Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 334

Search results for: distinguish

334 Directed-Wald Test for Distinguishing Long Memory and Nonlinearity Time Series: Power and Size Simulation

Authors: Heri Kuswanto, Philipp Sibbertsen, Irhamah


A Wald type test to distinguish between long memory and ESTAR nonlinearity has been developed. The test uses a directed-Wald statistic to overcome the problem of restricted parameters under the alternative. The test is derived from a model specification i.e. allows the transition parameter to appear as a nuisance parameter in the transition function. A simulation study has been conducted and it indicates that the approach leads a test with good size and power properties to distinguish between stationary long memory and ESTAR.

Keywords: directed-Wald test, ESTAR, long memory, distinguish

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333 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam


Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

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332 Basic Examination of Easily Distinguishable Tactile Symbols Attached to Containers and Packaging

Authors: T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa, T. Wada


In Japan, it is expected that reasonable accommodation for persons with disabilities will progress further. In particular, there is an urgent need to enhance information support for visually impaired persons who have difficulty accessing information. Recently, tactile symbols have been attached to various surfaces, such as the content labels of containers and packaging of various everyday products. The advantage of tactile symbols is that they are useful for visually impaired persons who cannot read Braille. The method of displaying tactile symbols is prescribed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, the quantitative data on the shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols is insufficient. In this study, through an evaluation experiments, we examine the easy-to-distinguish shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols used for various applications, including the content labels on containers and packaging. Visually impaired persons participated in the experiments. They used tactile symbols on a daily basis. The details and processes of the experiments were orally explained to the participants prior to the experiments, and the informed consent of the participants was obtained. They were instructed to touch the test pieces of tactile symbols freely with both hands. These tactile symbols were selected because they were likely to be easily distinguishable symbols on the content labels of top surfaces of containers and packaging based on a hearing survey that involved employees of an organization of visually impaired and a social welfare corporation, as well as academic experts of support technology for visually impaired. The participants then answered questions related to ease of distinguishing of tactile symbols on a scale of 5 (where 1 corresponded to ‘difficult to distinguish’ and 5 corresponded to ‘easy to distinguish’). Hearing surveys were also performed in an oral free answer manner with the participants after the experiments. This study revealed the shapes and dimensions regarding easily distinguishable tactile symbols attached to containers and packaging. We expect that this knowledge contributes to improvement of the quality of life of visually impaired persons.

Keywords: visual impairment, accessible design, tactile symbol, containers and packaging

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331 Analysis of Linguistic Disfluencies in Bilingual Children’s Discourse

Authors: Sheena Christabel Pravin, M. Palanivelan


Speech disfluencies are common in spontaneous speech. The primary purpose of this study was to distinguish linguistic disfluencies from stuttering disfluencies in bilingual Tamil–English (TE) speaking children. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluencies are mediated by native language dominance and/or on an early onset of developmental stuttering at childhood. A detailed study was carried out to identify the prosodic and acoustic features that uniquely represent the disfluent regions of speech. This paper focuses on statistical modeling of repetitions, prolongations, pauses and interjections in the speech corpus encompassing bilingual spontaneous utterances from school going children – English and Tamil. Two classifiers including Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network, were compared in the classification of disfluencies. The results of the classifiers document the patterns of disfluency in spontaneous speech samples of school-aged children to distinguish between Children Who Stutter (CWS) and Children with Language Impairment CLI). The ability of the models in classifying the disfluencies was measured in terms of F-measure, Recall, and Precision.

Keywords: bi-lingual, children who stutter, children with language impairment, hidden markov models, multi-layer perceptron, linguistic disfluencies, stuttering disfluencies

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330 Heroin and Opiates Metabolites Tracing by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Yao-Te Yen, Chao-Hsin Cheng, Meng-Shun Huang, Shan-Zong Cyue


'Poppy-seed defense' has been a serious problem all over the world, that is because the opiates metabolites in urine are difficult to distinguish where they come from precisely. In this research, a powerful analytic method has been developed to trace the opiates metabolites in urine by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In order to eliminate the interference of synthesis to heroin or metabolism through human body, opiates metabolites in urine and sized heroin were hydrolyzed to morphine. Morphine is the key compound for tracing between opiates metabolites and seized heroin in this research. By matching δ13C and δ15N values through morphine, it is successful to distinguish the opiates metabolites coming from heroin or medicine. We tested seven heroin abuser’s metabolites and seized heroin in crime sites, the result showed that opiates metabolites coming from seized heroin, the variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are within 0.2 and 2.5‰, respectively. The variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are reasonable with the result of matrix match experiments. Above all, the uncertainty of 'Poppy-seed defense' can be solved easily by this analytic method, it provides the direct evidence for judge to make accurate conviction without hesitation.

