Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 615

Search results for: laminar characters

615 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

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614 A Relationship Extraction Method from Literary Fiction Considering Korean Linguistic Features

Authors: Hee-Jeong Ahn, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

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The knowledge of the relationship between characters can help readers to understand the overall story or plot of the literary fiction. In this paper, we present a method for extracting the specific relationship between characters from a Korean literary fiction. Generally, methods for extracting relationships between characters in text are statistical or computational methods based on the sentence distance between characters without considering Korean linguistic features. Furthermore, it is difficult to extract the relationship with direction from text, such as one-sided love, because they consider only the weight of relationship, without considering the direction of the relationship. Therefore, in order to identify specific relationships between characters, we propose a statistical method considering linguistic features, such as syntactic patterns and speech verbs in Korean. The result of our method is represented by a weighted directed graph of the relationship between the characters. Furthermore, we expect that proposed method could be applied to the relationship analysis between characters of other content like movie or TV drama.

Keywords: data mining, Korean linguistic feature, literary fiction, relationship extraction

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613 Trans-Gendered Female Characters: A Comparative Study of Two Female Characters in English and Persian Literature - Lady Macbeth and Gord Afarid

Authors: Seyedeh Azadeh Johari

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For thousand years, the literature of the world has been mostly composed of men, and in all different forms of it, men have tried to propose their masculine desires, ideologies, and beliefs. What has been less written about or studied, however, was the role that female desire plays in the predominantly masculine society, and mostly the role of male desires was the key point in literature. Male writers have mostly shown their female characters either as stereotypes and void of dynamic characters, images of a meek person who bent to the will of her male superiors or as wicked or villains. The only exception was the kind of strong and courageous women who have mostly been masculinized by their authors, mostly male authors, as showing the valuable or important features of men, instead of women’s. These characters are transgendered by the author and have a gender identity or expression that differs from the sex to which they were assigned. This is the issue that is discussed in this project. We will refer to some examples of female characters who show masculine traits and characteristics.

Keywords: comparative literature, female, masculinized, transgendered

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612 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

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This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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611 The Analysis of Female Characters in Shakespeare’s Work; Contrast between the Submissive and the Wicked

Authors: Jeong Hwa Ryong

Abstract:

Numerous characters appear in the works of England’s most prominent play writer, William Shakespeare. Most of the time, his male protagonists possess various and complex characteristics throughout the storyline of his work, making it interesting for the readers to analyze their actions in many different aspects. However, some critics argue that unlike male characters, Shakespeare’s female characters are rather more flat and one-sided, pointing out that they are either the extreme version of good or evil. Especially, it is a significant topic to discuss in the modern days, considering the fact that gender stereotype is now a sensitive issue. Starting from such argument, it is important to address their purpose of being in the play and suggest their meaning to the modern readers of today. In this context, this paper analyzes several female characters of Shakespeare’s work by closely examining their actions and lines. The characters analyzed are Ophelia from Hamlet, Cordelia from King Lear, Katherine from The Taming of the Shrew, Goneril from King Lear and Lady Macbeth from Macbeth. Nevertheless, some female protagonists of Shakespeare’s work do not fall in to this category and exceed the limitations of others. Therefore this paper proposes alternative characters such as Juliet from Romeo and Juliet and Portia from The Merchant of Venice that are rather more complex and difficult to include in just one category. By doing so, this paper critically analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of many female characters in Shakespeare’s play.

Keywords: female characters, gender stereotype, William Shakespeare

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610 Designing Cultural-Creative Products with the Six Categories of Hanzi (Chinese Character Classification)

Authors: Pei-Jun Xue, Ming-Yu Hsiao

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Chinese characters, or hanzi, represent a process of simplifying three-dimensional signs into plane signifiers. From pictograms at the beginning to logograms today, a Han linguist thus classified them into six categories known as the six categories of Chinese characters. Design is a process of signification, and cultural-creative design is a process translating ideas into design with creativity upon culture. Aiming to investigate the process of cultural-creative design transforming cultural text into cultural signs, this study analyzed existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters by treating such products as representations which accurately communicate the designer’s ideas to users through the categorization, simplification, and interpretation of sign features. This is a two-phase pilot study on designing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters. Phase I reviews the related literature on the theory of the six categories of Chinese characters investigated and concludes with the process and principles of character evolution. Phase II analyzes the design of existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters and explores the conceptualization of product design.

