Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1623

Search results for: web accessible interface

1623 To Design a Full Stack Online Educational Website Using HTML, CSS and Java Script

Authors: Yash Goyal, Manish Korde, Juned Siddiqui

Abstract:

Today online education has gained more popularity so that people can easily complete their curriculum on their own time. Virtual learning has been widely used by many educators, especially in higher education institutions due to its benefits to students and faculty. A good knowledge of teaching theory and instructional design systems is required to experience meaningful learning. However, most educational websites are not designed to adapt to all screen sizes. Making the website accessible on all screen sizes is our main objective, so we have created a website that is readily accessible across all screen sizes and accepts all types of payment methods. And we see generally educational websites interface is simple and unexciting. So, we have made a user interface attractive and user friendly. It is not enough for a website to be user-friendly, but also to be familiar to admins and to reduce the workload of the admin as well. We visited so many popular websites under development that they all had issues like responsiveness, simple interface, security measures, payment methods, etc. To overcome this limitation, we have created a website which has taken care of security issues that is why we have created only one admin id and it can be control from that only. And if the user has successfully done the payment, then the admin can send him a username and password through mail individually so there will no fraud in the payment of the course.

Keywords: responsive, accessible, attractive, interface, objective, security.

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1622 Delivering Accessible Tourism Improvements in Queensland Destinations

Authors: Queensland Government

Abstract:

The accessible tourism project in Queensland incorporated six tourism regional destinations involvement across regional tourism organisations and tourism businesses. The project included the delivery of online and face-to-face learning modules, accessible communication guidelines, immersive experiences by Get Skilled Access and Travability. These activities were delivered between March 2022 and November 2022 in Brisbane, Cairns, Fraser Coast, Gold Coast and Townsville and Outback Queensland. The project is aimed to increase operators’ awareness and confidence to deliver accessible tourism activities and infrastructure. Initial results based on feedback and changes in delivery highlights the changes in accessible tourism operations.

Keywords: accessible destinations, Queensland destinations, Australian accessible tourism, Queensland tourism accessibility

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1621 Brain Computer Interface Implementation for Affective Computing Sensing: Classifiers Comparison

Authors: Ramón Aparicio-García, Gustavo Juárez Gracia, Jesús Álvarez Cedillo

Abstract:

A research line of the computer science that involve the study of the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), which search to recognize and interpret the user intent by the storage and the subsequent analysis of the electrical signals of the brain, for using them in the control of electronic devices. On the other hand, the affective computing research applies the human emotions in the HCI process helping to reduce the user frustration. This paper shows the results obtained during the hardware and software development of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) capable of recognizing the human emotions through the association of the brain electrical activity patterns. The hardware involves the sensing stage and analogical-digital conversion. The interface software involves algorithms for pre-processing of the signal in time and frequency analysis and the classification of patterns associated with the electrical brain activity. The methods used for the analysis and classification of the signal have been tested separately, by using a database that is accessible to the public, besides to a comparison among classifiers in order to know the best performing.

Keywords: affective computing, interface, brain, intelligent interaction

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1620 Interactive Multiple Functions User Interface

Authors: Manjit Singh Sidhu, Waleed Maqableh, Jee Geak Ying

Abstract:

Tangible user interfaces (TUI) that employ markers in the augmented reality (AR) environment has hampered the interactivity between the user and the software application. This is because the user lacks focus on visualizing the contents due to the interaction mechanisms whereby multiple markers may need to be used to perform a particular function. In this research, we have designed a novel TUI user interface where multiple functions could be triggered similar to a natural keyboard thus allowing user to focus more on its digital contents such as 2D/3D, text input, animation and sound. Test results of the user interface with potential users and HCI experts revealed that the multiple functions user interface was new, preferred and appreciated more as opposed to marker based user interface.

