Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 193

Search results for: disciplinary law

193 Disciplinary Problems among Adeyemi College of Education Students in the Ondo State of Nigeria

Authors: Akinyemi Olufunminiyi Akinbobola


This paper analytically discusses the disciplinary problems among Adeyemi College of Education Students in the Ondo State of Nigeria. The paper posits that the causes and types of disciplinary problems experienced by the students are determinacy of disciplinary measures to be taken. The study used a questionnaire titled: Disciplinary Problem Questionnaire (DPQ) to collect data. Five hundred (500) students were randomly sampled in the five schools in the college. The results showed that drug addiction, school curriculum, cultism, peer group influence, overcrowded classroom, political, social, and economic among others are disciplinary problems experienced in the study area. The study made recommendations on how to improve the situation.

Keywords: challenges in higher institutions, disciplinary problems, social vices, students’ indiscipline

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
192 Threshold Concepts in TESOL: A Thematic Analysis of Disciplinary Guiding Principles

Authors: Neil Morgan


The notion of Threshold Concepts has offered a fertile new perspective on the transformative effects of mastery of particular concepts on student understanding of subject matter and their developing identities as inductees into disciplinary discourse communities. Only by successfully traversing key knowledge thresholds, it is claimed, can neophytes gain access to the more sophisticated understandings of subject matter possessed by mature members of a discipline. This paper uses thematic analysis of disciplinary guiding principles to identify nine candidate Threshold Concepts that appear to underpin effective TESOL practice. The relationship between these candidate TESOL Threshold Concepts, TESOL principles, and TESOL instructional techniques appears to be amenable to a schematic representation based on superordinate categories of TESOL practitioner concern and, as such, offers an alternative to the view of Threshold Concepts as a privileged subset of disciplinary core concepts. The paper concludes by exploring the potential of a Threshold Concepts framework to productively inform TESOL initial teacher education (ITE) and in-service education and training (INSET).

Keywords: TESOL, threshold concepts, TESOL principles, TESOL ITE/INSET, community of practice

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191 A Reflective Investigation on the Course Design and Coaching Strategy for Creating a Trans-Disciplinary Leaning Environment

Authors: Min-Feng Hsieh


Nowadays, we are facing a highly competitive environment in which the situation for survival has come even more critical than ever before. The challenge we will be confronted with is no longer can be dealt with the single system of knowledge. The abilities we urgently need to acquire is something that can lead us to cross over the boundaries between different disciplines and take us to a neutral ground that gathers and integrates powers and intelligence that surrounds us. This paper aims at discussing how a trans-disciplinary design course organized by the College of Design at Chaoyang University can react to this modern challenge. By orchestrating an experimental course format and by developing a series of coaching strategies, a trans-disciplinary learning environment has been created and practiced in which students selected from five different departments, including Architecture, Interior Design, Visual Design, Industrial Design, Landscape and Urban Design, are encouraged to think outside their familiar knowledge pool and to learn with/from each other. In the course of implementing this program, a parallel research has been conducted alongside by adopting the theory and principles of Action Research which is a research methodology that can provide the course organizer emergent, responsive, action-oriented, participative and critically reflective insights for the immediate changes and amendments in order to improve the effect of teaching and learning experience. In the conclusion, how the learning and teaching experience of this trans-disciplinary design studio can offer us some observation that can help us reflect upon the constraints and division caused by the subject base curriculum will be pointed out. A series of concepts for course design and teaching strategies developed and implemented in this trans-disciplinary course are to be introduced as a way to promote learners’ self-motivated, collaborative, cross-disciplinary and student-centered learning skills. The outcome of this experimental course can exemplify an alternative approach that we could adopt in pursuing a remedy for dealing with the problematic issues of the current educational practice.

Keywords: course design, coaching strategy, subject base curriculum, trans-disciplinary

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190 Disciplinary Procedures Used by Secondary School Teachers in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

Authors: N. N. Nkomo, M. L. Mayanchi


The present study investigated various forms of disciplinary procedures or punishment used by teachers in secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Nigera. There are agitations amongst parents and educators on the use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure against children. Those against the use of corporal punishment argue that this form of punishment does not teach, it only terminates behaviour temporarily and inculcates violence. Those in support are of the view that corporal punishment serves as a deterrent to others. This study sought to find out the most common measure of discipline employed by teachers in private and public schools. The study had three objectives, three research questions and two hypotheses. The design of the present study was the ex-post facto descriptive survey, since variables under study were not manipulated by the researcher. Teachers in Calabar Municipal Secondary Schools formed the population. A sample of 160 teachers was used for the study. The data collection instrument was a facts finding questionnaire titled Disciplinary Procedures Inventory. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and chi-square. The major findings were that physical measures such as flogging, exercise/drills, and painful postures were commonly used by teachers in secondary schools. It was also found that these measures were more often used in public schools. It was recommended that teachers should rather employ non-violent techniques of discipline than physical punishment.