Keywords: six categories of Chinese characters, cultural-creative product design, cultural signs, cultural product

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609 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

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The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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608 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

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Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

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607 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi

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The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

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606 Recognition of Tifinagh Characters with Missing Parts Using Neural Network

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

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In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstruction from incomplete 2D scans for tifinagh characters. This algorithm is based on using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. This system proposed contains three main parts: pre-processing, features extraction and recognition. In the first step, we construct a database of tifinagh characters. In the second step, we will apply “shape analysis algorithm”. In classification part, we will use Neural Network. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method give good results.

Keywords: Tifinagh character recognition, neural networks, local cost computation, ANN

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605 A Recognition Method of Ancient Yi Script Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Shanxiong Chen, Xu Han, Xiaolong Wang, Hui Ma

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Yi is an ethnic group mainly living in mainland China, with its own spoken and written language systems, after development of thousands of years. Ancient Yi is one of the six ancient languages in the world, which keeps a record of the history of the Yi people and offers documents valuable for research into human civilization. Recognition of the characters in ancient Yi helps to transform the documents into an electronic form, making their storage and spreading convenient. Due to historical and regional limitations, research on recognition of ancient characters is still inadequate. Thus, deep learning technology was applied to the recognition of such characters. Five models were developed on the basis of the four-layer convolutional neural network (CNN). Alpha-Beta divergence was taken as a penalty term to re-encode output neurons of the five models. Two fully connected layers fulfilled the compression of the features. Finally, at the softmax layer, the orthographic features of ancient Yi characters were re-evaluated, their probability distributions were obtained, and characters with features of the highest probability were recognized. Tests conducted show that the method has achieved higher precision compared with the traditional CNN model for handwriting recognition of the ancient Yi.

Keywords: recognition, CNN, Yi character, divergence

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604 Existential Absurdity, Alienation and Death in Charles Forsman’s The End of the Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher

Authors: Renukha Devi Anandan

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Charles Forsman’s The End of The Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher invariably deals with existential themes. They reflect the perplexed situation of the characters torn between the search for existence and the constraints of human conditions that impede them from such realization, ensuing a dilemma deeply-rooted in absurdity and alienation. These characters are social misfits who fail to fashion their existence and develop harmoniously. Therefore, the present paper adopts an Existential approach to examine the vignettes of alienation and absurdity vis-à-vis the characters’ speech, actions, and thoughts. Furthermore, this paper explores the role of death either as a self-destructive behavior or the eternal freedom of man in graphic novels. Findings portrayed how the characters’ absurd existence surrounded by the void, would eventually develop into death. Finally, the study revealed that Forsman’s distinctive serial illustration not only unveiled the predicaments of the characters through their hard-boiled smokescreens in the 21st-century social paradigm but also established graphic novels as part and parcel of a literary genre.

Keywords: existentialism, absurdity, alienation, death, self-destruction, eternal freedom

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603 Batman Forever: The Economics of Overlapping Rights

Authors: Franziska Kaiser, Alexander Cuntz

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When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can overlap. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can favor advertise across a number of sales channels. In an application to book, movie, and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse is affected in situations of overlapping rights and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries’ of right frameworks are, in fact, enhancing or decreasing content sales. We use a major U.S. Supreme Court decision as a quasi-natural experiment to apply an IV estimation in our analysis. We find that overlapping rights frameworks negatively affect creative reuses. At large, when copyright-protected comic characters are additionally registered as U.S. trademarks, they are less often reprinted and enter fewer video game productions while generating less revenue from game sales.