Keywords: multimedia, augmented reality, engineering, user interface, visualization

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1619 Evaluation of the Matching Optimization of Human-Machine Interface Matching in the Cab

Authors: Yanhua Ma, Lu Zhai, Xinchen Wang, Hongyu Liang

Abstract:

In this paper, by understanding the development status of the human-machine interface in today's automobile cab, a subjective and objective evaluation system for evaluating the optimization of human-machine interface matching in automobile cab was established. The man-machine interface of the car cab was divided into a software interface and a hard interface. Objective evaluation method of software human factor analysis is used to evaluate the hard interface matching; The analytic hierarchy process is used to establish the evaluation index system for the software interface matching optimization, and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate hard interface machine. This article takes Dongfeng Sokon (DFSK) C37 model automobile as an example. The evaluation method given in the paper is used to carry out relevant analysis and evaluation, and corresponding optimization suggestions are given, which have certain reference value for designers.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, human-machine interface, matching optimization, software human factor analysis

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1618 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee

Abstract:

Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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1617 Integration of Internet-Accessible Resources in the Field of Mobile Robots

Authors: B. Madhevan, R. Sakkaravarthi, R. Diya

Abstract:

The number and variety of mobile robot applications are increasing day by day, both in an industry and in our daily lives. First developed as a tool, nowadays mobile robots can be integrated as an entity in Internet-accessible resources. The present work is organized around four potential resources such as cloud computing, Internet of things, Big data analysis and Co-simulation. Further, the focus relies on integrating, analyzing and discussing the need for integrating Internet-accessible resources and the challenges deriving from such integration, and how these issues have been tackled. Hence, the research work investigates the concepts of the Internet-accessible resources from the aspect of the autonomous mobile robots with an overview of the performances of the currently available database systems. IaR is a world-wide network of interconnected objects, can be considered an evolutionary process in mobile robots. IaR constitutes an integral part of future Internet with data analysis, consisting of both physical and virtual things.

Keywords: internet-accessible resources, cloud computing, big data analysis, internet of things, mobile robot

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1616 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

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1615 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel

Abstract:

Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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1614 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: culture, social media, user interface design, Facebook, Saudi Arabia

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1613 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park

Abstract:

Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: element-independent formulation, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers, non-matching interface

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1612 Theoretical Analysis of Graded Interface CdS/CIGS Solar Cell

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Dennai Benmoussa, Abderrachid Helmaoui

Abstract:

We have theoretically calculated the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a graded interface CdS/CIGS solar cell, which can be experimentally fabricated. Because the conduction band discontinuity or spike in an abrupt heterojunction CdS/CIGS solar cell can hinder the separation of hole-electron by electric field, a graded interface layer is uses to eliminate the spike and reduces recombination in space charge region. This paper describes the role of the graded band gap interface layer in decreasing the performance of the heterojunction cell. By optimizing the thickness of the graded region, an improvement of conversion efficiency has been observed in comparison to the conventional CIGS system.

Keywords: heterojunction, solar cell, graded interface, CIGS

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1611 Effect of an Interface Defect in a Patch/Layer Joint under Dynamic Time Harmonic Load

Authors: Elisaveta Kirilova, Wilfried Becker, Jordanka Ivanova, Tatyana Petrova

Abstract:

The study is a continuation of the research on the hygrothermal piezoelectric response of a smart patch/layer joint with undesirable interface defect (gap) at dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electrical load and environmental conditions. In order to find the axial displacements, shear stress and interface debond length in a closed analytical form for different positions of the interface gap, the 1D modified shear lag analysis is used. The debond length is represented as a function of many parameters (frequency, magnitude, electric displacement, moisture and temperature, joint geometry, position of the gap along the interface, etc.). Then the Genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented to find this position of the gap along the interface at which a vanishing/minimal debond length is ensured, e.g to find the most harmless position for the safe work of the structure. The illustrative example clearly shows that analytical shear-lag solutions and GA method can be combined successfully to give an effective prognosis of interface shear stress and interface delamination in patch/layer structure at combined loading with existing defects. To show the effect of the position of the interface gap, all obtained results are given in figures and discussed.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, minimal delamination, optimal gap position, shear lag solution

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1610 Development of Sound Tactile Interface by Use of Human Sensation of Stiffness

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, M. Umeda

Abstract:

There are very few sound interfaces that both healthy people and hearing handicapped people can use to play together. In this study, we developed a sound tactile interface that makes use of the human sensation of stiffness. The interface comprises eight elastic objects having varying degrees of stiffness. Each elastic object is shaped like a column. When people with and without hearing disabilities press each elastic object, different sounds are produced depending on the stiffness of the elastic object. The types of sounds used were “Do Re Mi sounds.” The interface has a major advantage in that people with or without hearing disabilities can play with it. We found that users were able to recognize the hardness sensation and relate it to the corresponding Do Re Mi sounds.