Keywords: discipline, non-violent punishment, physical punishment, penalties, rewards

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189 A Systems-Level Approach towards Transition to Electrical Vehicles

Authors: Mayuri Roy Choudhury, Deepti Paul


Many states in the United States are aiming for high renewable energy targets by the year 2045. In order to achieve this goal, they must do transition to Electrical Vehicles (EVS). We first applied the Multi-Level perspective framework to describe the inter-disciplinary complexities associated with the transition to EVs. Thereafter we addressed these complexities by creating an inter-disciplinary policy framework that uses data science algorithms to create evidence-based policies in favor of EVs. Our policy framework uses a systems level approach as it addresses transitions to EVs from a technology, economic, business and social perspective. By Systems-Level we mean approaching a problem from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Our systems-level approach could be a beneficial decision-making tool to a diverse number of stakeholders such as engineers, entrepreneurs, researchers, and policymakers. In addition, it will add value to the literature of electrical vehicles, sustainable energy, energy economics, and management as well as efficient policymaking.

Keywords: transition, electrical vehicles, systems-level, algorithms

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188 STEAM and Project-Based Learning: Equipping Young Women with 21st Century Skills

Authors: Sonia Saddiqui, Maya Marcus


UTS STEAMpunk Girls is an educational program for young women (aged 12-16), to empower them to be more informed and active members of the 21st century workforce. With the number of STEM graduates on the decline, especially among young women, an additional aim of the program is to trial a STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts/Humanities/Social Sciences, Mathematics), inter-disciplinary approach to improving STEM engagement. In-line with UNESCO’s recent focus on promoting ‘transversal competencies’ in future graduates, the program utilised co-design, project-based learning, entrepreneurial processes, and inter-disciplinary learning. The program consists of two phases. Taking a participatory design approach, the first phase (co-design workshops) provided valuable insight into student perspectives around engaging young women in STEM and inter-disciplinary thinking. The workshops positioned 26 young women from three schools as subject matter experts (SMEs), providing a platform for them to share their opinions, experiences and findings around the STEAM disciplines. The second (pilot) phase put the co-design phase findings into practice, with 64 students from four schools working in groups to articulate problems with real-world implications, and utilising design-thinking to solve them. The pilot phase utilised project-based learning to engage young women in entrepreneurial and STEAM frameworks and processes. Scalable program design and educational resources were trialed to determine appropriate mechanisms for engaging young women in STEM and in STEAM thinking. Across both phases, data was collected via longitudinal surveys to obtain pre-program, baseline attitudinal information, and compare that against post-program responses. Preliminary findings revealed students’ improved understanding of the STEM disciplines, industries and professions, improved awareness of STEAM as a concept, and improved understanding regarding inter-disciplinary and design thinking. Program outcomes will be of interest to high-school educators in both STEM and the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences fields, and will hopefully inform future programmatic approaches to introducing inter-disciplinary STEAM learning in STEM curriculum.

Keywords: co-design, STEM, STEAM, project-based learning, inter-disciplinary

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187 Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children

Authors: Bernardino Vinoya, Cassandra D. Batton, Samantha Gayle M. Bonavente, Johnson O. Canoza, Lhea Flynn B. Capones, Camille S. Dispo, Johanna Neilvin T. Dontogan, Louise Angelica C. Lipana, Charlene Pearl P. Navalta, Rechelle Vhen W. Payo-os, Mary Reyna D. Ridao, Rushnol Jade P. Tupac, Pauline B. Sol


Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.

Keywords: parents, disciplinary strategy, parental effects, pediatric nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
186 Combined Orthodontic and Restorative Management of Complex Cases: Concepts and Case Reports

Authors: Awais Ali, Hesham Ali


The absence of teeth through either premature loss or developmental absence is a common condition with potentially severe impact on affected individuals. Management of these cases presents a clinical challenge which may be difficult to resolve given the effects of tooth loss or hypodontia over the course of a patient’s lifetime. Treatment of such cases is often best provided by a multi-disciplinary team, where the patient’s expectations and care delivery can be optimally managed. Orthodontic treatment is often used to prepare the dentition in advance of restorative replacement of missing teeth. Conversely, the placement of implants may precede the delivery of orthodontic treatment and indeed may function as an adjunctive orthodontic procedure. We discuss the use of both approaches here and illustrate their clinical implementation with two case reports. The first case demonstrates the use of fixed appliances to prepare the mouth for an opposing implant-retained complete denture. A second case demonstrates the use of implant-retained crowns to provide orthodontic anchorage in a partially dentate patient. We propose that complex cases such as these should always be planned and treated by a multi-disciplinary team in order to optimise the delivery of care, patient experience, and treatment outcome. The presented cases add to the body of evidence in this area.