Keywords: copyright, fictional characters, trademark, reuse

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602 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez

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Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

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601 Multi-Particle Finite Element Modelling Simulation Based on Cohesive Zone Method of Cold Compaction Behavior of Laminar Al and NaCl Composite Powders

Authors: Yanbing Feng, Deqing Mei, Yancheng Wang, Zichen Chen

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With the advantage of low volume density, high specific surface area, light weight and good permeability, porous aluminum material has the potential to be used in automotive, railway, chemistry and construction industries, etc. A layered powder sintering and dissolution method were developed to fabricate the porous surface Al structure with high efficiency. However, the densification mechanism during the cold compaction of laminar composite powders is still unclear. In this study, multi particle finite element modelling (MPFEM) based on the cohesive zone method (CZM) is used to simulate the cold compaction behavior of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders. To obtain its densification mechanism, the macro and micro properties of final compacts are characterized and analyzed. The robustness and accuracy of the numerical model is firstly verified by experimental results and data fitting. The results indicate that the CZM-based multi particle FEM is an effective way to simulate the compaction of the laminar powders and the fracture process of the NaCl powders. In the compaction of the laminar powders, the void is mainly filled by the particle rearrangement, plastic deformation of Al powders and brittle fracture of NaCl powders. Large stress is mainly concentrated within the NaCl powers and the contact force network is formed. The Al powder near the NaCl powder or the mold has larger stress distribution on its contact surface. Therefore, the densification process of cold compaction of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders is successfully analyzed by the CZM-based multi particle FEM.

Keywords: cold compaction, cohesive zone, multi-particle FEM, numerical modeling, powder forming

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600 A Method for the Extraction of the Character's Tendency from Korean Novels

Authors: Min-Ha Hong, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

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The character in the story-based content, such as novels and movies, is one of the core elements to understand the story. In particular, the character’s tendency is an important factor to analyze the story-based content, because it has a significant influence on the storyline. If readers have the knowledge of the tendency of characters before reading a novel, it will be helpful to understand the structure of conflict, episode and relationship between characters in the novel. It may therefore help readers to select novel that the reader wants to read. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting the tendency of the characters from a novel written in Korean. In advance, we build the dictionary with pairs of the emotional words in Korean and English since the emotion words in the novel’s sentences express character’s feelings. We rate the degree of polarity (positive or negative) of words in our emotional words dictionary based on SenticNet. Then we extract characters and emotion words from sentences in a novel. Since the polarity of a word grows strong or weak due to sentence features such as quotations and modifiers, our proposed method consider them to calculate the polarity of characters. The information of the extracted character’s polarity can be used in the book search service or book recommendation service.

Keywords: character tendency, data mining, emotion word, Korean novel

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599 Numerical Study of Pressure Losses of Turbulence Drilling Fluid Flow in the Oil Wellbore

Authors: Alireza Mehdizadeh, Ghanbarali Sheikhzadeh

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In this paper the pressure loss of drilling fluid flow in the annulus is investigated. On this purpose the domains between two concentric and two eccentric cylinders are considered as computational domains. In this research foam is used as drilling fluid. Firstly simulation results for laminar flow and non Newtonian fluid and different density like 100, 200, 300 kg/m3 and different inner cylinder rotational velocity like 100, 200, 300 RPM is presented. These results are compared and matched with references results. The power law and Herschel Bulkly methods are used for non Newtonian fluid modeling. After that computations are repeated with turbulence flow considering. K- Model is used for turbulence modeling. Results show that in laminar flow Herschel bulkly model has best result in comparison with power law model. And pressure loss in turbulence flow is higher than laminar flow.

Keywords: simulation, concentric cylinders, drilling, non Newtonian

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598 Numerical Study of Laminar Separation Bubble Over an Airfoil Using SST γ-ReθT Turbulence Model on Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Younes El Khchine, Mohammed Sriti

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A parametric study has been conducted to analyse the flow around the S809 airfoil of a wind turbine in order to better understand the characteristics and effects of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on aerodynamic design for maximizing wind turbine efficiency. Numerical simulations were performed at a low Reynolds number by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations based on C-type structural mesh and using γ-Reθt turbulence model. Two-dimensional study was conducted for the chord Reynolds number of 1×10⁵ and angles of attack (AoA) between 0 and 20.15 degrees. The simulation results obtained for the aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack (AoA) were compared with XFoil results. A sensitivity study was performed to examine the effects of Reynolds number andfree-stream turbulence intensity on the location and length of laminar separation bubble and aerodynamic performances of the wind turbine. The results show that increasing the Reynolds number leads to a delay in the laminar separation on the upper surface of the airfoil. The increase in Reynolds numberleads to an accelerate transition process, and the turbulent reattachment point move closer to the leading edge owing to an earlier reattachment of the turbulent shear layer. This leads to a considerable reduction in the length of the separation bubble as the Reynolds number is increased. The increase of the level of free-stream turbulence intensity leads to a decrease in separation bubble length and an increase in the lift coefficient while having negligible effects on the stall angle. When the AoA increased, the bubbleon the suction airfoil surface was found to moves upstream to the leading edge of the airfoil, that, causes earlier laminar separation.

