Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2599

Search results for: digital video broadcast-handheld

2599 H.263 Based Video Transceiver for Wireless Camera System

Authors: Won-Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.

Keywords: wireless video transceiver, video surveillance camera, H.263 video encoding digital signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2598 Going Viral: Constructively Aligning the Use of Digital Video to Effectively Support Faculty Development

Authors: Samuel Olugbenga King

Abstract:

This review article, which is a synthesis of the relevant research literature, focuses on the capabilities of digital video to support, facilitate and enhance faculty development. Based on the literature review, faculty development (i.e., academic or educational development) requires the continued adoption of cohesive, theoretical frameworks to guide research and practice; incorporation of relevant tools from analogous fields, such as teacher professional development; systematic program evaluations; and detailed descriptions of practice to further practice and creative development. A cohesive, five-heuristic framework is subsequently outlined to inform the design and evaluation of the use of digital video, so as to address the barriers to advancing faculty development, as identified through the literature review. Alternative impact evaluation approaches are also described, while the limitations of using digital video for faculty development are highlighted. This paper is therefore conceived as one way to meaningfully leverage the educational affordances of digital video to address some lingering gaps in faculty development.

Keywords: digital video, faculty/educational development, evaluation, scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL)

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2597 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 519
2596 Remote Video Supervision via DVB-H Channels

Authors: Hanen Ghabi, Youssef Oudhini, Hassen Mnif

Abstract:

By reference to recent publications dealing with the same problem, and as a follow-up to this research work already published, we propose in this article a new original idea of tele supervision exploiting the opportunities offered by the DVB-H system. The objective is to exploit the RF channels of the DVB-H network in order to insert digital remote monitoring images dedicated to a remote solar power plant. Indeed, the DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcast-Handheld) broadcasting system was designed and deployed for digital broadcasting on the same platform as the parent system, DVB-T. We claim to be able to exploit this approach in order to satisfy the operator of remote photovoltaic sites (and others) in order to remotely control the components of isolated installations by means of video surveillance.

Keywords: video surveillance, digital video broadcast-handheld, photovoltaic sites, AVC

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2595 Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise

Authors: Raquel Ramos López, Anissa El-Khattabi, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices. These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification process. We also present experimental results that support the validity of the techniques used and show promising results.

Keywords: digital video, forensics analysis, key frame, mobile device, PRNU, sensor noise, source identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2594 A Passive Digital Video Authentication Technique Using Wavelet Based Optical Flow Variation Thresholding

Authors: R. S. Remya, U. S. Sethulekshmi

Abstract:

Detecting the authenticity of a video is an important issue in digital forensics as Video is used as a silent evidence in court such as in child pornography, movie piracy cases, insurance claims, cases involving scientific fraud, traffic monitoring etc. The biggest threat to video data is the availability of modern open video editing tools which enable easy editing of videos without leaving any trace of tampering. In this paper, we propose an efficient passive method for inter-frame video tampering detection, its type and location by estimating the optical flow of wavelet features of adjacent frames and thresholding the variation in the estimated feature. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the z-score thresholding and achieved an efficiency above 95% on all the tested databases. The proposed method works well for videos with dynamic (forensics) as well as static (surveillance) background.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, optical flow, optical flow variation, video tampering

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
2593 Key Frame Based Video Summarization via Dependency Optimization

Authors: Janya Sainui

Abstract:

As a rapid growth of digital videos and data communications, video summarization that provides a shorter version of the video for fast video browsing and retrieval is necessary. Key frame extraction is one of the mechanisms to generate video summary. In general, the extracted key frames should both represent the entire video content and contain minimum redundancy. However, most of the existing approaches heuristically select key frames; hence, the selected key frames may not be the most different frames and/or not cover the entire content of a video. In this paper, we propose a method of video summarization which provides the reasonable objective functions for selecting key frames. In particular, we apply a statistical dependency measure called quadratic mutual informaion as our objective functions for maximizing the coverage of the entire video content as well as minimizing the redundancy among selected key frames. The proposed key frame extraction algorithm finds key frames as an optimization problem. Through experiments, we demonstrate the success of the proposed video summarization approach that produces video summary with better coverage of the entire video content while less redundancy among key frames comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Keywords: video summarization, key frame extraction, dependency measure, quadratic mutual information

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2592 The Effect of Video Games on English as a Foreign Language Students' Language Learning Motivation

Authors: Shamim Ali

Abstract:

Researchers and teachers have begun developing digital games and model environments for educational purpose; therefore this study examines the effect of a videos game on secondary school students’ language learning motivation. Secondly, it tries to find out the opportunities to develop a decision making process and simultaneously it analyzes the solutions for further implementation in educational setting. Participants were 30 male students randomly assigned to one of the following three treatments: 10 students were assigned to read the game’s story; 10 students were players, who played video game; and, and the last 10 students acted as watchers and observers, their duty was to watch their classmates play the digital video game. A language learning motivation scale was developed and it was given to the participants as a pre- and post-test. Results indicated a significant language learning motivation and the participants were quite motivated in the end. It is, thus, concluded that the use of video games can help enhance high school students’ language learning motivation. It was suggested that video games should be used as a complementary activity not as a replacement for textbook since excessive use of video games can divert the original purpose of learning.

Keywords: EFL, English as a Foreign Language, motivation, video games, EFL learners

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2591 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos

Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan

Abstract:

Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.

Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
2590 Efficient Storage and Intelligent Retrieval of Multimedia Streams Using H. 265

Authors: S. Sarumathi, C. Deepadharani, Garimella Archana, S. Dakshayani, D. Logeshwaran, D. Jayakumar, Vijayarangan Natarajan

Abstract:

The need of the hour for the customers who use a dial-up or a low broadband connection for their internet services is to access HD video data. This can be achieved by developing a new video format using H. 265. This is the latest video codec standard developed by ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) on April 2013. This new standard for video compression has the potential to deliver higher performance than the earlier standards such as H. 264/AVC. In comparison with H. 264, HEVC offers a clearer, higher quality image at half the original bitrate. At this lower bitrate, it is possible to transmit high definition videos using low bandwidth. It doubles the data compression ratio supporting 8K Ultra HD and resolutions up to 8192×4320. In the proposed model, we design a new video format which supports this H. 265 standard. The major areas of applications in the coming future would lead to enhancements in the performance level of digital television like Tata Sky and Sun Direct, BluRay Discs, Mobile Video, Video Conferencing and Internet and Live Video streaming.

Keywords: access HD video, H. 265 video standard, high performance, high quality image, low bandwidth, new video format, video streaming applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2589 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber-Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi

Abstract:

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: FSDWT, key frame extraction, shot detection, singular value decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2588 Video Summarization: Techniques and Applications

Authors: Zaynab El Khattabi, Youness Tabii, Abdelhamid Benkaddour

Abstract:

Nowadays, huge amount of multimedia repositories make the browsing, retrieval and delivery of video contents very slow and even difficult tasks. Video summarization has been proposed to improve faster browsing of large video collections and more efficient content indexing and access. In this paper, we focus on approaches to video summarization. The video summaries can be generated in many different forms. However, two fundamentals ways to generate summaries are static and dynamic. We present different techniques for each mode in the literature and describe some features used for generating video summaries. We conclude with perspective for further research.

Keywords: video summarization, static summarization, video skimming, semantic features

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2587 Anonymous Editing Prevention Technique Using Gradient Method for High-Quality Video

Authors: Jiwon Lee, Chanho Jung, Si-Hwan Jang, Kyung-Ill Kim, Sanghyun Joo, Wook-Ho Son

Abstract:

Since the advances in digital imaging technologies have led to development of high quality digital devices, there are a lot of illegal copies of copyrighted video content on the internet. Thus, we propose a high-quality (HQ) video watermarking scheme that can prevent these illegal copies from spreading out. The proposed scheme is applied spatial and temporal gradient methods to improve the fidelity and detection performance. Also, the scheme duplicates the watermark signal temporally to alleviate the signal reduction caused by geometric and signal-processing distortions. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than previously proposed schemes and it has high fidelity. The proposed scheme can be used in broadcast monitoring or traitor tracking applications which need fast detection process to prevent illegally recorded video content from spreading out.

Keywords: editing prevention technique, gradient method, luminance change, video watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2586 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery Detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
2585 Texture-Based Image Forensics from Video Frame

Authors: Li Zhou, Yanmei Fang

Abstract:

With current technology, images and videos can be obtained more easily than ever. It is so easy to manipulate these digital multimedia information when obtained, and that the content or source of the image and video could be easily tampered. In this paper, we propose to identify the image and video frame by the texture-based approach, e.g. Markov Transition Probability (MTP), which is in space domain, DCT domain and DWT domain, respectively. In the experiment, image and video frame database is constructed, and is used to train and test the classifier Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experiment results show that the texture-based approach has good performance. In order to verify the experiment result, and testify the universality and robustness of algorithm, we build a random testing dataset, the random testing result is in keeping with above experiment.