Keywords: tactile sense, sound interface, stiffness perception, elastic object

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1609 CONDUCTHOME: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

Abstract:

This paper presents the interface CONDUCTHOME which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using ‘invariant gesture protocols’. The function of this interface is to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability

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1608 Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Pradhananga

Abstract:

Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.

Keywords: accessible tourism, disability, earthquake, inclusion

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1607 A Pull-Out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites, the Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay

Abstract:

This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find a molding temperature of 183°C leads to better interface properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: composite, hemp, interface, pull-out, processing, polypropylene, temperature

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1606 Sensitive Detection of Nano-Scale Vibrations by the Metal-Coated Fiber Tip at the Liquid-Air Interface

Authors: A. J. Babajanyan, T. A. Abrahamyan, H. A. Minasyan, K. V. Nerkararyan

Abstract:

Optical radiation emitted from a metal-coated fiber tip apex at liquid-air interface was measured. The intensity of the output radiation was strongly depending on the relative position of the tip to a liquid-air interface and varied with surface fluctuations. This phenomenon permits in-situ real-time investigation of nano-metric vibrations of the liquid surface and provides a basis for development of various origin ultrasensitive vibration detecting sensors. The described method can be used for detection of week seismic vibrations.

Keywords: fiber-tip, liquid-air interface, nano vibration, opto-mechanical sensor

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1605 Effect of the Drawbar Force on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle-Tool Holder System

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yu-Sheng Lai, Tzuo-Liang Luo, Kung-Da Wu, Yun-Ji Zhan

Abstract:

This study presented the investigation of the influence of the tool holder interface stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of a spindle tool system. The interface stiffness was produced by drawbar force on the tool holder, which tends to affect the spindle dynamics. In order to assess the influence of interface stiffness on the vibration characteristic of spindle unit, we first created a three dimensional finite element model of a high speed spindle system integrated with tool holder. The key point for the creation of FEM model is the modeling of the rolling interface within the angular contact bearings and the tool holder interface. The former can be simulated by a introducing a series of spring elements between inner and outer rings. The contact stiffness was calculated according to Hertz contact theory and the preload applied on the bearings. The interface stiffness of the tool holder was identified through the experimental measurement and finite element modal analysis. Current results show that the dynamic stiffness was greatly influenced by the tool holder system. In addition, variations of modal damping, static stiffness and dynamic stiffness of the spindle tool system were greatly determined by the interface stiffness of the tool holder which was in turn dependent on the draw bar force applied on the tool holder. Overall, this study demonstrates that identification of the interface characteristics of spindle tool holder is of very importance for the refinement of the spindle tooling system to achieve the optimum machining performance.

Keywords: dynamic stiffness, spindle-tool holder, interface stiffness, drawbar force

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1604 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru

Abstract:

In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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1603 A New Proposed Framework for the Development of Interface Design for Malaysian Interactive Courseware

Authors: Norfadilah Kamaruddin

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new proposed framework for the development process of interface design for Malaysian interactive courseware by exploring four established model in the recent research literature, existing Malaysian government guidelines and Malaysian developers practices. In particular, the study looks at the stages and practices throughout the development process. Significant effects of each of the stages are explored and documented, and significant interrelationships among them suggested. The results of analysis are proposed as potential model that helps in establishing and designing a new version of Malaysian interactive courseware.