Keywords: laminar separation bubble, turbulence intensity, S809 airfoil, transition model, reynolds number

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597 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes

Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky

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This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.

Keywords: drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts

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596 Rethinking Flâneur: Strolling Spectators in Harlem in Toni Morrison's Jazz

Authors: Yoonjeogn Kim

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The concept of flâneur means a walking observer with subjectivity in the urban city and at the same time, an idiomatic and unnamed existence in public. In the modern city, an individual, flâneur walking on the street, observes the street and collects the memories of the past, during which process the individual comes to understand what the past means. However, the concept tends to be narrowly applied to the white middle-class males, thereby excluding females and other marginalized groups. This paper expands the concept to examine black immigrants and black women, who traditionally fall outside the scope of the flâneur. Placing the black immigrants on the trajectory of literary figure of flâneur by reading Tony Morrison's Jazz, this essay revisits the relationship between street and characters in Jazz. In particular, this essay focuses on characters strolling on the street as well as their surroundings. Based on the traditional characteristics of the flâneur, this essay explicates how the black characters in Jazz are reinvented as the flâneur and moving observers with their autonomy to stroll around the city, while the city, which used to be an observer watching and predicting what happens to the characters, takes a position as a mere onlooker. This paper concludes with illustrating the black characters stroll on the street in Harlem and thereby recreating ordinary people living in Harlem as flâneur.

Keywords: jazz, the arcades project, flâneur, flânerie, street, city

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595 The Impacts of Negative Moral Characters on Health: An Article Review

Authors: Mansoor Aslamzai, Delaqa Del, Sayed Azam Sajid

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Introduction: Though moral disorders have a high burden, there is no separate topic regarding this problem in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Along with the modification of WHO ICD-11, spirituality can prevent the rapid progress of such derangement as well. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of bad moral characters on health, as well as carried out the role of spirituality in the improvement of immorality. Method: This narrative article review was accomplished in 2020-2021 and the articles were searched through the Web of Science, PubMed, BMC, and Google scholar. Results: Based on the current review, most experimental and observational studies revealed significant negative effects of unwell moral characters on the overall aspects of health and well-being. Nowadays, a lot of studies established the positive role of spirituality in the improvement of health and moral disorder. The studies concluded, facilities must be available within schools, universities, and communities for everyone to learn the knowledge of spirituality and improve their unwell moral character world. Conclusion: Considering the negative relationship between unwell moral characters and well-being, the current study proposes the addition of moral disorder as a separate topic in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Based on this literature review, spirituality will improve moral disorder and establish excellent moral traits.

Keywords: bad moral characters, effect, health, spirituality and well-being

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594 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin

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Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

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593 Vortices Structure in Internal Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Authors: Farid Gaci, Zoubir Nemouchi

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A numerical study of laminar and turbulent fluid flows in 90° bend of square section was carried out. Three-dimensional meshes, based on hexahedral cells, were generated. The QUICK scheme was employed to discretize the convective term in the transport equations. The SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to treat the velocity-pressure coupling. The flow structure obtained showed interesting features such as recirculation zones and counter-rotating pairs of vortices. The performance of three different turbulence models was evaluated: the standard k- ω model, the SST k-ω model and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Overall, it was found that, the multi-equation model performed better than the two equation models. In fact, the existence of four pairs of counter rotating cells, in the straight duct upstream of the bend, were predicted by the RSM closure but not by the standard eddy viscosity model nor the SST k-ω model. The analysis of the results led to a better understanding of the induced three dimensional secondary flows and the behavior of the local pressure coefficient and the friction coefficient.