Keywords: multimedia forensics, video frame, LBP, MTP, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2584 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2583 Reliving Historical Events Using Augmented Reality Techniques

Authors: Josep Domenech Mingot, Francisco Javier Esclapes Jover

Abstract:

The arrival of the age of information and new technologies allowed humanity to see what the future has in store, but occasionally it also brings the opportunity to look through a window to the past, an opportunity to relive history. This paper introduces a prototype of a digital system that lets us peek into our past making use of augmented reality technologies. A 3D scene will be modeled and animated based on an old image, depicting an event of historical significance. From this scene, a video will be rendered, recreating the events that were taking place at the time. Also, a smartphone app will be created. This app will detect the original image with the smartphone’s camera, overlay the rendered video so that it fully covers it and track the detected image, so that the overlaying video can keep covering the image. The recreation of Alicante’s Central Market bombing during the Spanish Civil War is presented as a case study.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital heritage, history, multimedia, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2582 Distributed Processing for Content Based Lecture Video Retrieval on Hadoop Framework

Authors: U. S. N. Raju, Kothuri Sai Kiran, Meena G. Kamal, Vinay Nikhil Pabba, Suresh Kanaparthi

Abstract:

There is huge amount of lecture video data available for public use, and many more lecture videos are being created and uploaded every day. Searching for videos on required topics from this huge database is a challenging task. Therefore, an efficient method for video retrieval is needed. An approach for automated video indexing and video search in large lecture video archives is presented. As the amount of video lecture data is huge, it is very inefficient to do the processing in a centralized computation framework. Hence, Hadoop Framework for distributed computing for Big Video Data is used. First, step in the process is automatic video segmentation and key-frame detection to offer a visual guideline for the video content navigation. In the next step, we extract textual metadata by applying video Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology on key-frames. The OCR and detected slide text line types are adopted for keyword extraction, by which both video- and segment-level keywords are extracted for content-based video browsing and search. The performance of the indexing process can be improved for a large database by using distributed computing on Hadoop framework.

Keywords: video lectures, big video data, video retrieval, hadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2581 The Digital Video and Online Media Development for Integrated Marketing Communication and Tourism Promote in Taling Chan District, Bangkok

Authors: Somsak Klaysung

Abstract:

This study purpose to develop video to promote cultural tourism in Taling Chan District. For qualitative research, the sample size was 40 people from 5 group of the tourism entrepreneur in Taling Chan district, conducted the key informants’ content analysis by using focus group and structures in-depth interview from all stakeholders. Quota sampling was used for this kind of research. The findings indicated that get media video marketing and tourism contribute a set length 11.35 9 minutes there is plenty of social capital in Taling Chan District including detail like local wisdom, knowledge, and way of thinking related to nature, history, historic document, occupation, administration and attribute of local people. Additional research found the new path of travel through the water route according to Khlong Bang Ramat called Route 9 temples that travelers can travel by boat are available in the market in four areas Taling Chan also as well.

Keywords: digital video, integrated marketing communication, online media development, Taling Chan district

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2580 Video Stabilization Using Feature Point Matching

Authors: Shamsundar Kulkarni

Abstract:

Video capturing by non-professionals will lead to unanticipated effects. Such as image distortion, image blurring etc. Hence, many researchers study such drawbacks to enhance the quality of videos. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to stabilize jittery videos .A stable output video will be attained without the effect of jitter which is caused due to shaking of handheld camera during video recording. Firstly, salient points from each frame from the input video are identified and processed followed by optimizing and stabilize the video. Optimization includes the quality of the video stabilization. This method has shown good result in terms of stabilization and it discarded distortion from the output videos recorded in different circumstances.

Keywords: video stabilization, point feature matching, salient points, image quality measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
2579 Structural Analysis on the Composition of Video Game Virtual Spaces

Authors: Qin Luofeng, Shen Siqi

Abstract:

For the 58 years since the first video game came into being, the video game industry is getting through an explosive evolution from then on. Video games exert great influence on society and become a reflection of public life to some extent. Video game virtual spaces are where activities are taking place like real spaces. And that’s the reason why some architects pay attention to video games. However, compared to the researches on the appearance of games, we observe a lack of theoretical comprehensive on the construction of video game virtual spaces. The research method of this paper is to collect literature and conduct theoretical research about the virtual space in video games firstly. And then analogizing the opinions on the space phenomena from the theory of literature and films. Finally, this paper proposes a three-layer framework for the construction of video game virtual spaces: “algorithmic space-narrative space players space”, which correspond to the exterior, expressive, affective parts of the game space. Also, we illustrate each sub-space according to numerous instances of published video games. Hoping this writing could promote the interactive development of video games and architecture.