Keywords: poppy-seed defense, heroin, opiates metabolites, isotope ratio mass spectrometry

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329 An Exploratory Research of Human Character Analysis Based on Smart Watch Data: Distinguish the Drinking State from Normal State

Authors: Lu Zhao, Yanrong Kang, Lili Guo, Yuan Long, Guidong Xing


Smart watches, as a handy device with rich functionality, has become one of the most popular wearable devices all over the world. Among the various function, the most basic is health monitoring. The monitoring data can be provided as an effective evidence or a clue for the detection of crime cases. For instance, the step counting data can help to determine whether the watch wearer was quiet or moving during the given time period. There is, however, still quite few research on the analysis of human character based on these data. The purpose of this research is to analyze the health monitoring data to distinguish the drinking state from normal state. The analysis result may play a role in cases involving drinking, such as drunk driving. The experiment mainly focused on finding the figures of smart watch health monitoring data that change with drinking and figuring up the change scope. The chosen subjects are mostly in their 20s, each of whom had been wearing the same smart watch for a week. Each subject drank for several times during the week, and noted down the begin and end time point of the drinking. The researcher, then, extracted and analyzed the health monitoring data from the watch. According to the descriptive statistics analysis, it can be found that the heart rate change when drinking. The average heart rate is about 10% higher than normal, the coefficient of variation is less than about 30% of the normal state. Though more research is needed to be carried out, this experiment and analysis provide a thought of the application of the data from smart watches.

Keywords: character analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, drink state, heart rate, smart watch

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328 Automatic Detection of Traffic Stop Locations Using GPS Data

Authors: Areej Salaymeh, Loren Schwiebert, Stephen Remias, Jonathan Waddell


Extracting information from new data sources has emerged as a crucial task in many traffic planning processes, such as identifying traffic patterns, route planning, traffic forecasting, and locating infrastructure improvements. Given the advanced technologies used to collect Global Positioning System (GPS) data from dedicated GPS devices, GPS equipped phones, and navigation tools, intelligent data analysis methodologies are necessary to mine this raw data. In this research, an automatic detection framework is proposed to help identify and classify the locations of stopped GPS waypoints into two main categories: signalized intersections or highway congestion. The Delaunay triangulation is used to perform this assessment in the clustering phase. While most of the existing clustering algorithms need assumptions about the data distribution, the effectiveness of the Delaunay triangulation relies on triangulating geographical data points without such assumptions. Our proposed method starts by cleaning noise from the data and normalizing it. Next, the framework will identify stoppage points by calculating the traveled distance. The last step is to use clustering to form groups of waypoints for signalized traffic and highway congestion. Next, a binary classifier was applied to find distinguish highway congestion from signalized stop points. The binary classifier uses the length of the cluster to find congestion. The proposed framework shows high accuracy for identifying the stop positions and congestion points in around 99.2% of trials. We show that it is possible, using limited GPS data, to distinguish with high accuracy.

Keywords: Delaunay triangulation, clustering, intelligent transportation systems, GPS data

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327 Radar Track-based Classification of Birds and UAVs