Keywords: curved duct, counter-rotating cells, secondary flow, laminar, turbulent

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592 Exploiting SLMail Server with a Developed Buffer Overflow with Kali Linux

Authors: Senesh Wijayarathne

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This study focuses on how someone could develop a Buffer Overflow and could use that to exploit the SLMail Server. This study uses a Kali Linux V2018.4 Virtual Machine and Windows 7 - Internet Explorer V8 Virtual Machine (IPv4 Address - 192.168.56.107). This study starts by sending continued bytes to the SLMail Server to find the crashing point range and creating a unique pattern of the length of the crashing point range to control the Extended Instruction Pointer (EIP). Then by sending all characters to SLMail Server, we could observe and find which characters are not rendered properly by the software, also known as Bad Characters. By finding the ‘Jump to the ESP register (JMP ESP) and with the help of ‘Mona Modules’, we could use msfvenom to create a non-stage windows reverse shell payload. By including all the details gathered previously on one script, we could get a system-level reverse shell of the Windows 7 PC. The end of this paper will discuss how to mitigate this vulnerability.

Keywords: slmail server, extended instruction pointer, jump to the esp register, bad characters, virtual machine, windows 7, kali Linux, buffer overflow, Seattle lab, vulnerability

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591 Digitization and Morphometric Characterization of Botanical Collection of Indian Arid Zones as Informatics Initiatives Addressing Conservation Issues in Climate Change Scenario

Authors: Dipankar Saha, J. P. Singh, C. B. Pandey

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Indian Thar desert being the seventh largest in the world is the main hot sand desert occupies nearly 385,000km2 and about 9% of the area of the country harbours several species likely the flora of 682 species (63 introduced species) belonging to 352 genera and 87 families. The degree of endemism of plant species in the Thar desert is 6.4 percent, which is relatively higher than the degree of endemism in the Sahara desert which is very significant for the conservationist to envisage. The advent and development of computer technology for digitization and data base management coupled with the rapidly increasing importance of biodiversity conservation resulted in the invention of biodiversity informatics as discipline of basic sciences with multiple applications. Aichi Target 19 as an outcome of Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) specifically mandates the development of an advanced and shared biodiversity knowledge base. Information on species distributions in space is the crux of effective management of biodiversity in the rapidly changing world. The efficiency of biodiversity management is being increased rapidly by various stakeholders like researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with the knowledge and application of biodiversity informatics. Herbarium specimens being a vital repository for biodiversity conservation especially in climate change scenario the digitization process usually aims to improve access and to preserve delicate specimens and in doing so creating large sets of images as a part of the existing repository as arid plant information facility for long-term future usage. As the leaf characters are important for describing taxa and distinguishing between them and they can be measured from herbarium specimens as well. As a part of this activity, laminar characterization (leaves being the most important characters in assessing climate change impact) initially resulted in classification of more than thousands collections belonging to ten families like Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Anacardeaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Aristolochiaceae, Berseraceae and Bignoniaceae etc. Taxonomic diversity indices has also been worked out being one of the important domain of biodiversity informatics approaches. The digitization process also encompasses workflows which incorporate automated systems to enable us to expand and speed up the digitisation process. The digitisation workflows used to be on a modular system which has the potential to be scaled up. As they are being developed with a geo-referencing tool and additional quality control elements and finally placing specimen images and data into a fully searchable, web-accessible database. Our effort in this paper is to elucidate the role of BIs, present effort of database development of the existing botanical collection of institute repository. This effort is expected to be considered as a part of various global initiatives having an effective biodiversity information facility. This will enable access to plant biodiversity data that are fit-for-use by scientists and decision makers working on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in the region and iso-climatic situation of the world.