Keywords: video game, virtual space, narrativity, social space, emotional connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2578 Detecting and Disabling Digital Cameras Using D3CIP Algorithm Based on Image Processing

Authors: S. Vignesh, K. S. Rangasamy

Abstract:

The paper deals with the device capable of detecting and disabling digital cameras. The system locates the camera and then neutralizes it. Every digital camera has an image sensor known as a CCD, which is retro-reflective and sends light back directly to its original source at the same angle. The device shines infrared LED light, which is invisible to the human eye, at a distance of about 20 feet. It then collects video of these reflections with a camcorder. Then the video of the reflections is transferred to a computer connected to the device, where it is sent through image processing algorithms that pick out infrared light bouncing back. Once the camera is detected, the device would project an invisible infrared laser into the camera's lens, thereby overexposing the photo and rendering it useless. Low levels of infrared laser neutralize digital cameras but are neither a health danger to humans nor a physical damage to cameras. We also discuss the simplified design of the above device that can used in theatres to prevent piracy. The domains being covered here are optics and image processing.

Keywords: CCD, optics, image processing, D3CIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2577 Virtual and Augmented Reality Based Heritage Gamification: Basilica of Smyrna in Turkey

Authors: Tugba Saricaoglu

Abstract:

This study argues about the potential representation and interpretation of Basilica of Smyrna through gamification. Representation can be defined as a key which plays a role as a converter in order to provide interpretation of something according to the person who perceives. Representation of cultural heritage is a hypothetical and factual approach in terms of its sustainable conservation. Today, both site interpreters and public of cultural heritage have varying perspectives due to their different demographic, social, and even cultural backgrounds. Additionally, gamification application offers diversion of methods suchlike video games to improve user perspective of non-game platforms, contexts, and issues. Hence, cultural heritage and video game decided to be analyzed. Moreover, there are basically different ways of representation of cultural heritage such as digital, physical, and virtual methods in terms of conservation. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies are two of the contemporary digital methods of heritage conservation. In this study, 3D documented ruins of the Basilica will be presented in the virtual and augmented reality based technology as a theoretical gamification sample. Also, this paper will focus on two sub-topics: First, evaluation of the video-game platforms applied to cultural heritage sites, and second, potentials of cultural heritage to be represented in video game platforms. The former will cover the analysis of some case(s) with regard to the concepts and representational aspects of cultural heritage. The latter will include the investigation of cultural heritage sites which carry such a potential and their sustainable conversation. Consequently, after mutual collection of information from cultural heritage and video game platforms, a perspective will be provided in terms of interpretation of representation of cultural heritage by sampling that on Basilica of Smyrna by using VR and AR based technologies.

Keywords: Basilica of Smyrna, cultural heritage, digital heritage, gamification

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2576 Design and Implementation of Flexible Metadata Editing System for Digital Contents

Authors: K. W. Nam, B. J. Kim, S. J. Lee

Abstract:

Along with the development of network infrastructures, such as high-speed Internet and mobile environment, the explosion of multimedia data is expanding the range of multimedia services beyond voice and data services. Amid this flow, research is actively being done on the creation, management, and transmission of metadata on digital content to provide different services to users. This paper proposes a system for the insertion, storage, and retrieval of metadata about digital content. The metadata server with Binary XML was implemented for efficient storage space and retrieval speeds, and the transport data size required for metadata retrieval was simplified. With the proposed system, the metadata could be inserted into the moving objects in the video, and the unnecessary overlap could be minimized by improving the storage structure of the metadata. The proposed system can assemble metadata into one relevant topic, even if it is expressed in different media or in different forms. It is expected that the proposed system will handle complex network types of data.