Keywords: orthodontics, dental implantology, hypodontia, multi-disciplinary

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185 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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184 Design of a Virtual Instrument (VI) System for Earth Resistivity Survey

Authors: Henry Okoh, Obaro Verisa Omayuli, Gladys A. Osagie


One of the challenges of developing nations is the dearth of measurement devices. Aside the shortage, when available, they are either old or obsolete and also very expensive. When this is the situation, researchers must design alternative systems to help meet the desired needs of academia. This paper presents a design of cost-effective multi-disciplinary virtual instrument system for scientific research. This design was based on NI USB-6255 multifunctional DAQ which was used for earth resistivity measurement in Schlumberger array and the result obtained compared closely with that of a conventional ABEM Terrameter. This instrument design provided a hands-on experience as related to full-waveform signal acquisition in the field.

Keywords: cost-effective, data acquisition (DAQ), full-waveform, multi-disciplinary, Schlumberger array, virtual Instrumentation (VI).

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183 Optimization of Multi-Disciplinary Expertise and Resource for End-Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) Patient Care

Authors: Mohamed Naser Zainol, P. P. Angeline Song


Over the years, the profile of end-stage renal patients placed under The National Kidney Foundation Singapore (NKFS) dialysis program has evolved, with a gradual incline in the number of patients with behavior-related issues. With these challenging profiles, social workers and counsellors are often expected to oversee behavior management, through referrals from its partnering colleagues. Due to the segregation of tasks usually found in many hospital-based multi-disciplinary settings, social workers’ and counsellors’ interventions are often seen as an endpoint, limiting other stakeholders’ involvement that could otherwise be potentially crucial in managing such patients. While patients’ contact in local hospitals often leads to eventual discharge, NKFS patients are mostly long term. It is interesting to note that these patients are regularly seen by a team of professionals that includes doctors, nurses, dietitians, exercise specialists in NKFS. The dynamism of relationships presents an opportunity for any of these professionals to take ownership of their potentials in leading interventions that can be helpful to patients. As such, it is important to have a framework that incorporates the strength of these professionals and also channels empowerment across the multi-disciplinary team in working towards wholistic patient care. This paper would like to suggest a new framework for NKFS’s multi-disciplinary team, where the group synergy and dynamics are used to encourage ownership and promote empowerment. The social worker and counsellor use group work skills and his/her knowledge of its members’ strengths, to generate constructive solutions that are centered towards patient’s growth. Using key ideas from Karl’s Tomm Interpersonal Communications, the Communication Management of Meaning and Motivational Interviewing, the social worker and counsellor through a series of guided meeting with other colleagues, facilitates the transmission of understanding, responsibility sharing and tapping on team resources for patient care. As a result, the patient can experience personal and concerted approach and begins to flow in a direction that is helpful for him. Using seven case studies of identified patients with behavioral issues, the social worker and counsellor apply this framework for a period of six months. Patient’s overall improvement through interventions as a result of this framework are recorded using the AB single case design, with baseline measured three months before referral. Interviews with patients and their families, as well as other colleagues that are not part of the multi-disciplinary team are solicited at mid and end points to gather their experiences about patient’s progress as a by-product of this framework. Expert interviews will be conducted on each member of the multi-disciplinary team to study their observations and experience in using this new framework. Hence, this exploratory framework hopes to identify the inherent usefulness in managing patients with behavior related issues. Moreover, it would provide indicators in improving aspects of the framework when applied to a larger population.

Keywords: behavior management, end-stage renal failure, satellite dialysis, multi-disciplinary team

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182 Managing a Cross-Disciplinary Research Project in a University: The Case of LEARNIT

Authors: Yulia Stukalina


This paper explores the main issues related to implementing a cross-disciplinary research project (LEARNIT) based on collaboration between universities from three European countries. The paper discusses the importance of using the holistic approach to managing scientific projects with due account for the complicated nature of the educational environment of a modern university. To illustrate this approach, the author describes some actions to be taken for supporting different focus areas of LEARNIT project, in the process using integrated tangible, non-tangible, and semi-tangible resources of the partner university. The methodology of the paper is based on the academic literature and research papers analysis within management discipline. The analysis reported in the paper is also based on the author’s professional experience in the area of managing international research projects in a university.