Keywords: biodiversity informatics, climate change, digitization, herbarium, laminar characters, web accessible interface

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590 Rapid Inventory of Terrestrial Ferns and Lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (Cedar), Impalutao, Impasug-Ong Bukidnon, Philippines

Authors: Diobein Flores, Venus Buagas, Virgie Darunday

Abstract:

The study inventoried the species composition of terrestrial ferns and lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (CEDAR) Impalutao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Specifically, it aimed to determine and describe the species composition, and diagnostic characters of the ferns and lycopods in the study site. Transect walk method was employed in the inventory of the species. Each species were classified, identified and described according to its diagnostic characters. Results of the study revealed a total of 20 species of ferns and lycopods. Of these, 18 species were ferns and 2 species were lycopods. Eleven (11) families and fifteen (15) genera for ferns and one (1) family and one (1) genera for lycopods. Psomiocarpa apifolia is Philippine endemic and said to be vulnerable or threatened. Taxonomic characters based on habit, rhizome, leaf arrangement and orientation, stem structure and circinate vernation were used to identify the terrestrial pteridophtyes into families, genera and species. The species collected and assessment in CEDAR should be further investigated and monitor their conservation status.

Keywords: alpha taxonomy, conservation, habit, taxonomic characters

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589 Comparative Analysis of Edge Detection Techniques for Extracting Characters

Authors: Rana Gill, Chandandeep Kaur

Abstract:

Segmentation of images can be implemented using different fundamental algorithms like edge detection (discontinuity based segmentation), region growing (similarity based segmentation), iterative thresholding method. A comprehensive literature review relevant to the study gives description of different techniques for vehicle number plate detection and edge detection techniques widely used on different types of images. This research work is based on edge detection techniques and calculating threshold on the basis of five edge operators. Five operators used are Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, LoG and Canny. Segmentation of characters present in different type of images like vehicle number plate, name plate of house and characters on different sign boards are selected as a case study in this work. The proposed methodology has seven stages. The proposed system has been implemented using MATLAB R2010a. Comparison of all the five operators has been done on the basis of their performance. From the results it is found that Canny operators produce best results among the used operators and performance of different edge operators in decreasing order is: Canny>Log>Sobel>Prewitt>Roberts.

Keywords: segmentation, edge detection, text, extracting characters

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588 The Implementation of the Javanese Lettered-Manuscript Image Preprocessing Stage Model on the Batak Lettered-Manuscript Image

Authors: Anastasia Rita Widiarti, Agus Harjoko, Marsono, Sri Hartati

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study to test whether the Javanese character manuscript image preprocessing model that have been more widely applied, can also be applied to segment of the Batak characters manuscripts. The treatment process begins by converting the input image into a binary image. After the binary image is cleaned of noise, then the segmentation lines using projection profile is conducted. If unclear histogram projection is found, then the smoothing process before production indexes line segments is conducted. For each line image which has been produced, then the segmentation scripts in the line is applied, with regard of the connectivity between pixels which making up the letters that there is no characters are truncated. From the results of manuscript preprocessing system prototype testing, it is obtained the information about the system truth percentage value on pieces of Pustaka Batak Podani Ma AjiMamisinon manuscript ranged from 65% to 87.68% with a confidence level of 95%. The value indicates the truth percentage shown the initial processing model in Javanese characters manuscript image can be applied also to the image of the Batak characters manuscript.

Keywords: connected component, preprocessing, manuscript image, projection profiles

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587 Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

Authors: Roghayyeh Motallebzadeh, Shahin Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi

Abstract:

Laminar mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviours of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

Keywords: buoyancy force, laminar mixed convection, mixture model, nano-fluid, two-phase

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586 The Impact of Female Characters on a Movie’s Return on Investment

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Sameer Ganu, Anshul Goel, Abhishek Kumar

Abstract:

In the age and times where women’s empowerment is a significant topic of discussion, we aim to analyze the potential gender diversity influence on box office revenues. The following research is carried out by collecting data from 400 Hollywood movies between the years 2014-2017 and performing regression analysis to find a correlation between the presence of female characters in movies and their return on investment (ROI). The paper finds that there is a positive relationship between the performance of the movies (its ROI) and the gender diversity i.e. the more the number of female characters, the higher the revenue generated. Another factor such as Number of Votes also has a direct impact on the revenue of the movie. The research not only takes into consideration the mere presence of women on screen but also the exchange of at least one dialogue among themselves, which is presented by the Bechdel Score of the movie.

Keywords: Bechdel, diversity, Hollywood, return on investment

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