Keywords: development processes, interaction with interface, interface design, social sciences

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1602 Graphic User Interface Design Principles for Designing Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Afshan Ejaz, Syed Asim Ali

Abstract:

The reality is a combination of perception, reconstruction, and interaction. Augmented Reality is the advancement that layer over consistent everyday existence which includes content based interface, voice-based interfaces, voice-based interface and guide based or gesture-based interfaces, so designing augmented reality application interfaces is a difficult task for the maker. Designing a user interface which is not only easy to use and easy to learn but its more interactive and self-explanatory which have high perceived affordability, perceived usefulness, consistency and high discoverability so that the user could easily recognized and understand the design. For this purpose, a lot of interface design principles such as learnability, Affordance, Simplicity, Memorability, Feedback, Visibility, Flexibly and others are introduced but there no such principles which explain the most appropriate interface design principles for designing an Augmented Reality application interfaces. Therefore, the basic goal of introducing design principles for Augmented Reality application interfaces is to match the user efforts and the computer display (‘plot user input onto computer output’) using an appropriate interface action symbol (‘metaphors’) or to make that application easy to use, easy to understand and easy to discover. In this study by observing Augmented reality system and interfaces, few of well-known design principle related to GUI (‘user-centered design’) are identify and through them, few issues are shown which can be determined through the design principles. With the help of multiple studies, our study suggests different interface design principles which makes designing Augmented Reality application interface more easier and more helpful for the maker as these principles make the interface more interactive, learnable and more usable. To accomplish and test our finding, Pokémon Go an Augmented Reality game was selected and all the suggested principles are implement and test on its interface. From the results, our study concludes that our identified principles are most important principles while developing and testing any Augmented Reality application interface.

Keywords: GUI, augmented reality, metaphors, affordance, perception, satisfaction, cognitive burden

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1601 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

Authors: Abbas Vahedian, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews

Abstract:

The bond mechanism between timber and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is relatively complex and is influenced by a number of variables including bond thickness, bond width, bond length, material properties, and geometries. This study investigates the influence of bond thickness on the behaviour of interface, failure mode, and bond strength of externally bonded FRP-to-timber interface. In the present study, 106 single shear joint specimens have been investigated. Experiment results showed that higher layers of FRP increase the ultimate load carrying capacity of interface; conversely, such increase led to decrease the slip of interface. Moreover, samples with more layers of FRPs may fail in a brittle manner without noticeable warning that collapse is imminent.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymer, FRP, single shear test, bond thickness, bond strength

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1600 Micromechanics of Stress Transfer across the Interface Fiber-Matrix Bonding

Authors: Fatiha Teklal, Bachir Kacimi, Arezki Djebbar

Abstract:

The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. Even more important, the ideas linking the properties of composites to the interface structure are still emerging. In our study, we need a direct characterization of the interface; the micromechanical tests we are addressing seem to meet this objective and we chose to use two complementary tests simultaneously. The microindentation test that can be applied to real composites and the drop test, preferred to the pull-out because of the theoretical possibility of studying systems with high adhesion (which is a priori the case with our systems). These two tests are complementary because of the principle of the model specimen used for both the first "compression indentation" and the second whose fiber is subjected to tensile stress called the drop test. Comparing the results obtained by the two methods can therefore be rewarding.

Keywords: Fiber, Interface, Matrix, Micromechanics, Pull-out

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1599 Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams

Authors: Ebitisam K. Elberkawi, Mohamed M. Elammari

Abstract:

Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through activity diagrams (AD).

Keywords: activity diagram, graphical user interface, GUI components, program

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1598 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Sagar Bhalerao, Martin Mathew

Abstract:

Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: public service advertisements, gender, disability, accessibility

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1597 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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1596 Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibria at an Air-Liquid Interface of Biosurfactant and Synthetic Surfactant

Authors: Sagheer A. Onaizi

Abstract:

The adsorption of anionic biosurfactant (surfactin) and anionic synthetic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate, abbreviated as SDOBS) from phosphate buffer containing high concentrations of co- and counter-ions to the air-buffer interface has been investigated. The self-assembly of the two surfactants at the interface has been monitored through dynamic surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface pressure-surfactant concentration data in the premicellar region were regressed using Gibbs adsorption equation. The predicted surface saturations for SDOBS and surfactin are and, respectively. The occupied area per an SDOBS molecule at the interface saturation condition is while that occupied by a surfactin molecule is. The surface saturations reported in this work for both surfactants are in a very good agreement with those obtained using expensive techniques such as neutron reflectometry, suggesting that the surface tension measurements coupled with appropriate theoretical analysis could provide useful information comparable to those obtained using highly sophisticated techniques.

Keywords: adsorption, air-liquid interface, biosurfactant, surface tension

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1595 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

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1594 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

Abstract:

In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process

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