Keywords: LEARNIT, focus area, project management, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
181 Training Engineering Students in Sustainable Development

Authors: Hoong C. Chin, Soon H. Chew, Zhaoxia Wang


Work on sustainable developments and the call for action in education for sustainable development have been ongoing for a number of years. Training engineering students with the relevant competencies, particularly in sustainable development literacy, has been identified as an urgent task in universities. This requires not only a holistic, multi-disciplinary approach to education but also a suitable training environment to develop the needed skills and to inculcate the appropriate attitudes in students towards sustainable development. To demonstrate how this can be done, a module involving an overseas field trip was introduced in 2013 at the National University of Singapore. This paper provides details of the module and describes its training philosophy and methods. Measured against the student learning outcomes, stipulated by the Engineering Accreditation Board, the module scored well on all of them, particularly those related to complex problem solving, environmental and sustainability awareness, multi-disciplinary team work and varied-level communications.

Keywords: civil engineering education, socio-economically sustainable infrastructure, student learning outcome, sustainable development

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180 Evaluation of the Causes of Exposure to Mobbing of Employees in the Public Sector in Turkey

Authors: Taner Cindik, Ferya Tas Ciftci


Mobbing in the public sector and specific issues (i.e., the demand for non-pecuniary damages) regarding mobbing have become very important in the light of the precedents constituted by the Turkish Council of State in 2010. The legal scope of mobbing is not able to be determined since the concept of mobbing is not defined in Turkish law system. This study aims to reveal three major problems caused by the lack of laws related to mobbing in the Turkish legal system. First, the absence of an arrangement for disciplinary penalties leads that general provisions in the disciplinary law are implemented. This situation, therefore, causes difficulties in practice. Second, not being drawn of the lines in the topic concerning mobbing in public sector leads confusions in being direction of hostility. Third, the fact that there is a legal gap on seeking non-pecuniary compensation when employees in public sector are exposed to mobbing might make it difficult to obtain non-pecuniary compensation. Within the context of these major problems, civil servants in Turkey do not have enough protection mechanism. However, some possible legal arrangements will help civil servants to protect against mobbing. This study may be considered important because of the fact that mobbing in the public sector is at a significant level and has not been evaluated in this context before. This research is mainly a study of Turkish legal system and evaluates critically law case to determine legal problems. As a result of this study, three main problems might be identified because there is legal gap regarding mobbing in the public sector. In conclusion, the introduction of the major problems related to mobbing in this study might shed light on making the proper regulations of this subject in Turkish law system. In this respect, the plaintiff will be provided convenience in the point of non-pecuniary damages and this study will guide the assessment of legal liability of those who implement mobbing.

Keywords: human rights violations, mobbing, public sector, direction of hostility, non-pecuniary compensation, disciplinary law

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179 Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation Methodology for Aircraft Load Prediction

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Tiwari


The paper demonstrates a methodology that can be used at an early design stage of any conventional aircraft. This research activity assesses the feasibility derivation of methodology for aircraft loads estimation during the various phases of design for a transport category aircraft by utilizing potential of using commercial finite element analysis software, which may drive significant time saving. Early Design phase have limited data and quick changing configuration results in handling of large number of load cases. It is useful to idealize the aircraft as a connection of beams, which can be very accurately modelled using finite element analysis (beam elements). This research explores the correct approach towards idealizing an aircraft using beam elements. FEM Techniques like inertia relief were studied for implementation during course of work. The correct boundary condition technique envisaged for generation of shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for the aircraft. The possible applications of this approach are the aircraft design process, which have been investigated.

Keywords: multi-disciplinary optimization, aircraft load, finite element analysis, stick model

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178 The Construction of Healthy Bodies in U.S. and China: A Comparative Analysis of Women's Health and Trends Health

Authors: Yang L. Frances


Women's health and wellness has been becoming an increasingly important issue in mass media in the age of globalization. In this context, the current research focuses on comparing the construction of healthy bodies in women's health magazines of China and U.S. Trends Health in China and Women's Health in U.S are chosen. Textual analysis and in depth interviews are combined to examine how the healthy bodies are constructed in two magazines through discursive strategies. The interviews with the Deputy Editorial Director, Creative Director and Senior Visual Design of two magazines are undertaken to make the further comparisons. In both Trends Health and Women's Health, women's subjectivity is realized in the construction of ideal healthy body; nevertheless in the process of constructing healthy body, the disciplinary practices imposed on women's bodies are different in two magazines. This paper argues that women's health magazines in both China and America provide an alternative discourse to speak their voices on the one hand, but on the other hand, Women's Health and Trends Health construct the healthy body through disparate disciplinary practices because of the different socio-cultural contexts in two societies.