Keywords: video, multimedia, metadata, editing tool, XML

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2575 Efficient Video Compression Technique Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Generative Adversarial Network

Authors: P. Karthick, K. Mahesh

Abstract:

Video has become an increasingly significant component of our digital everyday contact. With the advancement of greater contents and shows of the resolution, its significant volume poses serious obstacles to the objective of receiving, distributing, compressing, and revealing video content of high quality. In this paper, we propose the primary beginning to complete a deep video compression model that jointly upgrades all video compression components. The video compression method involves splitting the video into frames, comparing the images using convolutional neural networks (CNN) to remove duplicates, repeating the single image instead of the duplicate images by recognizing and detecting minute changes using generative adversarial network (GAN) and recorded with long short-term memory (LSTM). Instead of the complete image, the small changes generated using GAN are substituted, which helps in frame level compression. Pixel wise comparison is performed using K-nearest neighbours (KNN) over the frame, clustered with K-means, and singular value decomposition (SVD) is applied for each and every frame in the video for all three color channels [Red, Green, Blue] to decrease the dimension of the utility matrix [R, G, B] by extracting its latent factors. Video frames are packed with parameters with the aid of a codec and converted to video format, and the results are compared with the original video. Repeated experiments on several videos with different sizes, duration, frames per second (FPS), and quality results demonstrate a significant resampling rate. On average, the result produced had approximately a 10% deviation in quality and more than 50% in size when compared with the original video.

Keywords: video compression, K-means clustering, convolutional neural network, generative adversarial network, singular value decomposition, pixel visualization, stochastic gradient descent, frame per second extraction, RGB channel extraction, self-detection and deciding system

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2574 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

Abstract:

Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: digital discourse, digital rhetoric, Facebook, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
2573 Hybridization of Mathematical Transforms for Robust Video Watermarking Technique

Authors: Harpal Singh, Sakshi Batra

Abstract:

The widespread and easy accesses to multimedia contents and possibility to make numerous copies without loss of significant fidelity have roused the requirement of digital rights management. Thus this problem can be effectively solved by Digital watermarking technology. This is a concept of embedding some sort of data or special pattern (watermark) in the multimedia content; this information will later prove ownership in case of a dispute, trace the marked document’s dissemination, identify a misappropriating person or simply inform user about the rights-holder. The primary motive of digital watermarking is to embed the data imperceptibly and robustly in the host information. Extensive counts of watermarking techniques have been developed to embed copyright marks or data in digital images, video, audio and other multimedia objects. With the development of digital video-based innovations, copyright dilemma for the multimedia industry increases. Video watermarking had been proposed in recent years to serve the issue of illicit copying and allocation of videos. It is the process of embedding copyright information in video bit streams. Practically video watermarking schemes have to address some serious challenges as compared to image watermarking schemes like real-time requirements in the video broadcasting, large volume of inherently redundant data between frames, the unbalance between the motion and motionless regions etc. and they are particularly vulnerable to attacks, for example, frame swapping, statistical analysis, rotation, noise, median and crop attacks. In this paper, an effective, robust and imperceptible video watermarking algorithm is proposed based on hybridization of powerful mathematical transforms; Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT), Discrete Wavelet transforms (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) using redundant wavelet. This scheme utilizes various transforms for embedding watermarks on different layers by using Hybrid systems. For this purpose, the video frames are portioned into layers (RGB) and the watermark is being embedded in two forms in the video frames using SVD portioning of the watermark, and DWT sub-band decomposition of host video, to facilitate copyright safeguard as well as reliability. The FrFT orders are used as the encryption key that allows the watermarking method to be more robust against various attacks. The fidelity of the scheme is enhanced by introducing key generation and wavelet based key embedding watermarking scheme. Thus, for watermark embedding and extraction, same key is required. Therefore the key must be shared between the owner and the verifier via some safe network. This paper demonstrates the performance by considering different qualitative metrics namely Peak Signal to Noise ratio, Structure similarity index and correlation values and also apply some attacks to prove the robustness. The Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed scheme can withstand a variety of video processing attacks as well as imperceptibility.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, robustness, video watermarking, watermark

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2572 A Four-Step Ortho-Rectification Procedure for Geo-Referencing Video Streams from a Low-Cost UAV

Authors: B. O. Olawale, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, P. M. Birch, F. O. Faithpraise, A. O. Olukiran

Abstract:

Ortho-rectification is the process of geometrically correcting an aerial image such that the scale is uniform. The ortho-image formed from the process is corrected for lens distortion, topographic relief, and camera tilt. This can be used to measure true distances, because it is an accurate representation of the Earth’s surface. Ortho-rectification and geo-referencing are essential to pin point the exact location of targets in video imagery acquired at the UAV platform. This can only be achieved by comparing such video imagery with an existing digital map. However, it is only when the image is ortho-rectified with the same co-ordinate system as an existing map that such a comparison is possible. The video image sequences from the UAV platform must be geo-registered, that is, each video frame must carry the necessary camera information before performing the ortho-rectification process. Each rectified image frame can then be mosaicked together to form a seamless image map covering the selected area. This can then be used for comparison with an existing map for geo-referencing. In this paper, we present a four-step ortho-rectification procedure for real-time geo-referencing of video data from a low-cost UAV equipped with multi-sensor system. The basic procedures for the real-time ortho-rectification are: (1) Decompilation of video stream into individual frames; (2) Finding of interior camera orientation parameters; (3) Finding the relative exterior orientation parameters for each video frames with respect to each other; (4) Finding the absolute exterior orientation parameters, using self-calibration adjustment with the aid of a mathematical model. Each ortho-rectified video frame is then mosaicked together to produce a 2-D planimetric mapping, which can be compared with a well referenced existing digital map for the purpose of georeferencing and aerial surveillance. A test field located in Abuja, Nigeria was used for testing our method. Fifteen minutes video and telemetry data were collected using the UAV and the data collected were processed using the four-step ortho-rectification procedure. The results demonstrated that the geometric measurement of the control field from ortho-images are more reliable than those from original perspective photographs when used to pin point the exact location of targets on the video imagery acquired by the UAV. The 2-D planimetric accuracy when compared with the 6 control points measured by a GPS receiver is between 3 to 5 meters.

Keywords: geo-referencing, ortho-rectification, video frame, self-calibration

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2571 Analysing the Variables That Affect Digital Game-Based L2 Vocabulary Learning

Authors: Jose Ramon Calvo-Ferrer

Abstract:

Video games have been extensively employed in educational contexts to teach contents and skills, upon the premise that they engage students and provide instant feedback, which makes them adequate tools in the field of education and training. Term frequency, along with metacognition and implicit corrective feedback, has often been identified as powerful variables in the learning of vocabulary in a foreign language. This study analyses the learning of L2 mobile operating system terminology by a group of students and uses the data collected by the video game The Conference Interpreter to identify the predictive strength of term frequency (times a term is shown), positive metacognition (times a right answer is provided), and negative metacognition (times a term is shown as wrong) regarding L2 vocabulary learning and perceived learning outcomes. The regression analysis shows that the factor ‘positive metacognition’ is a positive predictor of both dependent variables, whereas the other factors seem to have no statistical effect on any of them.

Keywords: digital game-based learning, feedback, metacognition, frequency, video games

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2570 Performance of High Efficiency Video Codec over Wireless Channels

Authors: Mohd Ayyub Khan, Nadeem Akhtar

Abstract:

Due to recent advances in wireless communication technologies and hand-held devices, there is a huge demand for video-based applications such as video surveillance, video conferencing, remote surgery, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), IPTV, online learning courses, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Interactive Video Games. However, the raw videos posses very high bandwidth which makes the compression a must before its transmission over the wireless channels. The High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) (also called H.265) is latest state-of-the-art video coding standard developed by the Joint effort of ITU-T and ISO/IEC teams. HEVC is targeted for high resolution videos such as 4K or 8K resolutions that can fulfil the recent demands for video services. The compression ratio achieved by the HEVC is twice as compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC for same quality level. The compression efficiency is generally increased by removing more correlation between the frames/pixels using complex techniques such as extensive intra and inter prediction techniques. As more correlation is removed, the chances of interdependency among coded bits increases. Thus, bit errors may have large effect on the reconstructed video. Sometimes even single bit error can lead to catastrophic failure of the reconstructed video. In this paper, we study the performance of HEVC bitstream over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Moreover, HEVC over Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combined with forward error correction (FEC) schemes are also explored over the noisy channel. The video will be encoded using HEVC, and the coded bitstream is channel coded to provide some redundancies. The channel coded bitstream is then modulated using QAM and transmitted over AWGN channel. At the receiver, the symbols are demodulated and channel decoded to obtain the video bitstream. The bitstream is then used to reconstruct the video using HEVC decoder. It is observed that as the signal to noise ratio of channel is decreased the quality of the reconstructed video decreases drastically. Using proper FEC codes, the quality of the video can be restored up to certain extent. Thus, the performance analysis of HEVC presented in this paper may assist in designing the optimized code rate of FEC such that the quality of the reconstructed video is maximized over wireless channels.

Keywords: AWGN, forward error correction, HEVC, video coding, QAM

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