Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Muzaffar Ali

9 Revolution and Political Opposition in Contemporary Arabic Poetry: A Thematic Study of Two Poems by Muzaffar Al-Nawwab

Authors: Nasser Y. Athamneh

Abstract:

Muzaffar al-Nawwab (1934--) is a modern Iraqi poet, critic, and painter, well-known to Arab youth of the second half of the 20th century for his revolutionary spirit and political activism. For the greater part of his relatively long life, al-Nawwab was wanted 'dead or alive,' so to speak, by most of the Arab regimes and authorities due to his scathing, and at times unsparingly obscene attacks on them. Hence it is that the Arab masses found in his poetry the rebellious expression of their own anger and frustration, stifled by fear for their physical safety. Thus, al-Nawwab’s contemporary Arab audience loved and embraced him both as an Arab exile and as a poet. They memorized and celebrated his poems and transmitted them secretly by word of mouth and on compact cassette tapes. He himself recited his own poetry and had it recorded on compact cassette tapes for fans to smuggle from one Arab country to the other. The themes of al-Nawwab’s poems are varied, but the most predominant among them is political opposition. In most of his poems, al-Nawwab takes up politics as the major theme. Yet, he often represents it coupled with the leitmotifs of women and wine. Indeed he oscillates almost systematically between political commitment to the revolutionary cause of the masses of his nation and homeland on the one hand and love for women and wine on the other. For the persona in al-Nawwab’s poetry, love-longing for the woman and devotion to the cause of revolution and Pan-Arabism are interrelated; each of them readily evokes the other. In this paper, an attempt is made at investigating the treatment and representation of the theme of revolution and political opposition in some of al-Nawwab’s poems. This investigation will be conducted through close reading and textual analysis of representative sections of the poetic texts under consideration in the paper. The primary texts for the study are selected passages from two representative poems, namely, 'The Night Song of the Bow Strings' (Watariyyaat Layliyyah) and 'In Wine and Sorrow My Heart [Is Immersed]' (bil-khamri wa bil-huzni fu’aady). Other poems and extracts from al-Nawwab’s poetic works will be drawn upon as secondary texts to clarify the arguments in the paper and support its thesis. The discussions and textual analysis of the texts under consideration are meant to show that revolution and undaunted political opposition is a predominant theme in al-Nawwab’s poetry, often represented through the use of the leitmotifs of women and wine.

Keywords: Arabic poetry, Muzaffar al-Nawwab, politics, revolution

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8 Relationship Quality, Value Creation Practices and Brand Loyalty in Virtual Communities: Evidence from Facebook Communities

Authors: Zoya Khan, Amina Muzaffar

Abstract:

Social media based brand communities are communities that are developed around a brand. In the highly globalized world of today, Facebook is undoubtedly being regarded and has been widely recognized as a trendy and well-accepted medium of marketing. By means of a Facebook fan page, organizations can effectually create, enhance, and sustain customer-brand relationship. In this article, we explore whether brand communities based on social media (a special type of online brand communities) have positive effects on the main community elements and value creation practices in the communities as well as on brand trust and brand loyalty. A survey was conducted and 201 valid responses were used for analysis. The results of structural equation modeling show that brand communities established on social media have positive effects on value creation practices. Brand use, impression management practices and brand identification has an impact on brand trust and this brand trust then further leads to brand loyalty.

Keywords: relationship quality, impression management practices, brand identification, brand trust, brand loyalty

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7 Gender Difference in the Use of Request Strategies by Urdu/Punjabi Native Speakers

Authors: Muzaffar Hussain

Abstract:

Requests strategies are considered as a part of the speech acts, which are frequently used in everyday communication. Each language provides speech acts to the speakers; therefore, the selection of appropriate form seems more culture-specific rather than language. The present paper investigates the gender-based difference in the use of request strategies by native speakers of Urdu/Punjabi male and female who are learning English as a second language. The data for the present study were collected from 68 graduate students, who are learning English as an L2 in Pakistan. They were given an online close-ended questionnaire, based on Discourse Completion Test (DCT). After analyzing the data, it was found that the L1 male Urdu/Punjabi speakers were inclined to use more direct request strategies while the female Urdu/Punjabi speakers used indirect request strategies. This paper also found that in some situations female participants used more direct strategies than male participants. The present study concludes that the use of request strategies is influenced by culture, social status, and power distribution in a society.