Keywords: healthy body, women's health magazines, Foucault, textual analysis

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177 Embedding the Dimensions of Sustainability into City Information Modelling

Authors: Ali M. Al-Shaery


The purpose of this paper is to address the functions of sustainability dimensions in city information modelling and to present the required sustainability criteria that support establishing a sustainable planning framework for enhancing existing cities and developing future smart cities. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section is based on the examination of a wide and extensive array of cross-disciplinary literature in the last decade and a half to conceptualize the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘smart city,' and map their associated criteria to city information modelling. The second section is based on analyzing two approaches relating to city information modelling, namely statistical and dynamic approaches, and their suitability in the development of cities’ action plans. The paper argues that the use of statistical approaches to embedding sustainability dimensions in city information modelling have limited value. Despite the popularity of such approaches in addressing other dimensions like utility and service management in development and action plans of the world cities, these approaches are unable to address the dynamics across various city sectors with regards to economic, environmental and social criteria. The paper suggests an integrative dynamic and cross-disciplinary planning approach to embedding sustainability dimensions in city information modelling frameworks. Such an approach will pave the way towards optimal planning and implementation of priority actions of projects and investments. The approach can be used to achieve three main goals: (1) better development and action plans for world cities (2) serve the development of an integrative dynamic and cross-disciplinary framework that incorporates economic, environmental and social sustainability criteria and (3) address areas that require further attention in the development of future sustainable and smart cities. The paper presents an innovative approach for city information modelling and a well-argued, balanced hierarchy of sustainability criteria that can contribute to an area of research which is still in its infancy in terms of development and management.

Keywords: information modelling, smart city, sustainable city, sustainability dimensions, sustainability criteria, city development planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
176 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester


In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, Rule Based Architecture, Aircraft Design, Decision Support System

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175 Developing a Model for the Relation between Heritage and Place Identity

Authors: A. Arjomand Kermani, N. Charbgoo, M. Alalhesabi


In the situation of great acceleration of changes and the need for new developments in the cities on one hand and conservation and regeneration approaches on the other hand, place identity and its relation with heritage context have taken on new importance. This relation is generally mutual and complex one. The significant point in this relation is that the process of identifying something as heritage rather than just historical  phenomena, brings that which may be inherited into the realm of identity. In planning and urban design as well as environmental psychology and phenomenology domain, place identity and its attributes and components were studied and discussed. However, the relation between physical environment (especially heritage) and identity has been neglected in the planning literature. This article aims to review the knowledge on this field and develop a model on the influence and relation of these two major concepts (heritage and identity). To build this conceptual model, we draw on available literature in environmental psychology as well as planning on place identity and heritage environment using a descriptive-analytical methodology to understand how they can inform the planning strategies and governance policies. A cross-disciplinary analysis is essential to understand the nature of place identity and heritage context and develop a more holistic model of their relationship in order to be employed in planning process and decision making. Moreover, this broader and more holistic perspective would enable both social scientists and planners to learn from one another’s expertise for a fuller understanding of community dynamics. The result indicates that a combination of these perspectives can provide a richer understanding—not only of how planning impacts our experience of place, but also how place identity can impact community planning and development.

Keywords: heritage, inter-disciplinary study, place identity, planning

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174 Old and New Paradigms for Pre-Earthquake Prevention and Post-Earthquake Regeneration of Territories in Crisis in Italy

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini


Most of the Italian territory is at seismic risk. Many earthquakes have hit Italy, and devastating effects have been generated. The specific objective of the research is to distinguish the negative approaches that have generated unacceptable social situations of marginalization, abandonment, and economic regression, from positive methodological approaches. On the basis of the different situations examined, the study proposes strategies and guidelines to obtain the best possible results, in Italy or abroad, in the event of new earthquakes. At national and international level, many theoretical studies address the aspects of prevention, while the comparisons, carried out in this study, between the techniques and the operative procedures applied and the results obtained are rare. The adopted methodology compares the different pre-earthquake urban-planning approaches, for the emergency (temporary urban planning), and for the post-earthquake (socio-economic-territorial processes) in Italy. Attention is placed on the current consolidated planning and programming acquisitions, pre and post-earthquake. The main results of the study concern the prospects in Italy of protection from seismic risks in the next decades. An integrated settlement system for a new economic and social model, aimed at the rebirth of territories in crisis, is proposed. Finally, the conclusions describe the disciplinary positions, procedures and the fundamental points generally shared by the scientific community for each approach, in order to identify the strategic choices and the disciplinary and management paths that will be followed in the coming decades.