Authors: Altilio Rosa, Chirico Francesco, Foglia Goffredo


In recent years, the number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has significantly increased. The rapid development of commercial and recreational drones makes them an important part of our society. Despite the growing list of their applications, these vehicles pose a huge threat to civil and military installations: detection, classification and neutralization of such flying objects become an urgent need. Radar is an effective remote sensing tool for detecting and tracking flying objects, but scenarios characterized by the presence of a high number of tracks related to flying birds make especially challenging the drone detection task: operator PPI is cluttered with a huge number of potential threats and his reaction time can be severely affected. Flying birds compared to UAVs show similar velocity, RADAR cross-section and, in general, similar characteristics. Building from the absence of a single feature that is able to distinguish UAVs and birds, this paper uses a multiple features approach where an original feature selection technique is developed to feed binary classifiers trained to distinguish birds and UAVs. RADAR tracks acquired on the field and related to different UAVs and birds performing various trajectories were used to extract specifically designed target movement-related features based on velocity, trajectory and signal strength. An optimization strategy based on a genetic algorithm is also introduced to select the optimal subset of features and to estimate the performance of several classification algorithms (Neural network, SVM, Logistic regression…) both in terms of the number of selected features and misclassification error. Results show that the proposed methods are able to reduce the dimension of the data space and to remove almost all non-drone false targets with a suitable classification accuracy (higher than 95%).

Keywords: birds, classification, machine learning, UAVs

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326 Disentangling the Relationship between Sustainable Consumption and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Isabel Carrero, Raquel Redondo, Carmen Valor


An unclosed issue in sustainable consumption (SC) literature is the relationship between SC and well-being. This paper seeks to address three limitations in past research. First, well-being has been measured as a single-faceted construct. However, other authors have defended the need to broaden the well-being construct since it goes beyond the emotional experiences and life satisfaction. By examining the relationship between SC and the multifaceted construct of psychological well-being, past contradictory results may be reconciled. To illustrate, past studies have shown that sustainable consumers experience negative emotions when they become aware of the harm that human beings inflict on the planet but they realize they have limited power to solving the problem or when they find limited alternatives or useful information to make sustainable decisions. Thus, these experiences may negatively affect the dimension of well-being 'environmental mastery'. However, as past studies have demonstrated that sustainable consumers feel meaningful, their assessment of the dimension 'purpose in life' would be positive. Thus, we need to understand how SC impinge on the different facets of psychological well-being, in order to better understand the relationship between SC and well-being. Another limitation of past research is that most studies failed to distinguish among different pro-environmental actions under SC (i.e., boycotting, buycotting) among others. For instance, activists have been found to experience higher levels of well-being and sense of meaning than less committed sustainable consumers but also burnt-out and social rejection, which should affect negatively the dimension of 'positive relations'. Finally, the influence of gender has been overlooked in the literature of SC and well-being when it has been identified consistently as a moderator variable in SC. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the effect of SC on the six facets of psychological well-being, (2) distinguish between conventional SC behaviors vs. activism to examine whether these behaviors influence psychological well-being differently (3) and test gender as a moderator variable. It does so by surveying 861 individuals. This paper contributes to existing literature by showing that the relationship between well-being and SC is more intricate than it has been presented in previous literature, as it depends on the facet, the type of behavior carried out and gender.

Keywords: activism, gender, psychological well-being, structural equation modelling, sustainable consumption

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325 E-Commerce versus m-Commerce: The Dividing Line

Authors: Priscilla Omonedo, Paul Bocij


Since the emergence of e-commerce, the world of business has witnessed a radical shift in the way business activities are conducted. However, the emergence of m-Commerce has further pushed the boundaries of virtual commerce revolution. As a result, there seems to be a growing blur in the distinction between e-Commerce and m-Commerce. In addition, existing definitions for both forms of commerce highlight characteristics (e.g. type of device and activity conducted) that may be applicable to both concepts. The aim of this paper is to identify the characteristics that help define and delineate between e- and m- Commerce. The paper concludes that characteristics of mobility, ubiquity, and immediacy provides a clearer and simpler template to distinguish between e-commerce and m-commerce.

Keywords: e-commerce, m-commerce, mobility, ubiquity

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324 Delusive versus Genuine Needs: Examining Human Needs within the Islamic Framework of Orbit of Needs

Authors: Abdolmoghset Banikamal


This study looks at the issue of human needs from Islamic perspectives. The key objective of the study is to contribute in regulating the persuasion of needs. It argues that all needs are not necessarily genuine, rather a significant part of them are delusive. To distinguish genuine needs from delusive ones, the study suggests looking at the purpose of the persuasion of that particular need as a key criterion. In doing so, the paper comes with a model namely Orbit of Needs. The orbit has four circles. The central one is a necessity, followed by comfort, beautification, and exhibition. According to the model, all those needs that fall into one of the first three circles in terms of purpose are genuine, while any need which falls into the fourth circle is delusive.