Keywords: gender variation, request strategies, face-threatening, second language pragmatics, language competence

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6 Impact Analysis of Cultivation of Jatropha Tree on Fuel Prices and Environment

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Muzaffar Ali, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

Globally transportation sector accounts for around 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed. Therefore, new energy sources are required to introduce for this huge demand replenishment of depleting conventional energy sources. Currently, biofuels such as Jatropha trees as an energy carrier for transportation sector are being utilized effectively round the globe. However, climate conditions at low altitudes with an average annual temperature above 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall of 300-1000mm are considered the most suitable environment for the efficient growth of Jatropha trees. The current study is providing a theoretical survey-based analysis to investigate the effect of rate of cultivation of jatropha trees on the reduction of fuel prices and its environmental benefits. The resulted study shows that jatropha tree’s 100 kg seeds give 80kg oil and the conversion process cost is very small as 890 PKR. Moreover, the extraction of oil from Jatropha tree is tax-free compared to other fuels. The analysis proved very essential for potential assessment of Jatropha regarding future energy fuel for transportation sector at global level. Additionally, it can be very beneficial for increment in the total amount of transportation fuel in Pakistan.

Keywords: jatropha tree, environmental impact, energy contents, theoretical survey

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5 A Validated UPLC-MS/MS Assay Using Negative Ionization Mode for High-Throughput Determination of Pomalidomide in Rat Plasma

Authors: Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A. Al-Rashood

Abstract:

Pomalidomide is a second generation oral immunomodulatory agent, being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients with disease refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide in rat plasma using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Liquid liquid extraction using dichloromethane as extracting agent was employed to extract pomalidomide and IS from 200 µL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried on Acquity BEHTM C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile:10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min. Both pomalidomide and IS were eluted at 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 min, respectively with a total run time of 1.5 min only. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 272.01 → 160.89 for pomalidomide and m/z 380.08 → 316.01 for IS were used to quantify them respectively, using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated according to regulatory guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The linearity in plasma sample was achieved in the concentration range of 0.47–400 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.997). The intra and inter-day precision values were ≤ 11.1% (RSD, %) whereas accuracy values ranged from - 6.8 – 8.5% (RE, %). In addition, other validation results were within the acceptance criteria and the method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of pomalidomide in rats.

Keywords: pomalidomide, pharmacokinetics, LC-MS/MS, celecoxib

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4 Modeling and Simulating Drop Interactions in Spray Structure of High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Muzaffar Ali

Abstract:

Fuel direct injection represents one of the key aspects in the development of the diesel engines, the idea of controlling the auto-ignition and the consequent combustion of a liquid spray injected in a reacting atmosphere during a time scale of few milliseconds has been a challenging task for the engine community and pushed forward to a massive research in this field. The quality of the air-fuel mixture defines the combustion efficiency, and therefore the engine efficiency. A droplet interaction in dense as well as thin portion of the spray receives equal importance as other parameters in spray structure. Usually, these are modeled along with breakup process and analyzed alike. In this paper, droplet interaction is modeled and simulated for high torque low speed scenario. Droplet interactions may further be subdivided into droplet collision and coalescence, spray wall impingement, droplets drag, etc. Droplet collisions may occur in almost all spray applications, but especially in diesel like conditions such as high pressure sprays as utilized in combustion engines. These collisions have a strong influence on the mean droplet size and its spatial distribution and can, therefore, affect sub-processes of spray combustion such as mass, momentum and energy transfer between gas and droplets. Similarly, for high-pressure injection systems spray wall impingement is an inherent sub-process of mixture formation. However, its influence on combustion is in-explicit.

Keywords: droplet collision, coalescence, low speed, diesel fuel

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3 An Assessment into Impact of Regional Conflicts upon Socio-Political Sustainability in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Muhammad Muzaffar Abbas

Abstract:

Conflicts in Pakistan are a result of a configuration of factors, which are directly related to the system of the state, the unstable regional setting, and the geo-strategic location of Pakistan at large. This paper examines the impact of regional conflict onto the socio-political sustainability of Pakistan. The magnitude of the spillover from a conflicted region is similar in size of the equivalent increase in domestic conflict. Pakistan has gone at war three times with India; the border with India is named as the tensest borderlines of the world. Disagreements with India and lack of dispute settlement mechanisms have negatively effected the peace in the region, influx of illegal weapons and refugees from Afghanistan as an outcome of 9/11 incidence, have exasperated the criticality of levels of internal conflict in Pakistan. Our empirical findings are based on the data collected on regional conflict levels, regional trade, global trade, comparative defence capabilities of the region in contrast to Pakistan and the government regime (Autocratic, Democratic) over 1972-2007. It has been proposed in this paper that the intent of domestic conflict is associated with the conflict in the region, regional trade, global trade and the government regime of Pakistan. The estimated model (OLS) implies that domestic conflict is effected positively and significantly with long term impact of conflict in the region. Also, if defence capabilities of the region are better than that of Pakistan it effects domestic conflict positively and significantly. Conflict in neighbouring countries are found as a source of domestic conflict in Pakistan, whereas the regional trade as well as type of government regimes in Pakistan lowered the intensity of domestic conflict significantly, while globalized trade imply risk of domestic conflict to be reduced but not significantly.