Keywords: post-earthquake, seismic emergency, seismic prevention, urban planning interventions in Italy

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173 Creation of a Trust-Wide, Cross-Speciality, Virtual Teaching Programme for Doctors, Nurses and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nelomi Anandagoda, Leanne J. Eveson


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the surge in in-patient admissions across the medical directorate of a district general hospital necessitated the implementation of an incident rota. Conscious of the impact on training and professional development, the idea of developing a virtual teaching programme was conceived. The programme initially aimed to provide junior doctors, specialist nurses, pharmacists, and allied healthcare professionals from medical specialties and those re-deployed from other specialties (e.g., ophthalmology, GP, surgery, psychiatry) the knowledge and skills to manage the deteriorating patient with COVID-19. The programme was later developed to incorporate the general internal medicine curriculum. To facilitate continuing medical education whilst maintaining social distancing during this period, a virtual platform was used to deliver teaching to junior doctors across two large district general hospitals and two community hospitals. Teaching sessions were recorded and uploaded to a common platform, providing a resource for participants to catch up on and re-watch teaching sessions, making strides towards reducing discrimination against the professional development of less than full-time trainees. Thus, creating a learning environment, which is inclusive and accessible to adult learners in a self-directed manner. The negative impact of the pandemic on the well-being of healthcare professionals is well documented. To support the multi-disciplinary team, the virtual teaching programme evolved to included sessions on well-being, resilience, and work-life balance. Providing teaching for learners across the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) has been an eye-opening experience. By challenging the concept that learners should only be taught within their own peer groups, the authors have fostered a greater appreciation of the strengths of the MDT and showcased the immense wealth of expertise available within the trust. The inclusive nature of the teaching and the ease of joining a virtual teaching session has facilitated the dissemination of knowledge across the MDT, thus improving patient care on the frontline. The weekly teaching programme has been running for over eight months, with ongoing engagement, interest, and participation. As described above, the teaching programme has evolved to accommodate the needs of its learners. It has received excellent feedback with an appreciation of its inclusive, multi-disciplinary, and holistic nature. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a catalyst to rapidly develop novel methods of working and training and widened access/exposure to the virtual technologies available to large organisations. By merging pedagogical expertise and technology, the authors have created an effective online learning environment. Although the authors do not propose to replace face-to-face teaching altogether, this model of virtual multidisciplinary team, cross-site teaching has proven to be a great leveler. It has made high-quality teaching accessible to learners of different confidence levels, grades, specialties, and working patterns.

Keywords: cross-site, cross-speciality, inter-disciplinary, multidisciplinary, virtual teaching

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172 Multi-Objective Optimization of Assembly Manufacturing Factory Setups

Authors: Andreas Lind, Aitor Iriondo Pascual, Dan Hogberg, Lars Hanson


Factory setup lifecycles are most often described and prepared in CAD environments; the preparation is based on experience and inputs from several cross-disciplinary processes. Early in the factory setup preparation, a so-called block layout is created. The intention is to describe a high-level view of the intended factory setup and to claim area reservations and allocations. Factory areas are then blocked, i.e., targeted to be used for specific intended resources and processes, later redefined with detailed factory setup layouts. Each detailed layout is based on the block layout and inputs from cross-disciplinary preparation processes, such as manufacturing sequence, productivity, workers’ workplace requirements, and resource setup preparation. However, this activity is often not carried out with all variables considered simultaneously, which might entail a risk of sub-optimizing the detailed layout based on manual decisions. Therefore, this work aims to realize a digital method for assembly manufacturing layout planning where productivity, area utilization, and ergonomics can be considered simultaneously in a cross-disciplinary manner. The purpose of the digital method is to support engineers in finding optimized designs of detailed layouts for assembly manufacturing factories, thereby facilitating better decisions regarding setups of future factories. Input datasets are company-specific descriptions of required dimensions for specific area reservations, such as defined dimensions of a worker’s workplace, material façades, aisles, and the sequence to realize the product assembly manufacturing process. To test and iteratively develop the digital method, a demonstrator has been developed with an adaptation of existing software that simulates and proposes optimized designs of detailed layouts. Since the method is to consider productivity, ergonomics, area utilization, and constraints from the automatically generated block layout, a multi-objective optimization approach is utilized. In the demonstrator, the input data are sent to the simulation software industrial path solutions (IPS). Based on the input and Lua scripts, the IPS software generates a block layout in compliance with the company’s defined dimensions of area reservations. Communication is then established between the IPS and the software EPP (Ergonomics in Productivity Platform), including intended resource descriptions, assembly manufacturing process, and manikin (digital human) resources. Using multi-objective optimization approaches, the EPP software then calculates layout proposals that are sent iteratively and simulated and rendered in IPS, following the rules and regulations defined in the block layout as well as productivity and ergonomics constraints and objectives. The software demonstrator is promising. The software can handle several parameters to optimize the detailed layout simultaneously and can put forward several proposals. It can optimize multiple parameters or weight the parameters to fine-tune the optimal result of the detailed layout. The intention of the demonstrator is to make the preparation between cross-disciplinary silos transparent and achieve a common preparation of the assembly manufacturing factory setup, thereby facilitating better decisions.