Keywords: desire, human need, Islam, orbit of needs

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323 Corneal Confocal Microscopy As a Surrogate Marker of Neuronal Pathology In Schizophrenia

Authors: Peter W. Woodruff, Georgios Ponirakis, Reem Ibrahim, Amani Ahmed, Hoda Gad, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Surjith Vattoth, Mahmoud K. M. Alshawwaf, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Marwan Ramadan, Anjushri Bhagat, James Currie, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hanadi Al Hamad, Ahmed Own, Peter Haddad, Majid Alabdulla, Rayaz A. Malik


Introduction:- We aimed to test the hypothesis that, using corneal confocal microscopy (a non-invasive method for assessing corneal nerve fibre integrity), patients with schizophrenia would show neuronal abnormalities compared with healthy participants. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental and progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which there are no validated biomarkers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging biomarker that can be used to detect neuronal abnormalities in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Methods:- Patients with schizophrenia (DSM-V criteria) without other causes of peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls underwent CCM, vibration perception threshold (VPT) and sudomotor function testing. The diagnostic accuracy of CCM in distinguishing patients from controls was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characterstics (ROC) curve. Findings:- Participants with schizophrenia (n=17) and controls (n=38) with comparable age (35.7±8.5 vs 35.6±12.2, P=0.96) were recruited. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher body weight (93.9±25.5 vs 77.1±10.1, P=0.02), lower Low Density Lipoproteins (2.6±1.0 vs 3.4±0.7, P=0.02), but comparable systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and High Density Lipoproteins were comparable with control participants. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD, fibers/mm2) (23.5±7.8 vs 35.6±6.5, p<0.0001), branch density (CNBD, branches/mm2) (34.4±26.9 vs 98.1±30.6, p<0.0001), and fiber length (CNFL, mm/mm2) (14.3±4.7 vs 24.2±3.9, p<0.0001) but no difference in VPT (6.1±3.1 vs 4.5±2.8, p=0.12) and electrochemical skin conductance (61.0±24.0 vs 68.9±12.3, p=0.23) compared with controls. The diagnostic accuracy of CNFD, CNBD and CNFL to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls were, according to the AUC, (95% CI): 87.0% (76.8-98.2), 93.2% (84.2-102.3), 93.2% (84.4-102.1), respectively. Conclusion:- In conclusion, CCM can be used to help identify neuronal changes and has a high diagnostic accuracy to distinguish subjects with schizophrenia from healthy controls.


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322 Toward Subtle Change Detection and Quantification in Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging

Authors: Mohammad Esmaeilpour


One of the important open problems in the field of medical image processing is detection and quantification of small changes. In this poster, we try to investigate that, how the algebraic decomposition techniques can be used for semiautomatically detecting and quantifying subtle changes in Magnetic Resonance (MR) neuroimaging volumes. We mostly focus on the low-rank values of the matrices achieved from decomposing MR image pairs during a period of time. Besides, a skillful neuroradiologist will help the algorithm to distinguish between noises and small changes.

Keywords: magnetic resonance neuroimaging, subtle change detection and quantification, algebraic decomposition, basis functions

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321 2L1, a Bridge between L1 and L2

Authors: Elena Ginghina


There are two major categories of language acquisition: first and second language acquisition, which distinguish themselves in their learning process and in their ultimate attainment. However, in the case of a bilingual child, one of the languages he grows up with receives gradually the features of a second language. This phenomenon characterizes the successive first language acquisition, when the initial state of the child is already marked by another language. Nevertheless, the dominance of the languages can change throughout the life, if the exposure to language and the quality of the input are better in 2L1. Related to the exposure to language and the quality of the input, there are cases even at the simultaneous bilingualism, where the two languages although learned from birth one, differ from one another at some point. This paper aims to see, what makes a 2L1 to become a second language and under what circumstances can a L2 learner reach a native or a near native speaker level.

Keywords: bilingualism, first language acquisition, native speakers of German, second language acquisition

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320 Is There a Group of "Digital Natives" at Secondary Schools?