Keywords: conflict, regional trade, socio-politcal instability

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2 Exploring Nature and Pattern of Mentoring Practices: A Study on Mentees' Perspectives

Authors: Nahid Parween Anwar, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Takbir Ali

Abstract:

Mentoring is a structured activity which is designed to facilitate engagement between mentor and mentee to enhance mentee’s professional capability as an effective teacher. Both mentor and mentee are important elements of the ‘mentoring equation’ and play important roles in nourishing this dynamic, collaborative and reciprocal relationship. Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme (CBMP) provides an indigenous example of a project which focused on development of primary school teachers in selected clusters with a particular focus on their classroom practice. A study was designed to examine the efficacy of CBMP as part of Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan (STEP) project. This paper presents results of one of the components of this study. As part of the larger study, a cross-sectional survey was employed to explore nature and patterns of mentoring process from mentees’ perspectives in the selected districts of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper focuses on the results of the study related to the question: What are mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ support for enhancing their classroom practice during mentoring process? Data were collected from mentees (n=1148) using a 5-point scale -‘Mentoring for Effective Primary Teaching’ (MEPT). MEPT focuses on seven factors of mentoring: personal attributes, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, feedback, system requirement, development and use of material, and gender equality. Data were analysed using SPSS 20. Mentees perceptions of mentoring practice of their mentors were summarized using mean and standard deviation. Results showed that mean scale scores on mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices fell between 3.58 (system requirement) and 4.55 (personal attributes). Mentees’ perceives personal attribute of the mentor as the most significant factor (M=4.55) towards streamlining mentoring process by building good relationship between mentor and mentees. Furthermore, mentees have shared positive views about their mentors efforts towards promoting gender impartiality (M=4.54) during workshop and follow up visit. Contrary to this, mentees felt that more could have been done by their mentors in sharing knowledge about system requirement (e.g. school policies, national curriculum). Furthermore, some of the aspects in high scoring factors were highlighted by the mentees as areas for further improvement (e.g. assistance in timetabling, written feedback, encouragement to develop learning corners). Mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices may assist in determining mentoring needs. The results may prove useful for the professional development programme for the mentors and mentees for specific mentoring programme in order to enhance practices in primary classrooms in Pakistan. Results would contribute into the body of much-needed knowledge from developing context.

Keywords: cluster-based mentoring programme, mentoring for effective primary teaching (MEPT), professional development, survey

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1 Use of Analytic Hierarchy Process for Plant Site Selection

Authors: Muzaffar Shaikh, Shoaib Shaikh, Mark Moyou, Gaby Hawat

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in evaluating the site selection of a new plant by a corporation. Due to intense competition at a global level, multinational corporations are continuously striving to minimize production and shipping costs of their products. One key factor that plays significant role in cost minimization is where the production plant is located. In the U.S. for example, labor and land costs continue to be very high while they are much cheaper in countries such as India, China, Indonesia, etc. This is why many multinational U.S. corporations (e.g. General Electric, Caterpillar Inc., Ford, General Motors, etc.), have shifted their manufacturing plants outside. The continued expansion of the Internet and its availability along with technological advances in computer hardware and software all around the globe have facilitated U.S. corporations to expand abroad as they seek to reduce production cost. In particular, management of multinational corporations is constantly engaged in concentrating on countries at a broad level, or cities within specific countries where certain or all parts of their end products or the end products themselves can be manufactured cheaper than in the U.S. AHP is based on preference ratings of a specific decision maker who can be the Chief Operating Officer of a company or his/her designated data analytics engineer. It serves as a tool to first evaluate the plant site selection criteria and second, alternate plant sites themselves against these criteria in a systematic manner. Examples of site selection criteria are: Transportation Modes, Taxes, Energy Modes, Labor Force Availability, Labor Rates, Raw Material Availability, Political Stability, Land Costs, etc. As a necessary first step under AHP, evaluation criteria and alternate plant site countries are identified. Depending upon the fidelity of analysis, specific cities within a country can also be chosen as alternative facility locations. AHP experience in this type of analysis indicates that the initial analysis can be performed at the Country-level. Once a specific country is chosen via AHP, secondary analyses can be performed by selecting specific cities or counties within a country. AHP analysis is usually based on preferred ratings of a decision-maker (e.g., 1 to 5, 1 to 7, or 1 to 9, etc., where 1 means least preferred and a 5 means most preferred). The decision-maker assigns preferred ratings first, criterion vs. criterion and creates a Criteria Matrix. Next, he/she assigns preference ratings by alternative vs. alternative against each criterion. Once this data is collected, AHP is applied to first get the rank-ordering of criteria. Next, rank-ordering of alternatives is done against each criterion resulting in an Alternative Matrix. Finally, overall rank ordering of alternative facility locations is obtained by matrix multiplication of Alternative Matrix and Criteria Matrix. The most practical aspect of AHP is the ‘what if’ analysis that the decision-maker can conduct after the initial results to provide valuable sensitivity information of specific criteria to other criteria and alternatives.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, multinational corporations, plant site selection, preference ratings

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