Keywords: factory setup, multi-objective, optimization, simulation

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171 The Ecological Urbanism as an Oppurtunity to Solve City Problem

Authors: Fairuz A. Ulinnuha, Bimo K. Fuadi


The world’s population continues to grow resulting in steady migration from rural to urban areas. Increased numbers of people and cities hand in hand with greater exploitation of world’s resource. Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating of this impact of this situation. During the 1970’s, some of eco-concept were applied to urban settings, one of them is Ecological Cities. A non-profit organization, Urban Ecology, was founded in California in 1975 to 'rebuild cities in balance with nature'. Efforts to synthesize ecological and urban planning approaches were slowed somewhat in the 1980s, but useful refinements were made. Consideration of social impact acknowledges that the ecological design is not just about ecology itself. It is also about questioning and redefining our understanding of the ecology. When ecologist did recognize the existence of cities, they were usually concerned with resource flows. One popular approach was to study the flow and transformation of energy through urban ecosystem. This research method is descriptive method, following LEED Certification which is the international standard of the sustainable building, is more widely applied. But there remains problem that the moral imperative of sustainability and by implication of sustainable design, tends to supplant the disciplinary contribution. Sustainable design is not always seen as design excellence or design innovation. This can provoke the skepticism and cause the tension those who promote disciplinary knowledge and those who push for sustainability. The challenges of rapid urbanization and limited of global resources has become more pressing. So, there is a need to find an alternative design approaches. The urban, as the site of complex relation (economy, political, social, cultural), need a complex problem solving that can solve current and future condition. The aim of this study is to discussed about conjoining of ecology such as public park and sustainable design.

Keywords: ecology, cities, urban, sustainability

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170 Analysis of the Learning Effectiveness of the Steam-6e Course: A Case Study on the Development of Virtual Idol Product Design as an Example

Authors: Mei-Chun. Chang


STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics) represents a cross-disciplinary and learner-centered teaching model that cultivates students to link theory with the presentation of real situations, thereby improving their various abilities. This study explores students' learning performance after using the 6E model in STEAM teaching for a professional course in the digital media design department of technical colleges, as well as the difficulties and countermeasures faced by STEAM curriculum design and its implementation. In this study, through industry experts’ work experience, activity exchanges, course teaching, and experience, learners can think about the design and development value of virtual idol products that meet the needs of users and to employ AR/VR technology to innovate their product applications. Applying action research, the investigation has 35 junior students from the department of digital media design of the school where the researcher teaches as the research subjects. The teaching research was conducted over two stages spanning ten weeks and 30 sessions. This research collected the data and conducted quantitative and qualitative data sorting analyses through ‘design draft sheet’, ‘student interview record’, ‘STEAM Product Semantic Scale’, and ‘Creative Product Semantic Scale (CPSS)’. Research conclusions are presented, and relevant suggestions are proposed as a reference for teachers or follow-up researchers. The contribution of this study is to teach college students to develop original virtual idols and product designs, improve learning effectiveness through STEAM teaching activities, and effectively cultivate innovative and practical cross-disciplinary design talents.

Keywords: STEAM, 6E model, virtual idol, learning effectiveness, practical courses

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169 The Recording of Personal Data in the Spanish Criminal Justice System and Its Impact on the Right to Privacy

Authors: Deborah García-Magna


When a person goes through the criminal justice system, either as a suspect, arrested, prosecuted or convicted, certain personal data are recorded, and a wide range of persons and organizations may have access to it. The recording of data can have a great impact on the daily life of the person concerned during the period of time determined by the legislation. In addition, this registered information can refer to various aspects not strictly related directly to the alleged or actually committed infraction. In some areas, the Spanish legislation does not clearly determine the cancellation period of the registers nor what happens when they are cancelled since some of the files are not really erased and remain recorded, even if their consultation is no more allowed or it is stated that they should not be taken into account. Thus, access to the recorded data of arrested or convicted persons may reduce their possibilities of reintegration into society. In this research, some of the areas in which data recording has a special impact on the lives of affected persons are analyzed in a critical manner, taking into account Spanish legislation and jurisprudence, and the influence of the European Court of Human Rights, the Council of Europe and other supranational instruments. In particular, the analysis cover the scope of video-surveillance in public spaces, the police record, the recording of personal data for the purposes of police investigation (especially DNA and psychological profiles), the registry of administrative and minor offenses (especially as they are taken into account to impose aggravating circumstaces), criminal records (of adults, minors and legal entities), and the registration of special circumstances occurred during the execution of the sentence (files of inmates under special surveillance –FIES–, disciplinary sanctions, special therapies in prison, etc.).

Keywords: ECHR jurisprudence, formal and informal criminal control, privacy, disciplinary sanctions, social reintegration

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168 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu


This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

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167 A Systematic Review on Challenges in Big Data Environment

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Anmol Preet Kaur


Big Data has demonstrated the vast potential in streamlining, deciding, spotting business drifts in different fields, for example, producing, fund, Information Technology. This paper gives a multi-disciplinary diagram of the research issues in enormous information and its procedures, instruments, and system identified with the privacy, data storage management, network and energy utilization, adaptation to non-critical failure and information representations. Other than this, result difficulties and openings accessible in this Big Data platform have made.