Authors: L. Janská, J. Kubrický


The article describes a research focused on the influence of the information and communication technology (ICT) on the pupils' learning. The investigation deals with the influences that distinguish between the group of pupils influenced by ICT and the group of pupils not influenced by ICT. The group influenced by ICT should evince a different approach in number of areas (in managing of two and more activities at once, in a quick orientation and searching for information on the Internet, in an ability to quickly and effectively assess the data sources, in the assessment of attitudes and opinions of the other users of the network, in critical thinking, in the preference to work in teams, in the sharing of information and personal data via the virtual social networking, in insisting on the immediate reaction on their every action etc.).

Keywords: ICT influence, digital natives, pupil´s learning

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319 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind: Applying to the part of the Tokyo Subway Map

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa


This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: color-blind, JPEG, monochrome image, denoise

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318 Counting People Utilizing Space-Time Imagery

Authors: Ahmed Elmarhomy, K. Terada


An automated method for counting passerby has been proposed using virtual-vertical measurement lines. Space-time image is representing the human regions which are treated using the segmentation process. Different color space has been used to perform the template matching. A proper template matching has been achieved to determine direction and speed of passing people. Distinguish one or two passersby has been investigated using a correlation between passerby speed and the human-pixel area. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented method has been experimentally verified.

Keywords: counting people, measurement line, space-time image, segmentation, template matching

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317 An Efficient Clustering Technique for Copy-Paste Attack Detection

Authors: N. Chaitawittanun, M. Munlin


Due to rapid advancement of powerful image processing software, digital images are easy to manipulate and modify by ordinary people. Lots of digital images are edited for a specific purpose and more difficult to distinguish form their original ones. We propose a clustering method to detect a copy-move image forgery of JPEG, BMP, TIFF, and PNG. The process starts with reducing the color of the photos. Then, we use the clustering technique to divide information of measuring data by Hausdorff Distance. The result shows that the purposed methods is capable of inspecting the image file and correctly identify the forgery.

Keywords: image detection, forgery image, copy-paste, attack detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
316 Ethic Society of Tengger Tribe in Indonesia as a Nation Strength to Make Good Character to Advance Country

Authors: Dwi Yulian Fahruddin Shah, Salman Al Farizi, Elyada Ahastari Liunome


Indonesia is a multicultural society. A wide variety of arts and culture spread throughout in all of part of Indonesia with natural appearance will cause the social behavior differentiation. Similarly, with Tengger people's lives also have different social behaviors that distinguish them from other ethnic groups spread across the Indonesian archipelago. Tengger tribe has an appropriate ethic to build nation character. If all the people of Indonesia who heterogeneous and multicultural can understand, and follow the example of ethical behavior of Tengger tribe, it will be a force in the development of the character of the nation in this modern and globalization era.

Keywords: Tengger tribe, national character, ethics society, Indonesia

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315 Identification of a Panel of Epigenetic Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Blood of Individuals with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Katarzyna Lubecka, Kirsty Flower, Megan Beetch, Lucinda Kurzava, Hannah Buvala, Samer Gawrieh, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Tracy Gonzalez, George McCabe, Naga Chalasani, James M. Flanagan, Barbara Stefanska


