simulation results in calculating the energy contribution of different types of power units; namely the wind, PV, non-flexible and flexible power units. The calculation is done for three different scenarios (2020, 2030, & 2050), where the first two scenarios are based on national targets and scenario 2050 is a reflection of ambitious global targets. By 2030 in Taiwan, the input of the power units is evaluated as 4.3% (wind), 3.7% (PV), 65.2 (non-flexible), 25.3% (flexible), and 1.5% belongs to hydropower plants. In Greece, much higher renewable energy contribution is observed for the same scenario with 21.7% (wind), 14.3% (PV), 38.7% (non-flexible), 14.9% (flexible), and 10.3% (hydro). Moreover, it examines the ability of the power systems to deal with the variable nature of the wind and PV generation. For this reason, an investigation has also been done on the use of the combined wind power with pumped storage systems (WPS) to enable the system to exploit the curtailed wind energy & surplus PV and thus increase the wind and PV installed capacity and replace the peak supply by conventional power units. Results show that the feasibility of pumped storage can be justified in the high scenario (that is the scenario of 2050) of RES integration especially in the case of Greece.

Keywords: large scale energy integration, photovoltaics solar energy, pumped storage systems, renewable energy sources

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6622 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: A Theoretical Model of Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in an Activated Carbon Electrode

Authors: Sh. Heidari, A. J. Andrews, A. Oberoi


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have a roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented of the process of H+ ion (proton) conduction through an acid electrolyte into a highly porous activated carbon electrode where it is neutralised and absorbed on the inner surfaces of pores. A Butler-Volmer type equation relates the rate of adsorption to the potential difference between the activated carbon surface and the electrolyte. This model for the hydrogen storage electrode is then incorporated into a more general computer model based on MATLAB software of the entire electrochemical cell including the oxygen electrode. Hence a theoretical voltage-current curve is generated for given input parameters for a particular activated carbon electrode. It is shown that theoretical VI curves produced by the model can be fitted accurately to experimental data from an actual electrochemical cell with the same characteristics. By obtaining the best-fit values of input parameters, such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient for the hydrogen adsorption reaction, an improved understanding of the adsorption reaction is obtained. This new model will assist in designing improved proton flow batteries for storing solar and wind energy.

Keywords: electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, butler-volmer equation, activated carbon

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6621 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Selected Activated Carbon Electrodes Made from Brown Coal

Authors: Amandeep Singh Oberoi, John Andrews, Alan L. Chaffee, Lachlan Ciddor


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Activated carbons with high internal surface area, high pore volume, light weight and easy availability have attracted considerable research interest as a solid-state hydrogen storage medium. This paper compares the physical characteristics and hydrogen storage capacities of four activated carbon electrodes made by different methods from brown coal. The fabrication methods for these samples are explained. Their proton conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their hydrogen storage capacity by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a three-electrode electrolytic cell with 1 mol sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The highest hydrogen storage capacity obtained was 1.29 wt%, which compares favourably with metal hydrides used in commercially available solid-state hydrogen storages. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples increased monotonically with increasing BET surface area (calculated from CO2 adsorption method). The results point the way towards selecting high-performing electrodes for proton flow batteries that the competitiveness of this energy storage technology.

Keywords: activated carbon, electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, proton conductivity

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6620 Strategic Analysis of Energy and Impact Assessment of Microalgae Based Biodiesel and Biogas Production in Outdoor Raceway Pond: A Life Cycle Perspective

Authors: T. Sarat Chandra, M. Maneesh Kumar, S. N. Mudliar, V. S. Chauhan, S. Mukherji, R. Sarada


The life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel production from freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in open raceway pond is performed. Various scenarios for biodiesel production were simulated using primary and secondary data. The parameters varied in the modelled scenarios were related to biomass productivity, mode of culture mixing and type of energy source. The process steps included algae cultivation in open raceway ponds, harvesting by chemical flocculation, dewatering by mechanical drying option (MDO) followed by extraction, reaction and purification. Anaerobic digestion of defatted algal biomass (DAB) for biogas generation is considered as a co-product allocation and the energy derived from DAB was thereby used in the upstream of the process. The scenarios were analysed for energy demand, emissions and environmental impacts within the boundary conditions grounded on "cradle to gate" inventory. Across all the Scenarios, cultivation via raceway pond was observed to be energy intensive process. The mode of culture mixing and biomass productivity determined the energy requirements of the cultivation step. Emissions to Freshwater were found to be maximum contributing to 93-97% of total emissions in all the scenarios. Global warming potential (GWP) was the found to be major environmental impact accounting to about 99% of total environmental impacts in all the modelled scenarios. It was noticed that overall emissions and impacts were directly related to energy demand and an inverse relationship was observed with biomass productivity. The geographic location of an energy source affected the environmental impact of a given process. The integration of defatted algal remnants derived electricity with the cultivation system resulted in a 2% reduction in overall energy demand. Direct biogas generation from microalgae post harvesting is also analysed. Energy surplus was observed after using part of the energy in upstream for biomass production. Results suggest biogas production from microalgae post harvesting as an environmentally viable and sustainable option compared to biodiesel production.

Keywords: biomass productivity, energy demand, energy source, Lifecycle Assessment (LCA), microalgae, open raceway pond

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