Keywords: big data, privacy, data management, network and energy consumption

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166 Perceptions and Experiences of Learners on the Banning of Corporal Punishment in South African Schools

Authors: Londeka Ngubane


The use of corporal punishment is not a new phenomenon in the South African education system as it was, for a long time, recognised as a fitting form of punishment for ill-disciplined and disobedient children. The growing recognition that corporal punishment is an act of violence against children has resulted in the abolishment of this form of punishment in society and particularly in schools. However, regardless of criminalising corporal punishment, it appears to be a disciplinary measure that is persistently used by some educators. Historically and currently, the intimate connection between corporal punishment and discipline has not merely been a convention of human thinking, as this practice is given recognition in various definitions in dictionaries. ‘To discipline’ is habitually stated to mean ‘to punish’. The notion of ‘disciplining children’ also comes from entrenched common conceptions about children and their relationship with adults. Corporal punishment has, for a long time, been associated with the rearing and education of children, and this practice thus pervades schooling across nations. In many societies, punishment is a term that is closely linked with the self-perception of teachers who feel that they must be ‘in control’ and have ‘the upper hand’ in order to be respected. This impression of control is evident in the widespread conception of education which is to ‘socialize’ children in ‘desirable ways’ of ‘sitting in a formal classroom’, ‘behaving’ in school, ‘following instructions’ from the teacher, talking only when asked to, and finishing tasks on time. It was against this backdrop that a comprehensive review of relevant literature was undertaken and that individual interviews were conducted with fifty learners from four schools (two junior secondary and two senior secondary schools) in a selected township area in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The main aim of the study was to explore and thus understand learners’ views on the administration of corporal punishment regardless of the fact that it was legally abolished. It was envisaged that the interviews with the learners would elicit rich data that would enhance the researcher’s insight into their perceptions of the persistent use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure in their schools. The study was thus premised on the assumption, which had been strengthened by anecdotal and media evidence, that corporal punishment was still administered in some schools in South Africa and in schools in the study area in particular.

Keywords: corporal punishment, ban, school learners, South Africa

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165 Crossing Borders: In Research and Business Communication

Authors: Edith Podhovnik


Cultures play a role in business communication and in research. At the example of language in international business, this paper addresses the issue of how the research cultures of management research and linguistics as well as cultures as such can be linked. After looking at existing research on language in international business, this paper approaches communication in international business from a linguistic angle and attempts to explain communication issues in businesses based on linguistic research. Thus, the paper makes a step into cross-disciplinary research combining management research with linguistics.

Keywords: language in international business, sociolinguistics, ethnopragmatics, cultural scripts

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164 Collaborative and Experimental Cultures in Virtual Reality Journalism: From the Perspective of Content Creators

Authors: Radwa Mabrook


Virtual Reality (VR) content creation is a complex and an expensive process, which requires multi-disciplinary teams of content creators. Grant schemes from technology companies help media organisations to explore the VR potential in journalism and factual storytelling. Media organisations try to do as much as they can in-house, but they may outsource due to time constraints and skill availability. Journalists, game developers, sound designers and creative artists work together and bring in new cultures of work. This study explores the collaborative experimental nature of VR content creation, through tracing every actor involved in the process and examining their perceptions of the VR work. The study builds on Actor Network Theory (ANT), which decomposes phenomena into their basic elements and traces the interrelations among them. Therefore, the researcher conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with VR content creators between November 2017 and April 2018. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques allowed the researcher to recruit fact-based VR content creators from production studios and media organisations, as well as freelancers. Interviews lasted up to three hours, and they were a mix of Skype calls and in-person interviews. Participants consented for their interviews to be recorded, and for their names to be revealed in the study. The researcher coded interviews’ transcripts in Nvivo software, looking for key themes that correspond with the research questions. The study revealed that VR content creators must be adaptive to change, open to learn and comfortable with mistakes. The VR content creation process is very iterative because VR has no established work flow or visual grammar. Multi-disciplinary VR team members often speak different languages making it hard to communicate. However, adaptive content creators perceive VR work as a fun experience and an opportunity to learn. The traditional sense of competition and the strive for information exclusivity are now replaced by a strong drive for knowledge sharing. VR content creators are open to share their methods of work and their experiences. They target to build a collaborative network that aims to harness VR technology for journalism and factual storytelling. Indeed, VR is instilling collaborative and experimental cultures in journalism.

Keywords: collaborative culture, content creation, experimental culture, virtual reality

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