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent type of primary liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Late onset of clinical symptoms in HCC results in late diagnosis and poor disease outcome. Approximately 85% of individuals with HCC have underlying liver cirrhosis. However, not all cirrhotic patients develop cancer. Reliable early detection biomarkers that can distinguish cirrhotic patients who will develop cancer from those who will not are urgently needed and could increase the cure rate from 5% to 80%. We used Illumina-450K microarray to test whether blood DNA, an easily accessible source of DNA, bear site-specific changes in DNA methylation in response to HCC before diagnosis with conventional tools (pre-diagnostic). Top 11 differentially methylated sites were selected for validation by pyrosequencing. The diagnostic potential of the 11 pyrosequenced probes was tested in blood samples from a prospective cohort of cirrhotic patients. We identified 971 differentially methylated CpG sites in pre-diagnostic HCC cases as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, paired Wilcoxon test, ICC ≥ 0.5). Nearly 76% of differentially methylated CpG sites showed lower levels of methylation in cases vs. controls (P = 2.973E-11, Wilcoxon test). Classification of the CpG sites according to their location relative to CpG islands and transcription start site revealed that those hypomethylated loci are located in regulatory regions important for gene transcription such as CpG island shores, promoters, and 5’UTR at higher frequency than hypermethylated sites. Among 735 CpG sites hypomethylated in cases vs. controls, 482 sites were assigned to gene coding regions whereas 236 hypermethylated sites corresponded to 160 genes. Bioinformatics analysis using GO, KEGG and DAVID knowledgebase indicate that differentially methylated CpG sites are located in genes associated with functions that are essential for gene transcription, cell adhesion, cell migration, and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Taking into account the magnitude of the difference, statistical significance, location, and consistency across the majority of matched pairs case-control, we selected 11 CpG loci corresponding to 10 genes for further validation by pyrosequencing. We established that methylation of CpG sites within 5 out of those 10 genes distinguish cirrhotic patients who subsequently developed HCC from those who stayed cancer free (cirrhotic controls), demonstrating potential as biomarkers of early detection in populations at risk. The best predictive value was detected for CpGs located within BARD1 (AUC=0.70, asymptotic significance ˂0.01). Using an additive logistic regression model, we further showed that 9 CpG loci within those 5 genes, that were covered in pyrosequenced probes, constitute a panel with high diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.887; 95% CI:0.80-0.98). The panel was able to distinguish pre-diagnostic cases from cirrhotic controls free of cancer with 88% sensitivity at 70% specificity. Using blood as a minimally invasive material and pyrosequencing as a straightforward quantitative method, the established biomarker panel has high potential to be developed into a routine clinical test after validation in larger cohorts. This study was supported by Showalter Trust, American Cancer Society (IRG#14-190-56), and Purdue Center for Cancer Research (P30 CA023168) granted to BS.

Keywords: biomarker, DNA methylation, early detection, hepatocellular carcinoma

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314 Economic Characteristics of Bitcoin: "An Analytical Study"

Authors: Abdelhalem Shahen


The world is now experiencing a digital revolution and greatly accelerated technological developments, in addition to the transition from the economy in its traditional form to the digital economy, which has resulted in the emergence of new tools that are appropriate to those developments, and from this, this paper attempts to explore the economic characteristics of the bitcoin currency that circulated recently. Due to the many advantages that distinguish it from money in its traditional forms, which have a range of economic effects. The study found that Bitcoin is among the technological innovations, which contain a set of characteristics that are worth studying, those that make it the focus of attention, such as the digital currency, the peer-to-peer property, Lower and Faster Transaction Costs, transparency, decentralized control, privacy, and Double-Spending, as well as security and Cryptographic, and finally mining.

Keywords: Digital Economics, Digital Currencies, Bitcoin, Features of Bitcoin

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313 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: M. Y. Lee, D. H. Shin, S. H. Park, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song


Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, inflammation detection, rat, kidney, contrast agent, ultrasound

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312 Photoreflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Wells

Authors: J. V. Gonzalez Fernandez, T. Mozume, S. Gozu, A. Lastras Martinez, L. F. Lastras Martinez, J. Ortega Gallegos, R. E. Balderas Navarro


We report on a theoretical-experimental study of photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of coupled double quantum wells. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies, we demonstrate that PRA spectroscopy has the capacity to detect and distinguish layers with quantum dimensions. In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, we have used a theoretical model at k=0 based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain.

Keywords: coupled double quantum well (CDQW), linear electro-optic (LEO) effect, photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA), piezoelectric shear strain

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311 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres


This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

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310 Improving Capability of Detecting Impulsive Noise

Authors: Farbod Rohani, Elyar Ghafoori, Matin Saeedkondori


Impulse noise is electromagnetic emission which generated by many house hold appliances that are attached to the electrical network. The main difficulty of impulsive noise (IN) elimination process from communication channels is to distinguish it from the transmitted signal and more importantly choosing the proper threshold bandwidth in order to eliminate the signal. Because of wide band property of impulsive noise, we present a novel method for setting the detection threshold, by taking advantage of the fact that impulsive noise bandwidth is usually wider than that of typical communication channels and specifically OFDM channel. After IN detection procedure, we apply simple windowing mechanisms to eliminate them from the communication channel.

Keywords: impulsive noise, OFDM channel, threshold detecting, windowing mechanisms

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309 Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets

Authors: Si Chen, Caroline Wiltshire, Bin Li


This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.

Keywords: growth curve analysis, Mandarin Chinese, tone sandhi, underlying pitch target

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308 Non-Linear Causality Inference Using BAMLSS and Bi-CAM in Finance

Authors: Flora Babongo, Valerie Chavez


Inferring causality from observational data is one of the fundamental subjects, especially in quantitative finance. So far most of the papers analyze additive noise models with either linearity, nonlinearity or Gaussian noise. We fill in the gap by providing a nonlinear and non-gaussian causal multiplicative noise model that aims to distinguish the cause from the effect using a two steps method based on Bayesian additive models for location, scale and shape (BAMLSS) and on causal additive models (CAM). We have tested our method on simulated and real data and we reached an accuracy of 0.86 on average. As real data, we considered the causality between financial indices such as S&P 500, Nasdaq, CAC 40 and Nikkei, and companies' log-returns. Our results can be useful in inferring causality when the data is heteroskedastic or non-injective.

Keywords: causal inference, DAGs, BAMLSS, financial index

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307 Comparative Forensic Analysis of Lipsticks Using Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography

Authors: M. O. Ezegbogu, H. B. Osadolor


Lipsticks constitute a significant source of transfer evidence, and can, therefore, provide corroborative or inclusionary evidence in criminal investigation. This study aimed to determine the uniqueness and persistence of different lipstick smears using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), and Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID). In this study, we analysed lipstick smears retrieved from tea cups exposed to the environment for up to four weeks. The n-alkane content of each sample was determined using GC-FID, while TLC was used to determine the number of bands, and retention factor of each band per smear. This study shows that TLC gives more consistent results over a 4-week period than GC-FID. It also proposes a maximum exposure time of two weeks for the analysis of lipsticks left in the open using GC-FID. Finally, we conclude that neither TLC nor GC-FID can distinguish lipstick evidence recovered from hypothetical crime scenes.

Keywords: forensic science, chromatography, identification, lipstick

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306 Issue Reorganization Using the Measure of Relevance

Authors: William Wong Xiu Shun, Yoonjin Hyun, Mingyu Kim, Seongi Choi, Namgyu Kim


Recently, the demand of extracting the R&D keywords from the issues and using them in retrieving R&D information is increasing rapidly. But it is hard to identify the related issues or to distinguish them. Although the similarity between the issues cannot be identified, but with the R&D lexicon, the issues that always shared the same R&D keywords can be determined. In details, the R&D keywords that associated with particular issue is implied the key technology elements that needed to solve the problem of the particular issue. Furthermore, the related issues that sharing the same R&D keywords can be showed in a more systematic way through the issue clustering constructed from the perspective of R&D. Thus, sharing of the R&D result and reusable of the R&D technology can be facilitated. Indirectly, the redundancy of investment on the same R&D can be reduce as the R&D information can be shared between those corresponding issues and reusability of the related R&D can be improved. Therefore, a methodology of constructing an issue clustering from the perspective of common R&D keywords is proposed to satisfy the demands mentioned.

Keywords: clustering, social network analysis, text mining, topic analysis

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305 Italian Central Guarantee Fund: An Analysis of the Guaranteed SMEs’ Default Risk

Authors: M. C. Arcuri, L. Gai, F. Ielasi


Italian Central Guarantee Fund (CGF) has the purpose to facilitate Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)’ access to credit. The aim of the paper is to study the evaluation method adopted by the CGF with regard to SMEs requiring its intervention. This is even more important in the light of the recent CGF reform. We analyse an initial sample of more than 500.000 guarantees from 2012 to 2018. We distinguish between a counter-guarantee delivered to a mutual guarantee institution and a guarantee directly delivered to a bank. We investigate the impact of variables related to the operations and the SMEs on Altman Z’’-score and the score consistent with CGF methodology. We verify that the type of intervention affects the scores and the initial condition changes with the new assessment criterions. 

Keywords: banks, default risk, Italian guarantee fund, mutual guarantee institutions

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